Abstract

We have measured the optical forces on isolated particles trapped in an optical lattice generated by the interference of two coherent laser beams. Two independent methods are employed here that are based on the equipartition theorem and hydrodynamic drag. The optical force on a particle in an optical lattice depends strongly on the ratio of the particle diameter to the period of the lattice. Based on the observed size dependence, we developed an approach that allows tunable, size-dependent force selection of a subset of particles from an ensemble containing mixed particles.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288-290 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. N. Buican, M. J. Smyth, H. A. Crissman, G. C. Salzman, C. C. Stewart, and J. C. Martin, “Automated single-cell manipulation and sorting by light trapping,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5311-5316 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishldzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67, 1763-1765 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, “Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: optical fractionation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 010901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316-5318 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Grujic, O. Hellesø, J. Hole, and J. Wilkinson, “Sorting of polystyrene microspheres using a Y-branched optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 1-7 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Xie, D. Chen, and Y. Q. Li, “Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1800-1802 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Applegate, Jr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. Marr, “Optical trapping, manipulation, and sorting of cells and colloids in microfluidic systems with diode laser bars,” Opt. Express 12, 4390-4398 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Ricardez-Vargas, P. Rodriguez-Montero, R. Romas-Garcia, and K. Volke-Sepulveda, “Modulated optical sieve for sorting of polydisperse microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. L. Smith, G. C. Spalding, M. P. MacDonald, and K. Dholakia, “Colloidal traffic in static and dynamic optical lattices,” Proc. SPIE 6326, U667-U678 (2006).
  15. V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Rodrigo, R. Eriksen, V. Daria, and J. Glueckstad, “Interactive light-driven and parallel manipulation of inhomogeneous particles,” Opt. Express 10, 1550-1556 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  18. Y. Roichman, V. Wong, and D. G. Grier, “Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 011407 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and P. E. Bryant, “Trapping and manipulation of low-index particles in a two-dimensional interferometric optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863-865 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. G. Grier, “Transport and fractionation in periodic potential-energy landscapes,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. E. Chiou, W. Wang, G. J. Sonek, J. Hong, and M. W. Berns, “Interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 133, 7-10 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. N. Rubinov, V. M. Katarkevich, A. A. Afanas'ev, and T. Sh. Efendiev, “Interaction of interference laser field with an ensemble of particles in liquid,” Opt. Commun. 224, 97-106 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Casaburi, G. Pesce, P. Zemanek, and A. Sasso, “Two- and three-beam interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 251, 393-404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. A. Afanas'ev, A. N. Rubinov, Y. A. Kurochkin, S. Yu. Mikhnevich, and I. E. Ermolaev, “Localisation of spherical particles under the action of a gradient force in an interference field of laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 33, 250-254 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Jezek, P. Zemanek, A. Jonas, M. Sery, P. Pokorny, and M. Liska, “Study of the behavior of nanoparticle and microparticle in the standing wave trap,” Proc. SPIE 4356, 318-325 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Rohrbach and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical trapping of dielectric particles in arbitrary fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 839-853 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. P. Faucheux and A. J. Libchaber, “Confined Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5158-5163 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

2007

Y. Roichman, V. Wong, and D. G. Grier, “Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 011407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Ricardez-Vargas, P. Rodriguez-Montero, R. Romas-Garcia, and K. Volke-Sepulveda, “Modulated optical sieve for sorting of polydisperse microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Smith, G. C. Spalding, M. P. MacDonald, and K. Dholakia, “Colloidal traffic in static and dynamic optical lattices,” Proc. SPIE 6326, U667-U678 (2006).

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Grujic, O. Hellesø, J. Hole, and J. Wilkinson, “Sorting of polystyrene microspheres using a Y-branched optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, D. Chen, and Y. Q. Li, “Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1800-1802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Casaburi, G. Pesce, P. Zemanek, and A. Sasso, “Two- and three-beam interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 251, 393-404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. G. Grier, “Transport and fractionation in periodic potential-energy landscapes,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Applegate, Jr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. Marr, “Optical trapping, manipulation, and sorting of cells and colloids in microfluidic systems with diode laser bars,” Opt. Express 12, 4390-4398 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, “Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: optical fractionation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 010901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316-5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Afanas'ev, A. N. Rubinov, Y. A. Kurochkin, S. Yu. Mikhnevich, and I. E. Ermolaev, “Localisation of spherical particles under the action of a gradient force in an interference field of laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 33, 250-254 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Rubinov, V. M. Katarkevich, A. A. Afanas'ev, and T. Sh. Efendiev, “Interaction of interference laser field with an ensemble of particles in liquid,” Opt. Commun. 224, 97-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

1997

A. E. Chiou, W. Wang, G. J. Sonek, J. Hong, and M. W. Berns, “Interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 133, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishldzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67, 1763-1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. P. Faucheux and A. J. Libchaber, “Confined Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5158-5163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

Afanas'ev, A. A.

