Abstract

A set of fully automated algorithms that is specialized for analyzing a three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) volume of human skin is reported. The algorithm set first determines the skin surface of the OCT volume, and a depth-oriented algorithm provides the mean epidermal thickness, distribution map of the epidermis, and a segmented volume of the epidermis. Subsequently, an en face shadowgram is produced by an algorithm to visualize the infundibula in the skin with high contrast. The population and occupation ratio of the infundibula are provided by a histogram-based thresholding algorithm and a distance mapping algorithm. En face OCT slices at constant depths from the sample surface are extracted, and the histogram-based thresholding algorithm is again applied to these slices, yielding a three-dimensional segmented volume of the infundibula. The dermal attenuation coefficient is also calculated from the OCT volume in order to evaluate the skin texture. The algorithm set examines swept-source OCT volumes of the skins of several volunteers, and the results show the high stability, portability and reproducibilityof the algorithm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (9)

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Realtime fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13,3931-3944 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MarinkoV. Sarunic, Michael A. Choma, Changhuei Yang, and Joseph A. Izatt, "Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3x3 fiber couplers," Opt. Express 13,957-967 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 133513-3528 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V.D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13,10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10652
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, and A. Cable, "Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm," Opt. Express 13,10523-10538 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10523.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori and C.A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,444-452 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-444.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, C.R. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 12,9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef]

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. Salinas, and C. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13,10200-10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10200.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

2003 (10)

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28,1745-1747 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-19-1745.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vogt, A. Knuttel, K. Hoffmann, P. Altmeyer and H. Ermert, "Comparison of high frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography as modalities for high resolution and non invasive skin imaging," Biomed. Tech. 48,116-121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "High-speed spectraldomain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm wavelength," Opt. Express 11,3598-3604 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11,2953-2963 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher," Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,889-894 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JohannesF. de Boer, Barry Cense, B. Hyle Park, Mark C. Pierce, Guillermo J. Tearney and Brett E. Bouma," "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28,2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MichaelA. Choma, Marinko V. Sarunic, Changhuei Yang and Joseph A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,2183-2189 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28,1981-1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, M. Bruhns and H.H. Wolff, "Optical coherence tomography in contact dermatitis and psoriasis," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 295,50-55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. Kashibuchi, Y. Hirai, K. O’Goshi and H. Tagami, "Three-dimensional analyses of individual corneocytes with atomic force microscope: morphological changes related to age, location and to the pathologic skin conditions," Skin. Res. Technol. 8,203-211 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciej Wojtkowski, Rainer Leitgeb, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Tomasz Bajraszewski, and Adolf F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

Y. Nishimori, C. Edwards, A. Pearse, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, and R. Marks, "Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1458-1463 (2001).

B.H. Park, C. Saxer, S.M. Srinivas, J.S. Nelson and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6,474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology: a review," Skin. Res. Technol. 7,1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahisa Mitsui, "Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38,6133-6137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (4)

1995 (3)

J.M. Schmitt, M.J. Yadlowsky and R.F. Bonner., "Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy," Darmatology 191,93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R.H. Webb and R.R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104,946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger and G. Kamp and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
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G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

Per-Erik Danielsson, "Euclidean distance mapping", Computer Graphics and Image Processing 14227-248 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Akkin, T.

M. Mujat, C.R. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 12,9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef]

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vogt, A. Knuttel, K. Hoffmann, P. Altmeyer and H. Ermert, "Comparison of high frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography as modalities for high resolution and non invasive skin imaging," Biomed. Tech. 48,116-121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amano, S.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
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Anderson, R.R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R.H. Webb and R.R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104,946-952 (1995).
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Bajraszewski, T.

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37,958-963 (1997).
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T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
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J.M. Schmitt, M.J. Yadlowsky and R.F. Bonner., "Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy," Darmatology 191,93-98 (1995).
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Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

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J. Welzel, M. Bruhns and H.H. Wolff, "Optical coherence tomography in contact dermatitis and psoriasis," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 295,50-55 (2003).
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Cabrera Fernández, D.

Cense, B.

