Abstract

A pyramid-type microstrip probe (PTMP) with metal tips is proposed for scanning near-field microscopes to obtain high spatial resolution of a few nanometers and high optical efficiency. Properties of an ordinary PTMP and the PTMP with a single metal tip are investigated by using a rigorous finite-integral technique simulation (MICROWAVE STUDIO package) and analyzing characteristics of working modes of the probe. Numerical simulation has demonstrated that an ordinary PTMP and the PTMT with a single metal tip exhibit large far- and near-transmission coefficients, field enhancement, and high spatial resolution. These high parameters imply that both types of microstrip probe may be utilized for optical and magnetic data storage, nanolithography, and other types of nanotechnology that use light for modification of a thin surface layer.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. H. Synge, "A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356-362 (1928).
  2. E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature 237, 510-513 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, "Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit," Science 257, 189-195 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. J. Bouwkamp, "On the diffraction of electromagneticwaves by small circular disks and holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 401-422 (1950).
  5. A. Roberts, "Small-hole coupling of radiation into a near-field probe," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4045-4049 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and H. Heinzelmann, "Radiation coupling and image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," Thin Solid Films 273, 161-167 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. S. Lapchuk and A. A. Kryuchin, "Near-field optical microscope working on TEM wave," Ultramicroscopy 99, 143-157 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Lapchuk and A. Kryuchin, "The theoretical investigation for improvement of scanning near-field optical microscope," Proc. SPIE 4779, 180-189 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. S. Lapchuk, "Estimation of optical efficiency of a near-field optical microscope on the basis of a simplified mathematical model," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 455-459 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. S. Lapchuk, H. S. Jeong, D.-H. Shin, C. S. Kyong, and D. J. Shin, "Mode propagation in optical nanowaveguides having a dielectric core and surrounding metal layers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7522-7531 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and P. Regli, "Light propagation through nanometer-size structure: the two-dimensional-aperture scanning near-field optical microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1768-1779 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  13. D. L. Windt, "Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Novotny and C. Hafner, "Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function," Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094-3106 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Khosravi, D. R. Tilley, and R. Loudon, "Surface polaritons in cylindrical optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 112-122 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. C. Aerst, A. D. Boardman, and B. V. Paranjapet, "Nonradiative surface plasmon-polariton modes of inhomogeneous metal circular cylinders," J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 10, 53-65 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

A. S. Lapchuk and A. A. Kryuchin, "Near-field optical microscope working on TEM wave," Ultramicroscopy 99, 143-157 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Lapchuk and A. Kryuchin, "The theoretical investigation for improvement of scanning near-field optical microscope," Proc. SPIE 4779, 180-189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. S. Lapchuk, "Estimation of optical efficiency of a near-field optical microscope on the basis of a simplified mathematical model," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 455-459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. L. Windt, "Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and H. Heinzelmann, "Radiation coupling and image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," Thin Solid Films 273, 161-167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and P. Regli, "Light propagation through nanometer-size structure: the two-dimensional-aperture scanning near-field optical microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1768-1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, "Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function," Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094-3106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, "Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit," Science 257, 189-195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

H. Khosravi, D. R. Tilley, and R. Loudon, "Surface polaritons in cylindrical optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 112-122 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, "Small-hole coupling of radiation into a near-field probe," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4045-4049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

G. C. Aerst, A. D. Boardman, and B. V. Paranjapet, "Nonradiative surface plasmon-polariton modes of inhomogeneous metal circular cylinders," J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 10, 53-65 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature 237, 510-513 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

C. J. Bouwkamp, "On the diffraction of electromagneticwaves by small circular disks and holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 401-422 (1950).

1928 (1)

E. H. Synge, "A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356-362 (1928).

Aerst, G. C.

G. C. Aerst, A. D. Boardman, and B. V. Paranjapet, "Nonradiative surface plasmon-polariton modes of inhomogeneous metal circular cylinders," J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 10, 53-65 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ash, E. A.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature 237, 510-513 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, "Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit," Science 257, 189-195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boardman, A. D.

G. C. Aerst, A. D. Boardman, and B. V. Paranjapet, "Nonradiative surface plasmon-polariton modes of inhomogeneous metal circular cylinders," J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 10, 53-65 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, "On the diffraction of electromagneticwaves by small circular disks and holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 401-422 (1950).

Hafner, C.