A. N. Rubinov, V. M. Katarkevich, A. A. Afanas'ev, and T. Sh. Efendiev, “Interaction of interference laser field with an ensemble of particles in liquid,” Opt. Commun. 224, 97-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Afanas'ev, A. N. Rubinov, Y. A. Kurochkin, S. Yu. Mikhnevich, and I. E. Ermolaev, “Localisation of spherical particles under the action of a gradient force in an interference field of laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 33, 250-254 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Applegate, R.

Ashkin, A.

Berns, M. W.

A. E. Chiou, W. Wang, G. J. Sonek, J. Hong, and M. W. Berns, “Interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 133, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and P. E. Bryant, “Trapping and manipulation of low-index particles in a two-dimensional interferometric optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863-865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J.

Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buican, T. N.

Butler, W. F.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Casaburi, A.

A. Casaburi, G. Pesce, P. Zemanek, and A. Sasso, “Two- and three-beam interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 251, 393-404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Cheong, F. C.

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, A. E.

A. E. Chiou, W. Wang, G. J. Sonek, J. Hong, and M. W. Berns, “Interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 133, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Cizmar, T.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crissman, H. A.

Daria, V.

Dees, B.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Smith, G. C. Spalding, M. P. MacDonald, and K. Dholakia, “Colloidal traffic in static and dynamic optical lattices,” Proc. SPIE 6326, U667-U678 (2006).

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and P. E. Bryant, “Trapping and manipulation of low-index particles in a two-dimensional interferometric optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863-865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Efendiev, T. Sh.

A. N. Rubinov, V. M. Katarkevich, A. A. Afanas'ev, and T. Sh. Efendiev, “Interaction of interference laser field with an ensemble of particles in liquid,” Opt. Commun. 224, 97-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, R.

Ermolaev, I. E.

A. A. Afanas'ev, A. N. Rubinov, Y. A. Kurochkin, S. Yu. Mikhnevich, and I. E. Ermolaev, “Localisation of spherical particles under the action of a gradient force in an interference field of laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 33, 250-254 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faucheux, L. P.

L. P. Faucheux and A. J. Libchaber, “Confined Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5158-5163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Forster, A. H.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garces-Chavez, V.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glueckstad, J.

Grier, D. G.

Y. Roichman, V. Wong, and D. G. Grier, “Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 011407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. G. Grier, “Transport and fractionation in periodic potential-energy landscapes,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, “Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: optical fractionation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 010901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grujic, K.

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, N.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hart, S. J.

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316-5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hellesø, O.

Hole, J.

Hong, J.

A. E. Chiou, W. Wang, G. J. Sonek, J. Hong, and M. W. Berns, “Interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 133, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imasaka, T.

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishldzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67, 1763-1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishldzu, Y.

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishldzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67, 1763-1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jezek, J.

J. Jezek, P. Zemanek, A. Jonas, M. Sery, P. Pokorny, and M. Liska, “Study of the behavior of nanoparticle and microparticle in the standing wave trap,” Proc. SPIE 4356, 318-325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jonas, A.

J. Jezek, P. Zemanek, A. Jonas, M. Sery, P. Pokorny, and M. Liska, “Study of the behavior of nanoparticle and microparticle in the standing wave trap,” Proc. SPIE 4356, 318-325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaneta, T.

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishldzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67, 1763-1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kariv, I.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasza, K.

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, “Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: optical fractionation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 010901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katarkevich, V. M.

A. N. Rubinov, V. M. Katarkevich, A. A. Afanas'ev, and T. Sh. Efendiev, “Interaction of interference laser field with an ensemble of particles in liquid,” Opt. Commun. 224, 97-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, Y.

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishldzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67, 1763-1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ketterson, J. B.

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

Kurochkin, Y. A.

A. A. Afanas'ev, A. N. Rubinov, Y. A. Kurochkin, S. Yu. Mikhnevich, and I. E. Ermolaev, “Localisation of spherical particles under the action of a gradient force in an interference field of laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 33, 250-254 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kyriazes, H.

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

Ladavac, K.

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. G. Grier, “Transport and fractionation in periodic potential-energy landscapes,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, “Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: optical fractionation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 010901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Q.

Libchaber, A. J.

