Abstract

Whereas vision is an efficient way for noncontact sensing of many physical quantities, it assumes a cumbersome imaging system that may be very problematic in confined environments. In such contexts, the design of a compact vision probe can be based on digital holography that is a lensless imaging principle. In this interferometric method, object scenes are reconstructed numerically through wave propagation computations applied to a diffracted optical field recorded as an interferogram. We applied this approach to the visual positioning of a micropatterned glass plate. The pseudoperiodic pattern deposited on the surface is suited for absolute in-plane position determination as well as for fine object-feature interpolation leading to subpixel resolution. Results obtained demonstrate a lateral resolution of 0.1μm, corresponding to 1/20th of a pixel, from a 150μm period of the pseudoperiodic pattern and with a demonstrated excursion range of 1.6cm. In the future, such position encoding could be applied to the backside of standardized sample holders for the easy localization of regions of interest when specimens are transferred from an instrument to another one, for instance in nanotechnology processes.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Feldman, “Microscope slide,” U.S. patent 4,183,614(15 January 1980).
  2. P. Lin and F. Ruddle, “Photoengraving of coverslips and slides to facilitate monitoring of micromanipulated cells or chromosome spreads,” Exp. Cell Res. 134, 485–488 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. M. Saleh, P. G. Toner, K. E. Carr, and H. E. Hughes, “An improved method for sequential light and scanning electron microscopy of the same cell using localising microcoverslips,” J. Clin. Pathol. 35, 576–580 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Ruddle and P. Lin, “Method for engraving a grid pattern on microscope slides and slips,” U.S. patent 4,415,405 (15 November 1983).
  5. G. Dimou and T. Pang, “Process for manufacturing a cover glass with a viewing field,” U.S. patent 5,766,677 (16 June 1998).
  6. L. Hause and D. Jeutter, “Mapping method for a microscope slide,” U.S. patent 5,786,130 (28 July 1998).
  7. D. St-Jacques, S. Martel, and T. B. FitzGerald, “Nanoscale grid based positioning system for miniature instrumented robots,” in Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1831–1834.
  8. J. A. Galeano-Zea, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Pseudo-periodic encryption of extended 2-D surfaces for high accurate recovery of any random zone by vision,” Int. J. Optomechatron. 4, 65–82 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Sandoz, R. Zeggari, L. Froelhy, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position referencing in optical microscopy thanks to sample holders with out-of-focus encoded patterns,” J. Microsc. 225, 293–303 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. R. J. Hansman, “Characteristics of instrumentation,” in The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, J.G.Webster (ed.) (Springer-Verlag, 1999), Chap. 1.

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

J. A. Galeano-Zea, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Pseudo-periodic encryption of extended 2-D surfaces for high accurate recovery of any random zone by vision,” Int. J. Optomechatron. 4, 65–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. Sandoz, R. Zeggari, L. Froelhy, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position referencing in optical microscopy thanks to sample holders with out-of-focus encoded patterns,” J. Microsc. 225, 293–303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography (Springer Verlag, 2005).

2003 (2)

K. Matsushima, H. Schimmel, and F. Wyrowski, “Fast calculation method for optical diffraction on tilted planes by use of the angular spectrum of plane waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1755–1762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. St-Jacques, S. Martel, and T. B. FitzGerald, “Nanoscale grid based positioning system for miniature instrumented robots,” in Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1831–1834.

1999 (1)

R. J. Hansman, “Characteristics of instrumentation,” in The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, J.G.Webster (ed.) (Springer-Verlag, 1999), Chap. 1.

1996 (2)

1984 (1)

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1984).

1982 (1)

K. M. Saleh, P. G. Toner, K. E. Carr, and H. E. Hughes, “An improved method for sequential light and scanning electron microscopy of the same cell using localising microcoverslips,” J. Clin. Pathol. 35, 576–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

P. Lin and F. Ruddle, “Photoengraving of coverslips and slides to facilitate monitoring of micromanipulated cells or chromosome spreads,” Exp. Cell Res. 134, 485–488 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

1967 (1)

S. W. Golomb, Shift Register Sequences (Holden-Day, 1967).

1836 (1)

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to Optical Science No. IV,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401–407 (1836).

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Carr, K. E.

K. M. Saleh, P. G. Toner, K. E. Carr, and H. E. Hughes, “An improved method for sequential light and scanning electron microscopy of the same cell using localising microcoverslips,” J. Clin. Pathol. 35, 576–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1984).

Dimou, G.

G. Dimou and T. Pang, “Process for manufacturing a cover glass with a viewing field,” U.S. patent 5,766,677 (16 June 1998).

Dubois, F.

Engelhardt, K.

Feldman, B.

B. Feldman, “Microscope slide,” U.S. patent 4,183,614(15 January 1980).

FitzGerald, T. B.

D. St-Jacques, S. Martel, and T. B. FitzGerald, “Nanoscale grid based positioning system for miniature instrumented robots,” in Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1831–1834.