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, "Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function," Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094-3106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and H. Heinzelmann, "Radiation coupling and image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," Thin Solid Films 273, 161-167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heinzelmann, H.

D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and H. Heinzelmann, "Radiation coupling and image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," Thin Solid Films 273, 161-167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H. S.

Khosravi, H.

Kryuchin, A.

A. Lapchuk and A. Kryuchin, "The theoretical investigation for improvement of scanning near-field optical microscope," Proc. SPIE 4779, 180-189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kryuchin, A. A.

A. S. Lapchuk and A. A. Kryuchin, "Near-field optical microscope working on TEM wave," Ultramicroscopy 99, 143-157 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyong, C. S.

Lapchuk, A.

A. Lapchuk and A. Kryuchin, "The theoretical investigation for improvement of scanning near-field optical microscope," Proc. SPIE 4779, 180-189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lapchuk, A. S.

A. S. Lapchuk, H. S. Jeong, D.-H. Shin, C. S. Kyong, and D. J. Shin, "Mode propagation in optical nanowaveguides having a dielectric core and surrounding metal layers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7522-7531 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Lapchuk and A. A. Kryuchin, "Near-field optical microscope working on TEM wave," Ultramicroscopy 99, 143-157 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Lapchuk, "Estimation of optical efficiency of a near-field optical microscope on the basis of a simplified mathematical model," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 455-459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

Nicholls, G.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature 237, 510-513 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and H. Heinzelmann, "Radiation coupling and image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," Thin Solid Films 273, 161-167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and P. Regli, "Light propagation through nanometer-size structure: the two-dimensional-aperture scanning near-field optical microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1768-1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, "Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function," Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094-3106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paranjapet, B. V.

G. C. Aerst, A. D. Boardman, and B. V. Paranjapet, "Nonradiative surface plasmon-polariton modes of inhomogeneous metal circular cylinders," J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 10, 53-65 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and H. Heinzelmann, "Radiation coupling and image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," Thin Solid Films 273, 161-167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and P. Regli, "Light propagation through nanometer-size structure: the two-dimensional-aperture scanning near-field optical microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1768-1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Regli, P.

Roberts, A.

A. Roberts, "Small-hole coupling of radiation into a near-field probe," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4045-4049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. J.

Shin, D.-H.

Synge, E. H.

E. H. Synge, "A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356-362 (1928).

Tilley, D. R.

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, "Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit," Science 257, 189-195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, "Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, "Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Roberts, "Small-hole coupling of radiation into a near-field probe," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4045-4049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. S. Lapchuk, "Estimation of optical efficiency of a near-field optical microscope on the basis of a simplified mathematical model," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 455-459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. (1)

G. C. Aerst, A. D. Boardman, and B. V. Paranjapet, "Nonradiative surface plasmon-polariton modes of inhomogeneous metal circular cylinders," J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 10, 53-65 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature 237, 510-513 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philips Res. Rep. (1)

C. J. Bouwkamp, "On the diffraction of electromagneticwaves by small circular disks and holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 401-422 (1950).

Philos. Mag. (1)

