Abstract

Rendering packages are used by visual psychophysicists to produce complex stimuli for their experiments, tacitly assuming that the simulation results accurately reflect the light–surface interactions of a real scene. RADIANCE is a physically based, freely available, and commonly used rendering software. We validated the calculation accuracy of this package by comparing simulation results with measurements from real scenes. RADIANCE recovers color gradients well but the results are shifted in color space. Currently, there is no better simulation alternative for achieving physical accuracy than by combining a spectral rendering method with RADIANCE.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, and S. Hersh, "The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes," J. Vision 3, 541-553 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Boyaci, K. Doerschner, and L. T. Maloney, "Perceived surface color in binocularly viewed scenes with two light sources differing in chromaticity," J. Vision 4, 664-679 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, "Human observers compensate for secondary illumination originating in nearby chromatic surfaces," J. Vision 4, 92-105 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, "Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties," J. Vision 3, 347-368 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Fleming, A. Torralba, and E. H. Adelson, "Specular reflections and the perception of shape," J. Vision 4, 798-820 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. N. Yang and L. T. Maloney, "Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three candidate cues," Vision Res. 41, 2581-2600 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Yang and S. K. Shevell, "Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy," J. Vision 3, 369-379 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Does human color constancy incorporate the statistical regularity of natural daylight?" J. Vision 4, 57-81 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Color constancy under changes in reflected illumination," J. Vision 4, 764-778 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Johnston and W. Curran, "Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects," Vision Res. 36, 2827-2835 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Ward Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Tumblin and H. Rushmeier, "Tone reproduction for realistic images," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 13, 42-48 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Myszkowski and T. L. Kunii, "A case study towards validation of global illumination algorithms: progressive hierarchical radiosity with clustering," Visual Comput. 16, 271-288 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Drago and K. Myszkowski, "Validation proposal for global illumination and rendering techniques," Comput. Graph. 25, 511-518 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Khodulev and E. Kopylov, "Physically accurate lighting simulation in computer graphics software," presented at the Sixth International Conference on Computer Graphics and Visualization, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1-5 July 1996; http://www.keldysh.ru/pages/cgraph/articles/pals/.
  18. G. W. Meyer, H. E. Rushmeier, M. F. Cohen, D. P. Greenberg, and K. E. Torrance, "An experimental evaluation of computer graphics imagery," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 30-50 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Takagi, H. Takaoka, T. Oshima, and Y. Ogata, "Accurate rendering technique based on colorimetric conception," Comput. Graph. 24, 263-272 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Mardaljevic, "Validation of a lighting simulation program under real sky conditions," Light. Res. Technol. 27, 181-188 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. G. Roy, "A comparative study of lighting simulation packages suitable for use in architectural design," School of Engineering, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia(2000); http://eng.murdoch.edu.au/FTPsite/LightSim.pdf.
  22. We will refer to the software package RADIANCE in capital letters and to the physical quantity radiance [W/(sr m2)] in small letters.
  23. G. J. Ward, "The RADIANCE lighting simulation and rendering system," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 94 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 459-472.
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Rushmeier, G. Ward, C. Piatko, P. Sanders, and B. Rust, "Comparing real and synthetic images: some ideas about metrics," in Rendering Techniques '95: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, P.Hanrahan and W.Purgathofer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 82-91.
  25. A. McNamara, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko, and E. Reinhard, "Fidelity of graphics reconstructions: a psychophysical investigation," in Rendering Techniques '98: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, G.Drettakis and N.L.Max, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 237-246.
  26. K. Mania, T. Troscianko, R. Hawkes, and A. Chalmers, "Fidelity metrics for virtual environment simulations based on spatial memory awareness states," Presence, Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 12, 296-310 (2003).
  27. K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and I. C. Pasini, "Toward the accuracy of lighting simulations in physically based computer graphics software," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 28, 117-129 (1999).
  28. M. S. Rea, The IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th ed. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2000).
  29. G. Ward Larson and R. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance: The Art and Science of Lighting Visualization (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).
  30. We compared simulation results for different numbers of light bounces, i.e., changing the parameter −ab, and found no difference between three and more bounces.
  31. S. A. Shafer, "Shape recovery from interreflection," in Physics-Based Vision: Principles and Practice: Shape Recovery, L.B.Wolff, S.A.Shafer, and G.E.Healey, eds. (Jones and Bartlett, 1992), pp. 303-304.
  32. M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, "A standard default color space for the internet--sRGB," Version 1.10 (1996); http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB.
  33. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2000).
  34. J. J. Vos, "Colorimetric and photometric properties of a2-deg fundamental observer," Color Res. Appl. 3, 125-128 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  35. See http://www.cvrl.org/database/text/cmfs/ciexyzjv.htm.
  36. M. Stokes, M. D. Fairchild, and R. S. Berns, "Precision requirements for digital color reproduction," ACM Trans. Graphics 11, 406-422 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  37. N. A. Macmillan and C. D. Creelman, Detection Theory: A User's Guide (Cambridge U. Press, 1991).
  38. G. Wyszecki and G. H. Fielder, "Color-difference matches," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1501-1513 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. D. H. Brainard, "The Psychophysics Toolbox," Spatial Vis. 10, 433-436 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. Hall, "Comparing spectral color computation methods," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 36-45 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  41. G. W. Meyer, "Wavelength selection for synthetic image generation," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 41, 57-79 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  42. C. F. Borges, "Trichromatic approximation for computer graphics illumination models," Comput. Graph. 25, 101-104 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  43. M. S. Peercy, "Linear color representation for full spectral rendering," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 191-198.
    [CrossRef]
  44. G. M. Johnson and M. D. Fairchild, "Full-spectral color calculations in realistic image synthesis," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 47-53 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  45. M. S. Drew and G. D. Finlayson, "Multispectral processing without spectra," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1181-1193 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  46. D. H. Brainard, "Color appearance and color difference specification," in The Science of Color, 2nd ed., S.K.Shevell, ed. (OSA and Elsevier Science, 2003), pp. 191-216.
    [CrossRef]
  47. See http://spectral.joensuu.fi/databases/index.html.
  48. J. M. Kraft and D. H. Brainard, "Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 307-312 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. S. M. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, and K. Amano, "Psychophysical estimates of the number of spec-tral-reflectance basis functions needed to reproduce natural scenes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1017-1022 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  50. J. A. Ferwerda, "Hi-Fi rendering," presented at the Perceptually Adaptive Graphics Preconference Proceedings, Snowbird, Utah, 26-29 May 2001; http://isg.cs.tcd.ie/campfire/jimferwerda2.html.
  51. D. Travis, Effective Color Displays (Academic, 1991).
  52. J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, and J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