Chan, C.R.

M. Mujat, C.R. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 12,9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
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Chan, K.

Chang, W.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
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Chen, T.

Chen, T.C.

M. Mujat, C.R. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 12,9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
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Chen, Z.

Chinn, S.

Chong, C.

Chumakov, Y.P.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
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de Boer, J. F.

de Boer, J.F.

M. Mujat, C.R. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 12,9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
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M.C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B.H. Park, B. Cense, and J.F. de Boer, "Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology," J. Invest. Dermatol. 123,458-463 (2004).
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B.H. Park, C. Saxer, S.M. Srinivas, J.S. Nelson and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6,474-479 (2001).
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Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J.F. de Boer and J.S. Nelson, "Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow," Opt. Lett. 25,1358-1360 (2000).
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Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J.F. de Boer and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood f low in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25,114-116 (2000).
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J.F. de Boer, S.M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen and J. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3,212-218 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-6-212.
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J.F. de Boer, T.E. Milner, M.J.C. van Gemert and J.S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22,934-936 (1997).
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Edwards, C.

Y. Nishimori, C. Edwards, A. Pearse, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, and R. Marks, "Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1458-1463 (2001).

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger and G. Kamp and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37,958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ermert, H.

M. Vogt, A. Knuttel, K. Hoffmann, P. Altmeyer and H. Ermert, "Comparison of high frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography as modalities for high resolution and non invasive skin imaging," Biomed. Tech. 48,116-121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R.H. Webb and R.R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104,946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.I.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher," Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,889-894 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger and G. Kamp and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 133513-3528 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513.
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D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, M.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.V.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gelikonov, V.M.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gladkova, N.D.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R.H. Webb and R.R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104,946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grove, G.L.

G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grove, M.J.

G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hancewicz, T.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirai, Y.

N. Kashibuchi, Y. Hirai, K. O’Goshi and H. Tagami, "Three-dimensional analyses of individual corneocytes with atomic force microscope: morphological changes related to age, location and to the pathologic skin conditions," Skin. Res. Technol. 8,203-211 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirano, S.

M. Suehiro, S. Hirano, K. Ikenaga, N. Katoh, H. Yasuno and S. Kishimoto, "Characteristics of skin surface morphology and transepidermal water loss in clinically normal-appearing skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: a video-microscopy study," J. Dermatol. 31,78-85 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher," Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,889-894 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger and G. Kamp and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, K.

M. Vogt, A. Knuttel, K. Hoffmann, P. Altmeyer and H. Ermert, "Comparison of high frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography as modalities for high resolution and non invasive skin imaging," Biomed. Tech. 48,116-121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, K.M.

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Ikenaga, K.

M. Suehiro, S. Hirano, K. Ikenaga, N. Katoh, H. Yasuno and S. Kishimoto, "Characteristics of skin surface morphology and transepidermal water loss in clinically normal-appearing skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: a video-microscopy study," J. Dermatol. 31,78-85 (2004).
[PubMed]

Inomata, S.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Jiang, J.

Jiao, S.

Johannes,

Joo, C.

M. Mujat, C.R. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 12,9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger and G. Kamp and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, P.

Kashibuchi, N.

N. Kashibuchi, Y. Hirai, K. O’Goshi and H. Tagami, "Three-dimensional analyses of individual corneocytes with atomic force microscope: morphological changes related to age, location and to the pathologic skin conditions," Skin. Res. Technol. 8,203-211 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katoh, N.

M. Suehiro, S. Hirano, K. Ikenaga, N. Katoh, H. Yasuno and S. Kishimoto, "Characteristics of skin surface morphology and transepidermal water loss in clinically normal-appearing skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: a video-microscopy study," J. Dermatol. 31,78-85 (2004).
[PubMed]

Kawai, M.

Y. Nishimori, C. Edwards, A. Pearse, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, and R. Marks, "Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1458-1463 (2001).

Kishimoto, S.