L. P. Faucheux and A. J. Libchaber, “Confined Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5158-5163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

J. Jezek, P. Zemanek, A. Jonas, M. Sery, P. Pokorny, and M. Liska, “Study of the behavior of nanoparticle and microparticle in the standing wave trap,” Proc. SPIE 4356, 318-325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luan, L.

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

MacDonald, M. P.

R. L. Smith, G. C. Spalding, M. P. MacDonald, and K. Dholakia, “Colloidal traffic in static and dynamic optical lattices,” Proc. SPIE 6326, U667-U678 (2006).

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and P. E. Bryant, “Trapping and manipulation of low-index particles in a two-dimensional interferometric optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863-865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P. J.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marr, D.

Martin, J. C.

McGloin, D.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melville, H.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mercer, E. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikhnevich, S. Yu.

A. A. Afanas'ev, A. N. Rubinov, Y. A. Kurochkin, S. Yu. Mikhnevich, and I. E. Ermolaev, “Localisation of spherical particles under the action of a gradient force in an interference field of laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 33, 250-254 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milne, G.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mu, W.

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

Oakey, J.

Ong, L. S.

Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papagiakoumou, E.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and P. E. Bryant, “Trapping and manipulation of low-index particles in a two-dimensional interferometric optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863-865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. G. Grier, “Transport and fractionation in periodic potential-energy landscapes,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pesce, G.

A. Casaburi, G. Pesce, P. Zemanek, and A. Sasso, “Two- and three-beam interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 251, 393-404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, P.

J. Jezek, P. Zemanek, A. Jonas, M. Sery, P. Pokorny, and M. Liska, “Study of the behavior of nanoparticle and microparticle in the standing wave trap,” Proc. SPIE 4356, 318-325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, D. E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ricardez-Vargas, I.

I. Ricardez-Vargas, P. Rodriguez-Montero, R. Romas-Garcia, and K. Volke-Sepulveda, “Modulated optical sieve for sorting of polydisperse microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riches, A. C.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, P.

Rodriguez-Montero, P.

I. Ricardez-Vargas, P. Rodriguez-Montero, R. Romas-Garcia, and K. Volke-Sepulveda, “Modulated optical sieve for sorting of polydisperse microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rohrbach, A.

Roichman, Y.

Y. Roichman, V. Wong, and D. G. Grier, “Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 011407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romas-Garcia, R.

I. Ricardez-Vargas, P. Rodriguez-Montero, R. Romas-Garcia, and K. Volke-Sepulveda, “Modulated optical sieve for sorting of polydisperse microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roskey, D.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubinov, A. N.

A. N. Rubinov, V. M. Katarkevich, A. A. Afanas'ev, and T. Sh. Efendiev, “Interaction of interference laser field with an ensemble of particles in liquid,” Opt. Commun. 224, 97-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Afanas'ev, A. N. Rubinov, Y. A. Kurochkin, S. Yu. Mikhnevich, and I. E. Ermolaev, “Localisation of spherical particles under the action of a gradient force in an interference field of laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 33, 250-254 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, G. C.

Sasso, A.

A. Casaburi, G. Pesce, P. Zemanek, and A. Sasso, “Two- and three-beam interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 251, 393-404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sery, M.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Jezek, P. Zemanek, A. Jonas, M. Sery, P. Pokorny, and M. Liska, “Study of the behavior of nanoparticle and microparticle in the standing wave trap,” Proc. SPIE 4356, 318-325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shao, P.

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and P. E. Bryant, “Trapping and manipulation of low-index particles in a two-dimensional interferometric optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863-865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siler, M.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. L.

R. L. Smith, G. C. Spalding, M. P. MacDonald, and K. Dholakia, “Colloidal traffic in static and dynamic optical lattices,” Proc. SPIE 6326, U667-U678 (2006).

Smyth, M. J.

Sonek, G. J.

A. E. Chiou, W. Wang, G. J. Sonek, J. Hong, and M. W. Berns, “Interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 133, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sow, C. H.

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spalding, G. C.

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

R. L. Smith, G. C. Spalding, M. P. MacDonald, and K. Dholakia, “Colloidal traffic in static and dynamic optical lattices,” Proc. SPIE 6326, U667-U678 (2006).

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

Stelzer, E. H. K.

Stewart, C. C.

Summers, M. D.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tatarkova, S. A.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terray, A. V.

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316-5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tu, E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

VanKan, J. A.

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vestad, T.

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

I. Ricardez-Vargas, P. Rodriguez-Montero, R. Romas-Garcia, and K. Volke-Sepulveda, “Modulated optical sieve for sorting of polydisperse microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

Wang, M. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

A. E. Chiou, W. Wang, G. J. Sonek, J. Hong, and M. W. Berns, “Interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 133, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watt, F.