2005

2004

H. Boyaci, K. Doerschner, and L. T. Maloney, "Perceived surface color in binocularly viewed scenes with two light sources differing in chromaticity," J. Vision 4, 664-679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, "Human observers compensate for secondary illumination originating in nearby chromatic surfaces," J. Vision 4, 92-105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fleming, A. Torralba, and E. H. Adelson, "Specular reflections and the perception of shape," J. Vision 4, 798-820 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Does human color constancy incorporate the statistical regularity of natural daylight?" J. Vision 4, 57-81 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Color constancy under changes in reflected illumination," J. Vision 4, 764-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, and S. Hersh, "The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes," J. Vision 3, 541-553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang and S. K. Shevell, "Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy," J. Vision 3, 369-379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, "Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties," J. Vision 3, 347-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Drew and G. D. Finlayson, "Multispectral processing without spectra," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1181-1193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. N. Yang and L. T. Maloney, "Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three candidate cues," Vision Res. 41, 2581-2600 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Drago and K. Myszkowski, "Validation proposal for global illumination and rendering techniques," Comput. Graph. 25, 511-518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Myszkowski and T. L. Kunii, "A case study towards validation of global illumination algorithms: progressive hierarchical radiosity with clustering," Visual Comput. 16, 271-288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and I. C. Pasini, "Toward the accuracy of lighting simulations in physically based computer graphics software," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 28, 117-129 (1999).

R. Hall, "Comparing spectral color computation methods," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 36-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Johnson and M. D. Fairchild, "Full-spectral color calculations in realistic image synthesis," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 47-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kraft and D. H. Brainard, "Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 307-312 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

D. H. Brainard, "The Psychophysics Toolbox," Spatial Vis. 10, 433-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Ward Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Johnston and W. Curran, "Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects," Vision Res. 36, 2827-2835 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

J. Mardaljevic, "Validation of a lighting simulation program under real sky conditions," Light. Res. Technol. 27, 181-188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. Tumblin and H. Rushmeier, "Tone reproduction for realistic images," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 13, 42-48 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Stokes, M. D. Fairchild, and R. S. Berns, "Precision requirements for digital color reproduction," ACM Trans. Graphics 11, 406-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. F. Borges, "Trichromatic approximation for computer graphics illumination models," Comput. Graph. 25, 101-104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Takagi, H. Takaoka, T. Oshima, and Y. Ogata, "Accurate rendering technique based on colorimetric conception," Comput. Graph. 24, 263-272 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. W. Meyer, "Wavelength selection for synthetic image generation," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 41, 57-79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. W. Meyer, H. E. Rushmeier, M. F. Cohen, D. P. Greenberg, and K. E. Torrance, "An experimental evaluation of computer graphics imagery," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 30-50 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. J. Vos, "Colorimetric and photometric properties of a2-deg fundamental observer," Color Res. Appl. 3, 125-128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971

Adelson, E. H.