Froelhy, L.

P. Sandoz, R. Zeggari, L. Froelhy, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position referencing in optical microscopy thanks to sample holders with out-of-focus encoded patterns,” J. Microsc. 225, 293–303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaiffe, E.

J. Galeano, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, S. Launay, L. Robert, M. Jacquot, F. Hirchaud, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position-referenced microscopy for live cell culture monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1307–1318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Galeano-Zea, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Pseudo-periodic encryption of extended 2-D surfaces for high accurate recovery of any random zone by vision,” Int. J. Optomechatron. 4, 65–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Galeano, J.

Galeano-Zea, J. A.

J. A. Galeano-Zea, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Pseudo-periodic encryption of extended 2-D surfaces for high accurate recovery of any random zone by vision,” Int. J. Optomechatron. 4, 65–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Golomb, S. W.

S. W. Golomb, Shift Register Sequences (Holden-Day, 1967).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw Hill, 1996).

Hansman, R. J.

R. J. Hansman, “Characteristics of instrumentation,” in The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, J.G.Webster (ed.) (Springer-Verlag, 1999), Chap. 1.

Hause, L.

L. Hause and D. Jeutter, “Mapping method for a microscope slide,” U.S. patent 5,786,130 (28 July 1998).

Hirchaud, F.

Hughes, H. E.

K. M. Saleh, P. G. Toner, K. E. Carr, and H. E. Hughes, “An improved method for sequential light and scanning electron microscopy of the same cell using localising microcoverslips,” J. Clin. Pathol. 35, 576–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquot, M.

Jeutter, D.

L. Hause and D. Jeutter, “Mapping method for a microscope slide,” U.S. patent 5,786,130 (28 July 1998).

Jueptner, W.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography (Springer Verlag, 2005).

Launay, S.

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Lin, P.

P. Lin and F. Ruddle, “Photoengraving of coverslips and slides to facilitate monitoring of micromanipulated cells or chromosome spreads,” Exp. Cell Res. 134, 485–488 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ruddle and P. Lin, “Method for engraving a grid pattern on microscope slides and slips,” U.S. patent 4,415,405 (15 November 1983).

Mallahi, A. E.

Martel, S.

D. St-Jacques, S. Martel, and T. B. FitzGerald, “Nanoscale grid based positioning system for miniature instrumented robots,” in Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1831–1834.

Matsushima, K.

Mougin, C.

J. Galeano, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, S. Launay, L. Robert, M. Jacquot, F. Hirchaud, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position-referenced microscopy for live cell culture monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1307–1318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Galeano-Zea, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Pseudo-periodic encryption of extended 2-D surfaces for high accurate recovery of any random zone by vision,” Int. J. Optomechatron. 4, 65–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Sandoz, R. Zeggari, L. Froelhy, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position referencing in optical microscopy thanks to sample holders with out-of-focus encoded patterns,” J. Microsc. 225, 293–303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, T.

G. Dimou and T. Pang, “Process for manufacturing a cover glass with a viewing field,” U.S. patent 5,766,677 (16 June 1998).

Prétet, J. L.

J. Galeano, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, S. Launay, L. Robert, M. Jacquot, F. Hirchaud, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position-referenced microscopy for live cell culture monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1307–1318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Galeano-Zea, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Pseudo-periodic encryption of extended 2-D surfaces for high accurate recovery of any random zone by vision,” Int. J. Optomechatron. 4, 65–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Sandoz, R. Zeggari, L. Froelhy, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position referencing in optical microscopy thanks to sample holders with out-of-focus encoded patterns,” J. Microsc. 225, 293–303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert, L.

Ruddle, F.

P. Lin and F. Ruddle, “Photoengraving of coverslips and slides to facilitate monitoring of micromanipulated cells or chromosome spreads,” Exp. Cell Res. 134, 485–488 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ruddle and P. Lin, “Method for engraving a grid pattern on microscope slides and slips,” U.S. patent 4,415,405 (15 November 1983).

Saleh, K. M.

K. M. Saleh, P. G. Toner, K. E. Carr, and H. E. Hughes, “An improved method for sequential light and scanning electron microscopy of the same cell using localising microcoverslips,” J. Clin. Pathol. 35, 576–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoz, P.

J. Galeano, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, S. Launay, L. Robert, M. Jacquot, F. Hirchaud, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position-referenced microscopy for live cell culture monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1307–1318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Galeano-Zea, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Pseudo-periodic encryption of extended 2-D surfaces for high accurate recovery of any random zone by vision,” Int. J. Optomechatron. 4, 65–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Sandoz, R. Zeggari, L. Froelhy, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position referencing in optical microscopy thanks to sample holders with out-of-focus encoded patterns,” J. Microsc. 225, 293–303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schimmel, H.

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography (Springer Verlag, 2005).

Seitz, P.