E. H. Synge, "A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356-362 (1928).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, "Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function," Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094-3106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Lapchuk and A. Kryuchin, "The theoretical investigation for improvement of scanning near-field optical microscope," Proc. SPIE 4779, 180-189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, "Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit," Science 257, 189-195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and H. Heinzelmann, "Radiation coupling and image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," Thin Solid Films 273, 161-167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. S. Lapchuk and A. A. Kryuchin, "Near-field optical microscope working on TEM wave," Ultramicroscopy 99, 143-157 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic picture of a cone-type SNOM probe; (b) diagram showing light propagation in the probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematical cross-sectional view of an optical microstrip line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic layout of the PTMP. (b) Electric energy distribution and (c) power flow for the PTMP simulated within the 2D model for the following parameters: a = 1400 nm , a 1 = 30 nm , s = 1686 nm , λ = 480 nm , h 1 = 30 nm , and the dielectric constant of aluminum ε = 34.5 + i 8.5 (medium parameters, glass cone sizes, and aperture width are the same as those in [11]).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional distribution of the power flow, P z , propagating along the microstrip line for (a) real metal and (b) perfectly conducting strips. The following parameters were used in calculations: (a) a = b = 30 nm , t = 5 nm (silver), n = 2 , λ = 780 nm ; (b) a = b = 30 nm , t = 9 nm , n = 2 , λ = 780 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Distribution of z component of the power flow, P z , for the quasi- TM 10 mode within a microstrip line cross section; (b) distribution of the E y component of the electric field along the microstrip in the plane x = 0 . The following parameters were used in calculations: a = b = 10 nm , t = 5 nm (silver), n = 1.5 , λ = 780 nm , microstrip length s = 150 nm , and γ k = 6 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Parameters of the PTMP simulated by MWS: (a) electric field intensity along the probe axes ( x = y = 0 ) ; (b) power flow P z at the probe aperture; (c) power flow P z along the probe in the Y Z plane). The calculation is for the following parameters: a = b = 600 nm, s = 1000 nm, a 1 = b 1 = 20 nm, t 1 = 20 nm, t = 40 nm, λ = 780 nm , and ε = 2.25 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Amplitude of E y at the microstrip probe apex: (a) along the y axis ( x = 0 ) ; (b) along the x axis ( y = 0 ) . (c) Spatial distribution of the electric field energy in a horizontal plane located 6 nm off the microstrip probe apex. The following parameters were used in the calculation: a = b = 400 nm , a 1 = b 1 = 40 nm , t = 70 nm , t 1 = 25 nm , dielectric constant of the glass core ε = 2.25 , gold strips, s = 1000 nm , and λ = 780 nm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Near-field transmission coefficient for the case of the PTMP with constant cross-sectional dimensions (PTMP as a portion of a regular microstrip line). The probe parameters used in the calculation are as follows: a = b = a 1 = b 1 ; t = t 1 ; ε = 2.25 ; silver strips; and λ = 780 nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spatial distribution of P z component of the power flow along the z axis in the PTMP. Sample parameters are as follows: a 1 = b 1 = 50 nm ; s = 600 nm ; a = b = 400 nm ; t = 70 nm ; t 1 = 25 nm ; dielectric core is glass with ε = 2.25 ; silver strips; λ = 780 nm .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Dependence of the near-field transmission coefficient on the distance between the probe and a recording medium; (b) power distribution in the aperture plane for the case where the probe is interacting with a 100 nm × 100 nm × 15 nm GeSbTe plate ( n = 4.68 + 4.16 i for the crystalline state and n = 4.34 + 1.75 i for the amorphous state). Probe characteristics are as follows: a = b = 400 nm , a 1 = b 1 = 40 nm , t = 70 nm , t 1 = 15 nm , s = 1000 nm , ε = 2.25 , silver metal strips, and λ = 780 nm .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Electric field amplitude distribution along a rectangular silver strip line: (a) asymmetric quasi- TM 0 mode, and (b) symmetric quasi- HE 1 mode. (c) Cross-sectional view of the structure. The following parameters were used in calculations: b = 100 nm , t = 70 nm , s ( structure length ) = 1000 nm , ε = 2.25 , and λ = 780 nm . Ideal metal strips are used only for mode excitation.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Pyramid-type microstrip probe with only one metal tip.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Power flow ( P z component) in the pyramid-type microstrip probe with only one metal tip. The probe consists of a dielectric core with n = 1.5 , covered by gold strips with the cross-sectional dimension of the tip edge equal to 5 nm ; λ = 780 nm .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Distribution of the amplitude of the electric field in the plane that coincides with the surface of the edge of the metal tip; (b) density of the electric field energy along the centerline of the dielectric core. The data are for a probe with gold strips, n = 1.5 for the dielectric core, and the cross-sectional dimension of the tip edge equal to 5 nm ; λ = 780 nm .

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Dependence of the near-field transmission coefficient on the distance to a recording medium for the case of a crystalline GeSbTe layer ( n = 4.68 + 4.16 i ) . The probe has a gold tip with the edge size 15 × 15 nm ; the beam size equals 40 nm .

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k f ( d λ ) 4 ,
k fe = E a 2 E inc 2 .
k n = P a P inc ,
λ 2 a ( z ) d a ( z ) d z = λ 0 2 a ( z ) t g ( θ 1 ) k sw 1 ,
λ 2 b ( z ) d b ( z ) d z = λ 0 2 b ( z ) t g ( θ 2 ) k sw 1 ,
S spot = ( a 1 + 2 t 1 ) b 1 ,
k f 0.4 ρ 0 k l ε ( a 1 3 λ ) 2 ,

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