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. T. S.

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

West, P.

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

Wilkinson, J.

Wong, V.

Y. Roichman, V. Wong, and D. G. Grier, “Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 011407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Yang, J. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. C.

Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zemanek, P.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Casaburi, G. Pesce, P. Zemanek, and A. Sasso, “Two- and three-beam interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 251, 393-404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Jezek, P. Zemanek, A. Jonas, M. Sery, P. Pokorny, and M. Liska, “Study of the behavior of nanoparticle and microparticle in the standing wave trap,” Proc. SPIE 4356, 318-325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. C.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. W.

Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishldzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67, 1763-1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, A. T. S. Wee, P. Shao, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. VanKan, and F. Watt, “Optical travelator: transport and dynamic sorting of colloidal microspheres with an asymmetrical line optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 121-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Y. Sun, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Ong, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and R. Liu, “Large-scale optical traps on a chip for optical sorting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Ricardez-Vargas, P. Rodriguez-Montero, R. Romas-Garcia, and K. Volke-Sepulveda, “Modulated optical sieve for sorting of polydisperse microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316-5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. Roskey, M. D. Summers, H. Melville, D. McGloin, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Optical levitation in a Bessel light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4001-4003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Biotechnol.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. E. Chiou, W. Wang, G. J. Sonek, J. Hong, and M. W. Berns, “Interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 133, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Rubinov, V. M. Katarkevich, A. A. Afanas'ev, and T. Sh. Efendiev, “Interaction of interference laser field with an ensemble of particles in liquid,” Opt. Commun. 224, 97-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Casaburi, G. Pesce, P. Zemanek, and A. Sasso, “Two- and three-beam interferometric optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 251, 393-404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of submicrometer objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. G. Grier, “Transport and fractionation in periodic potential-energy landscapes,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Roichman, V. Wong, and D. G. Grier, “Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 011407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, “Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: optical fractionation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 010901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Faucheux and A. J. Libchaber, “Confined Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5158-5163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

W. Mu, G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, L. Luan, P. West, H. Kyriazes, and J. B. Ketterson, “Optical separation of particles based on a dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6326, 280-287 (2006).

J. Jezek, P. Zemanek, A. Jonas, M. Sery, P. Pokorny, and M. Liska, “Study of the behavior of nanoparticle and microparticle in the standing wave trap,” Proc. SPIE 4356, 318-325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Smith, G. C. Spalding, M. P. MacDonald, and K. Dholakia, “Colloidal traffic in static and dynamic optical lattices,” Proc. SPIE 6326, U667-U678 (2006).

Quantum Electron.

A. A. Afanas'ev, A. N. Rubinov, Y. A. Kurochkin, S. Yu. Mikhnevich, and I. E. Ermolaev, “Localisation of spherical particles under the action of a gradient force in an interference field of laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 33, 250-254 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup; BS is the beam splitter. M is a prism mirror with two perpendicular reflecting surfaces. The phase shifter is mounted on a piezotranslator. The inset shows that two particles are trapped in the standing wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical force as a function of the lattice constant of the standing wave for a 3 μ m particle. The squares are the experimental results obtained with the hydrodynamic-drag method; the triangles are the results with the equipartition method. The dotted curve is the calculated result based on the Rayleigh model, and the solid curve is the calculation result based on ray optics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical force as a function of the lattice constant of the standing wave for three sizes of polystyrene spheres. The x axis is the ratio of the spacing of the optical lattice to the diameter of the spheres, and the y axis shows the relative optical force for different values of x. The inset shows the predictions of a Rayleigh model and of Ray optics for fixed ratio of d D . The three data points inside the inset are the experimental values when d D = 1.4 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Starting from the upper left, the smaller particles are dragged along as the optical interference pattern advances downwards, while the bigger ones are not affected by the translating optical lattice. At the same time, both size particles move together with the fluid to the right. The white circles mark out some of the smaller particles moving together with the translating optical lattice.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F ( x ) = A sin ( 2 π x d ) ,
F ( x ) = A sin ( 2 π ( x v t ) d ) .
6 π η r x ̇ = A sin ( 2 π ( x v t ) d ) + ξ ( t ) ,
F ( x ) = A * 2 π x d = k x ,
ρ ( x ) = ρ 0 exp ( k x 2 2 k B T ) ,
x 2 = x 2 ρ ( x ) d x = k B T k .
k = k B T x 2 ,
A = k B T d ( 2 π x 2 ) .

Metrics