R. W. Fleming, A. Torralba, and E. H. Adelson, "Specular reflections and the perception of shape," J. Vision 4, 798-820 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, "Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties," J. Vision 3, 347-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amano, K.

Anderson, M.

M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, "A standard default color space for the internet--sRGB," Version 1.10 (1996); http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB.

Arvo, J.

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

M. Stokes, M. D. Fairchild, and R. S. Berns, "Precision requirements for digital color reproduction," ACM Trans. Graphics 11, 406-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Borges, C. F.

C. F. Borges, "Trichromatic approximation for computer graphics illumination models," Comput. Graph. 25, 101-104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boyaci, H.

H. Boyaci, K. Doerschner, and L. T. Maloney, "Perceived surface color in binocularly viewed scenes with two light sources differing in chromaticity," J. Vision 4, 664-679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, "Human observers compensate for secondary illumination originating in nearby chromatic surfaces," J. Vision 4, 92-105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, and S. Hersh, "The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes," J. Vision 3, 541-553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Does human color constancy incorporate the statistical regularity of natural daylight?" J. Vision 4, 57-81 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Color constancy under changes in reflected illumination," J. Vision 4, 764-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kraft and D. H. Brainard, "Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 307-312 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Brainard, "The Psychophysics Toolbox," Spatial Vis. 10, 433-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, "Color appearance and color difference specification," in The Science of Color, 2nd ed., S.K.Shevell, ed. (OSA and Elsevier Science, 2003), pp. 191-216.
[CrossRef]

Chalmers, A.

A. McNamara, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko, and E. Reinhard, "Fidelity of graphics reconstructions: a psychophysical investigation," in Rendering Techniques '98: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, G.Drettakis and N.L.Max, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 237-246.

K. Mania, T. Troscianko, R. Hawkes, and A. Chalmers, "Fidelity metrics for virtual environment simulations based on spatial memory awareness states," Presence, Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 12, 296-310 (2003).

Chandrasekar, S.

M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, "A standard default color space for the internet--sRGB," Version 1.10 (1996); http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB.

Cohen, M. F.

G. W. Meyer, H. E. Rushmeier, M. F. Cohen, D. P. Greenberg, and K. E. Torrance, "An experimental evaluation of computer graphics imagery," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 30-50 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Creelman, C. D.

N. A. Macmillan and C. D. Creelman, Detection Theory: A User's Guide (Cambridge U. Press, 1991).

Curran, W.

A. Johnston and W. Curran, "Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects," Vision Res. 36, 2827-2835 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delahunt, P. B.

P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Does human color constancy incorporate the statistical regularity of natural daylight?" J. Vision 4, 57-81 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Color constancy under changes in reflected illumination," J. Vision 4, 764-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doerschner, K.

H. Boyaci, K. Doerschner, and L. T. Maloney, "Perceived surface color in binocularly viewed scenes with two light sources differing in chromaticity," J. Vision 4, 664-679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, "Human observers compensate for secondary illumination originating in nearby chromatic surfaces," J. Vision 4, 92-105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drago, F.

F. Drago and K. Myszkowski, "Validation proposal for global illumination and rendering techniques," Comput. Graph. 25, 511-518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drew, M. S.

Dror, R. O.

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, "Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties," J. Vision 3, 347-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fairchild, M. D.

G. M. Johnson and M. D. Fairchild, "Full-spectral color calculations in realistic image synthesis," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 47-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Stokes, M. D. Fairchild, and R. S. Berns, "Precision requirements for digital color reproduction," ACM Trans. Graphics 11, 406-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feiner, S. K.

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, and J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

Ferwerda, J. A.

J. A. Ferwerda, "Hi-Fi rendering," presented at the Perceptually Adaptive Graphics Preconference Proceedings, Snowbird, Utah, 26-29 May 2001; http://isg.cs.tcd.ie/campfire/jimferwerda2.html.

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Fielder, G. H.

Finlayson, G. D.

Fleming, R. W.