St-Jacques, D.

D. St-Jacques, S. Martel, and T. B. FitzGerald, “Nanoscale grid based positioning system for miniature instrumented robots,” in Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1831–1834.

Talbot, H. F.

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to Optical Science No. IV,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401–407 (1836).

Toner, P. G.

K. M. Saleh, P. G. Toner, K. E. Carr, and H. E. Hughes, “An improved method for sequential light and scanning electron microscopy of the same cell using localising microcoverslips,” J. Clin. Pathol. 35, 576–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyrowski, F.

Zeggari, R.

P. Sandoz, R. Zeggari, L. Froelhy, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position referencing in optical microscopy thanks to sample holders with out-of-focus encoded patterns,” J. Microsc. 225, 293–303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Exp. Cell Res. (1)

P. Lin and F. Ruddle, “Photoengraving of coverslips and slides to facilitate monitoring of micromanipulated cells or chromosome spreads,” Exp. Cell Res. 134, 485–488 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Optomechatron. (1)

J. A. Galeano-Zea, P. Sandoz, E. Gaiffe, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Pseudo-periodic encryption of extended 2-D surfaces for high accurate recovery of any random zone by vision,” Int. J. Optomechatron. 4, 65–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Pathol. (1)

K. M. Saleh, P. G. Toner, K. E. Carr, and H. E. Hughes, “An improved method for sequential light and scanning electron microscopy of the same cell using localising microcoverslips,” J. Clin. Pathol. 35, 576–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

P. Sandoz, R. Zeggari, L. Froelhy, J. L. Prétet, and C. Mougin, “Position referencing in optical microscopy thanks to sample holders with out-of-focus encoded patterns,” J. Microsc. 225, 293–303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to Optical Science No. IV,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401–407 (1836).

Other (11)

B. Feldman, “Microscope slide,” U.S. patent 4,183,614(15 January 1980).

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1984).

R. J. Hansman, “Characteristics of instrumentation,” in The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, J.G.Webster (ed.) (Springer-Verlag, 1999), Chap. 1.

S. W. Golomb, Shift Register Sequences (Holden-Day, 1967).

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography (Springer Verlag, 2005).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw Hill, 1996).

F. Ruddle and P. Lin, “Method for engraving a grid pattern on microscope slides and slips,” U.S. patent 4,415,405 (15 November 1983).

G. Dimou and T. Pang, “Process for manufacturing a cover glass with a viewing field,” U.S. patent 5,766,677 (16 June 1998).

L. Hause and D. Jeutter, “Mapping method for a microscope slide,” U.S. patent 5,786,130 (28 July 1998).

D. St-Jacques, S. Martel, and T. B. FitzGerald, “Nanoscale grid based positioning system for miniature instrumented robots,” in Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1831–1834.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pseudoperiodic pattern for lateral position encryption with 3 bits . Left: Bits are encoded through binary symbols of equal width. The value “0” is made of one black line in the middle of two white lines whereas the value “1” is made of three white lines. Bits are nested with each other in order to provide a continuous sequence of words. The position along the sequence is given by a lookup table. Right: 2D view of an encoded area of 10 × 10 bits .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Integrated concept of lensless optical head. CCD, image sensor; LB, laser beam; BS, beam splitter; M, mirrors; PPP, pseudoperiodically patterned plate. (b) Photograph of the setup used for experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of digital hologram recorded (in gray levels). The insert shows the modulated fringe carrier due to the tilt of the reference mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the pseudoperiodic pattern as reconstructed numerically (pixel size: 2.2 μm ; pattern period: 150 μm ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image processing along the horizontal direction expressed in column pixels. a) Intensity profile obtained by summing 1000 image lines (reverse contrast); b) modulus of the space-frequency transform at the carrier frequency; c) wrapped phase.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Position deviation without driven displacement. Left: PZT next to the beam-splitter cube (st. dev. 108 nm in X; 33 nm in Z). Right: after shifting the PZT by 5 cm backward (st. dev. 140 nm in X; 48 nm in Z).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: reconstructed displacement while the PZT is shifted 250 times by steps of 50 nm in Z. Right: position deviation from the mean straight line ( rms = 54.5 nm ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of reconstructed 2D displacements of the patterned plate. Left: PZT next to the beam-splitter cube. Right: after shifting the PZT by 5 cm backward.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example of the reconstruction of extended 2D displacements. Left: patterned plate next to the beam-splitter cube. Right: after shifting the patterned plate by 1 cm backward.

Equations (4)

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A ( x , y , 0 ) = H ( x , y ) e i ϕ r ( x , y ) ,
A ˜ ( ν , υ , z ) = A ˜ ( ν , υ , 0 ) e i 2 π z λ 2 υ 2 ν 2 ,
A ( x , y , z ) = A ˜ ( ν , υ , z ) e i 2 π ( ν x + υ y ) d ν d υ .
s = λ z obj h ,

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