M. Suehiro, S. Hirano, K. Ikenaga, N. Katoh, H. Yasuno and S. Kishimoto, "Characteristics of skin surface morphology and transepidermal water loss in clinically normal-appearing skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: a video-microscopy study," J. Dermatol. 31,78-85 (2004).
[PubMed]

Kligman, A.M.

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knighton, R.

Knuette, A.

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knuttel, A.

M. Vogt, A. Knuttel, K. Hoffmann, P. Altmeyer and H. Ermert, "Comparison of high frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography as modalities for high resolution and non invasive skin imaging," Biomed. Tech. 48,116-121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohno, Y.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolbe, L.

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kreuter, A.

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuranov, R.V.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lankenau, E.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37,958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leyden, J.J.

G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lufrano, L.

G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V.D.

Makita, S.

Malekafzali, A.

Marinko,

Marks, R.

Y. Nishimori, C. Edwards, A. Pearse, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, and R. Marks, "Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1458-1463 (2001).

Matsumoto, K.

Y. Nishimori, C. Edwards, A. Pearse, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, and R. Marks, "Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1458-1463 (2001).

Matsunaga, Y.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael,

Milner, T.E.

Morosawa, A.

Moussa, G.

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nasonova, V.A.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J.

Nelson, J. S.

Nelson, J.S.

Nikulin, N.K.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishimori, Y.

Y. Nishimori, C. Edwards, A. Pearse, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, and R. Marks, "Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1458-1463 (2001).

Nishiyama, T.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Goshi, K.

N. Kashibuchi, Y. Hirai, K. O’Goshi and H. Tagami, "Three-dimensional analyses of individual corneocytes with atomic force microscope: morphological changes related to age, location and to the pathologic skin conditions," Skin. Res. Technol. 8,203-211 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paginoni, A.

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Park, B.H.

M. Mujat, C.R. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 12,9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef]

M.C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B.H. Park, B. Cense, and J.F. de Boer, "Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology," J. Invest. Dermatol. 123,458-463 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.H. Park, C. Saxer, S.M. Srinivas, J.S. Nelson and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6,474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearse, A.

Y. Nishimori, C. Edwards, A. Pearse, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, and R. Marks, "Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1458-1463 (2001).

Perry, B.H.

G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrova, G.A.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Pierce, M.C.

M.C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B.H. Park, B. Cense, and J.F. de Boer, "Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology," J. Invest. Dermatol. 123,458-463 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C.A.

Radenska-Lopovok, S.G.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R.H. Webb and R.R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104,946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rist, M.

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sadiq, I.

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

Salinas, H.

Sand, D.

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sand, M.

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schmitt, J.M.

J.M. Schmitt, M.J. Yadlowsky and R.F. Bonner., "Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy," Darmatology 191,93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwab, B.

G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergee, A.M.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Q.

Snopova, L.B.

N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergee and F.I. Feldchtein, "In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of human skin: norm and pathology," Skin. Res. Technol. 6,6-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S.

Srinivas, S.M.

B.H. Park, C. Saxer, S.M. Srinivas, J.S. Nelson and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6,474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.F. de Boer, S.M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen and J. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3,212-218 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-6-212.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoudemaye, T.

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strasswimmer, J.

M.C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B.H. Park, B. Cense, and J.F. de Boer, "Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology," J. Invest. Dermatol. 123,458-463 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stucker, M.

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suehiro, M.

M. Suehiro, S. Hirano, K. Ikenaga, N. Katoh, H. Yasuno and S. Kishimoto, "Characteristics of skin surface morphology and transepidermal water loss in clinically normal-appearing skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: a video-microscopy study," J. Dermatol. 31,78-85 (2004).
[PubMed]

Swanson, E.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang and E. A. Swanson and C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson and W. Chang and M. R. Hee, T. Flotte and K. Gregory and C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tagami, H.

N. Kashibuchi, Y. Hirai, K. O’Goshi and H. Tagami, "Three-dimensional analyses of individual corneocytes with atomic force microscope: morphological changes related to age, location and to the pathologic skin conditions," Skin. Res. Technol. 8,203-211 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Takada, K.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targowski, P.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Thorne, E.G.

G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsunenaga, M.