R. W. Fleming, A. Torralba, and E. H. Adelson, "Specular reflections and the perception of shape," J. Vision 4, 798-820 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, "Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties," J. Vision 3, 347-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foley, J. D.

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, and J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

Foo, S.-C.

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Foster, D. H.

Ghosh, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, D. P.

G. W. Meyer, H. E. Rushmeier, M. F. Cohen, D. P. Greenberg, and K. E. Torrance, "An experimental evaluation of computer graphics imagery," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 30-50 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Hall, R.

R. Hall, "Comparing spectral color computation methods," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 36-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hawkes, R.

K. Mania, T. Troscianko, R. Hawkes, and A. Chalmers, "Fidelity metrics for virtual environment simulations based on spatial memory awareness states," Presence, Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 12, 296-310 (2003).

Heidrich, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hersh, S.

H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, and S. Hersh, "The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes," J. Vision 3, 541-553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Houser, K. W.

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and I. C. Pasini, "Toward the accuracy of lighting simulations in physically based computer graphics software," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 28, 117-129 (1999).

Hughes, J. F.

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, and J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

Johnson, G. M.

G. M. Johnson and M. D. Fairchild, "Full-spectral color calculations in realistic image synthesis," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 47-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, A.

A. Johnston and W. Curran, "Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects," Vision Res. 36, 2827-2835 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khodulev, A.

A. Khodulev and E. Kopylov, "Physically accurate lighting simulation in computer graphics software," presented at the Sixth International Conference on Computer Graphics and Visualization, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1-5 July 1996; http://www.keldysh.ru/pages/cgraph/articles/pals/.

Kopylov, E.

A. Khodulev and E. Kopylov, "Physically accurate lighting simulation in computer graphics software," presented at the Sixth International Conference on Computer Graphics and Visualization, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1-5 July 1996; http://www.keldysh.ru/pages/cgraph/articles/pals/.

Kraft, J. M.

J. M. Kraft and D. H. Brainard, "Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 307-312 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunii, T. L.

K. Myszkowski and T. L. Kunii, "A case study towards validation of global illumination algorithms: progressive hierarchical radiosity with clustering," Visual Comput. 16, 271-288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lafortune, E.

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Macmillan, N. A.

N. A. Macmillan and C. D. Creelman, Detection Theory: A User's Guide (Cambridge U. Press, 1991).

Maloney, L. T.

H. Boyaci, K. Doerschner, and L. T. Maloney, "Perceived surface color in binocularly viewed scenes with two light sources differing in chromaticity," J. Vision 4, 664-679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, "Human observers compensate for secondary illumination originating in nearby chromatic surfaces," J. Vision 4, 92-105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, and S. Hersh, "The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes," J. Vision 3, 541-553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Yang and L. T. Maloney, "Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three candidate cues," Vision Res. 41, 2581-2600 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mania, K.

K. Mania, T. Troscianko, R. Hawkes, and A. Chalmers, "Fidelity metrics for virtual environment simulations based on spatial memory awareness states," Presence, Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 12, 296-310 (2003).

Mardaljevic, J.

J. Mardaljevic, "Validation of a lighting simulation program under real sky conditions," Light. Res. Technol. 27, 181-188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McNamara, A.

A. McNamara, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko, and E. Reinhard, "Fidelity of graphics reconstructions: a psychophysical investigation," in Rendering Techniques '98: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, G.Drettakis and N.L.Max, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 237-246.

Meyer, G. W.

G. W. Meyer, "Wavelength selection for synthetic image generation," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 41, 57-79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Meyer, H. E. Rushmeier, M. F. Cohen, D. P. Greenberg, and K. E. Torrance, "An experimental evaluation of computer graphics imagery," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 30-50 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Motta, R.

M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, "A standard default color space for the internet--sRGB," Version 1.10 (1996); http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB.

Myszkowski, K.

F. Drago and K. Myszkowski, "Validation proposal for global illumination and rendering techniques," Comput. Graph. 25, 511-518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Myszkowski and T. L. Kunii, "A case study towards validation of global illumination algorithms: progressive hierarchical radiosity with clustering," Visual Comput. 16, 271-288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nascimento, S. M.

Ogata, Y.

A. Takagi, H. Takaoka, T. Oshima, and Y. Ogata, "Accurate rendering technique based on colorimetric conception," Comput. Graph. 24, 263-272 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, T.

A. Takagi, H. Takaoka, T. Oshima, and Y. Ogata, "Accurate rendering technique based on colorimetric conception," Comput. Graph. 24, 263-272 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pasini, I. C.