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M.J.C.

Vogt, M.

M. Vogt, A. Knuttel, K. Hoffmann, P. Altmeyer and H. Ermert, "Comparison of high frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography as modalities for high resolution and non invasive skin imaging," Biomed. Tech. 48,116-121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Webb, R.H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R.H. Webb and R.R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104,946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissman, J.

Welker, P.

A. Paginoni, A. Knuette, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemaye, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq and A.M. Kligman, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology," Skin. Res. Technol. 5,83-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welzel, J.

J. Welzel, M. Bruhns and H.H. Wolff, "Optical coherence tomography in contact dermatitis and psoriasis," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 295,50-55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, "Optical coherence tomography in dermatology: a review," Skin. Res. Technol. 7,1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37,958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolff, H.H.

J. Welzel, M. Bruhns and H.H. Wolff, "Optical coherence tomography in contact dermatitis and psoriasis," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 295,50-55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S.

Yadlowsky, M.J.

J.M. Schmitt, M.J. Yadlowsky and R.F. Bonner., "Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy," Darmatology 191,93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yasuno, H.

M. Suehiro, S. Hirano, K. Ikenaga, N. Katoh, H. Yasuno and S. Kishimoto, "Characteristics of skin surface morphology and transepidermal water loss in clinically normal-appearing skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: a video-microscopy study," J. Dermatol. 31,78-85 (2004).
[PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zhao, Y.

Arch. Dermatol. Res. (2)

J. Welzel, M. Bruhns and H.H. Wolff, "Optical coherence tomography in contact dermatitis and psoriasis," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 295,50-55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gambichler, S. Boms, M. Stucker, G. Moussa, A. Kreuter, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer and K.M. Hoffmann, "Acute skin alterations following ultraviolet radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography and histology," Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297,218-225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Tech. (1)

M. Vogt, A. Knuttel, K. Hoffmann, P. Altmeyer and H. Ermert, "Comparison of high frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography as modalities for high resolution and non invasive skin imaging," Biomed. Tech. 48,116-121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Computer Graphics and Image Processing (1)

Per-Erik Danielsson, "Euclidean distance mapping", Computer Graphics and Image Processing 14227-248 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Darmatology (1)

J.M. Schmitt, M.J. Yadlowsky and R.F. Bonner., "Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy," Darmatology 191,93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2)

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37,958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G.L. Grove, M.J. Grove, J.J. Leyden, L. Lufrano, B. Schwab, B.H. Perry and E.G. Thorne, "Skin replica analysis of photodamaged skin after therapy with tretinoin emollient cream," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25,231-237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Gerd H¨ausler and Michael Walter Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar —New tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3,21-31 (1998).

B.H. Park, C. Saxer, S.M. Srinivas, J.S. Nelson and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6,474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciej Wojtkowski, Rainer Leitgeb, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Tomasz Bajraszewski, and Adolf F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dermatol. (1)

M. Suehiro, S. Hirano, K. Ikenaga, N. Katoh, H. Yasuno and S. Kishimoto, "Characteristics of skin surface morphology and transepidermal water loss in clinically normal-appearing skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: a video-microscopy study," J. Dermatol. 31,78-85 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (4)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R.H. Webb and R.R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104,946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B.H. Park, B. Cense, and J.F. de Boer, "Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology," J. Invest. Dermatol. 123,458-463 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Inomata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Amano, K. Takada, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsunenaga, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kohno, and M. Fukuda, "Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120,128-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishimori, C. Edwards, A. Pearse, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, and R. Marks, "Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1458-1463 (2001).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Takahisa Mitsui, "Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38,6133-6137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger and G. Kamp and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (16)

J.F. de Boer, S.M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen and J. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3,212-218 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-6-212.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher," Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,889-894 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11,2953-2963 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "High-speed spectraldomain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm wavelength," Opt. Express 11,3598-3604 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "In vivo highresolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12,367-376 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MichaelA. Choma, Marinko V. Sarunic, Changhuei Yang and Joseph A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,2183-2189 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Weissman, T. Hancewicz, and P. Kaplan, "Optical coherence tomography of skin for measurement of epidermal thickness by shapelet-based image analysis," Opt. Express 12,5760-5769 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-23-5760.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun Zhang, Woonggyu Jung, J. Stuart Nelson and Zhongping Chen, Full range polarizationsensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography, Opt. Express 12,6033-6039 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6033.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori and C.A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,444-452 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-444.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MarinkoV. Sarunic, Michael A. Choma, Changhuei Yang, and Joseph A. Izatt, "Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3x3 fiber couplers," Opt. Express 13,957-967 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 133513-3528 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Realtime fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13,3931-3944 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. Salinas, and C. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13,10200-10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10200.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, and A. Cable, "Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm," Opt. Express 13,10523-10538 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10523.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the SS-OCT system (left) and an example of the OCT volume of forehead skin in vivo (right). In the schematic, HSL is the high-speed wavelength scanning light source; C, the circulator; RM, the reference mirror; OL, the objective; and BR, the balanced photo-receiver.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A B-scan of an OCT volume. The green points indicate the maximum intensity points along the depth, and the red curve indicates the surface determined by the algorithm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A realigned B-scan (left) and the corresponding OCT volume (right). All the A-scans are realigned to flatten the sample surface. The green line and the green box indicate the flatten sample surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A representative of the moving-averaged A-scan.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The distribution of epidermal thickness (epidermal thickness map), and (b) the detected surface and dermal-epidermal junction in a B-scan, where the red curve indicates the surface of the skin, and the blue curve indicates the dermal-epidermal junction.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) An example of a B-scan. The red curve indicates the detected surface and the red area indicates the domain of integration. (b) An example of the en face shadowgram; white corresponds to low signal intensity and black corresponds to high signal intensity. The white spots indicate the infundibula. (c) The histogram of the shadowgram (b). Pixel intensities are normalized by the mean and standard deviation of the histogram. The distributions under the red line (10% of the maximum) were not considered while calculating the mean and standard deviation. (d) A binary map of the distribution of the infundibula. (e) The red circles indicate the island spots detected as circles by the Danielsson distance mapping algorithm. The circles are superimposed on the shadowgram (b).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) A B-scan of the original OCT volume and that of the segmented OCT volume. The white arrows and the green spots indicate the infundibula. (b) Corresponding shadow-gram. Click the figure (a) to see a movie (2.4 MB).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) The original OCT volume, (b) a segmented OCT volume, and (c) the top view of the segmented OCT volume. The blue, green, and orange volumes in the right figure correspond to the segments of the epidermis, infundibula, and the remaining volume, respectively. In (c), the infundibula are superimposed on the epidermis. (d) A stereogram of (b) for three-dimensional understanding of the structure. (e) A sebum absorbent tape image. The white spots represent the absorbed sebum. Click the figure (b) to see a movie (1.9 MB).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

An example of the attenuation curve. The portion of the curve between the blue lines is fitted by a linear line to obtain the attenuation coefficient.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Shadowgrams and segmented OCT volumes of the forehead skin of three representative subjects.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Shadowgrams and segmented OCT volumes of the forearm skin and the cheek skin.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Sebum absorbent tape images of the forehead skin and the cheek skin of a subject of Table 3. The red squares indicate the size of a single OCT volume (4 mm times 4 mm).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

The shadowgrams and segmented OCT volumes produced by a simplified algorithm. The raw OCT volume is identical to that of subject (A) shown in Fig. 10.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. The mean epidermal thicknesses, populations and occupation ratios of the in-fundibula, and dermal attenuation coefficients of the five subjects.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The mean epidermal thicknesses (MET), the infundibulum populations (IP) and infundibulum occupation ratios (OP) of the five subjects.

Tables Icon

Table 3. The mean epidermal thicknesses, populations and occupation ratios of the in-fundibula, and dermal attenuation coefficients of a single subject. The measurements were repeated ten times, and the unbiased standard deviations of each parameter are also shown.

Equations (2)

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s = m h α σ h
I ( z ) e 2 ( μ + μ OCT ) z

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