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and I. C. Pasini, "Toward the accuracy of lighting simulations in physically based computer graphics software," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 28, 117-129 (1999).

Pattanaik, S.

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Peercy, M. S.

M. S. Peercy, "Linear color representation for full spectral rendering," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 191-198.
[CrossRef]

Piatko, C.

G. Ward Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Rushmeier, G. Ward, C. Piatko, P. Sanders, and B. Rust, "Comparing real and synthetic images: some ideas about metrics," in Rendering Techniques '95: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, P.Hanrahan and W.Purgathofer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 82-91.

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea, The IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th ed. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2000).

Reinhard, E.

A. McNamara, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko, and E. Reinhard, "Fidelity of graphics reconstructions: a psychophysical investigation," in Rendering Techniques '98: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, G.Drettakis and N.L.Max, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 237-246.

Roy, G. G.

G. G. Roy, "A comparative study of lighting simulation packages suitable for use in architectural design," School of Engineering, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia(2000); http://eng.murdoch.edu.au/FTPsite/LightSim.pdf.

Rushmeier, H.

G. Ward Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Tumblin and H. Rushmeier, "Tone reproduction for realistic images," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 13, 42-48 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Rushmeier, G. Ward, C. Piatko, P. Sanders, and B. Rust, "Comparing real and synthetic images: some ideas about metrics," in Rendering Techniques '95: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, P.Hanrahan and W.Purgathofer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 82-91.

Rushmeier, H. E.

G. W. Meyer, H. E. Rushmeier, M. F. Cohen, D. P. Greenberg, and K. E. Torrance, "An experimental evaluation of computer graphics imagery," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 30-50 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rust, B.

H. Rushmeier, G. Ward, C. Piatko, P. Sanders, and B. Rust, "Comparing real and synthetic images: some ideas about metrics," in Rendering Techniques '95: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, P.Hanrahan and W.Purgathofer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 82-91.

Sanders, P.

H. Rushmeier, G. Ward, C. Piatko, P. Sanders, and B. Rust, "Comparing real and synthetic images: some ideas about metrics," in Rendering Techniques '95: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, P.Hanrahan and W.Purgathofer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 82-91.

Seetzen, H.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shafer, S. A.

S. A. Shafer, "Shape recovery from interreflection," in Physics-Based Vision: Principles and Practice: Shape Recovery, L.B.Wolff, S.A.Shafer, and G.E.Healey, eds. (Jones and Bartlett, 1992), pp. 303-304.

Shakespeare, R.

G. Ward Larson and R. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance: The Art and Science of Lighting Visualization (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

Shevell, S. K.

J. Yang and S. K. Shevell, "Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy," J. Vision 3, 369-379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, P.

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Stokes, M.

M. Stokes, M. D. Fairchild, and R. S. Berns, "Precision requirements for digital color reproduction," ACM Trans. Graphics 11, 406-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, "A standard default color space for the internet--sRGB," Version 1.10 (1996); http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB.

Stuerzlinger, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, A.

A. Takagi, H. Takaoka, T. Oshima, and Y. Ogata, "Accurate rendering technique based on colorimetric conception," Comput. Graph. 24, 263-272 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takaoka, H.

A. Takagi, H. Takaoka, T. Oshima, and Y. Ogata, "Accurate rendering technique based on colorimetric conception," Comput. Graph. 24, 263-272 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tiller, D. K.

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and I. C. Pasini, "Toward the accuracy of lighting simulations in physically based computer graphics software," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 28, 117-129 (1999).

Torralba, A.

R. W. Fleming, A. Torralba, and E. H. Adelson, "Specular reflections and the perception of shape," J. Vision 4, 798-820 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torrance, K. E.

G. W. Meyer, H. E. Rushmeier, M. F. Cohen, D. P. Greenberg, and K. E. Torrance, "An experimental evaluation of computer graphics imagery," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 30-50 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Travis, D.

D. Travis, Effective Color Displays (Academic, 1991).

Trentacoste, M.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Troscianko, T.

K. Mania, T. Troscianko, R. Hawkes, and A. Chalmers, "Fidelity metrics for virtual environment simulations based on spatial memory awareness states," Presence, Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 12, 296-310 (2003).

A. McNamara, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko, and E. Reinhard, "Fidelity of graphics reconstructions: a psychophysical investigation," in Rendering Techniques '98: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, G.Drettakis and N.L.Max, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 237-246.

Trumbore, B.

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Tumblin, J.

J. Tumblin and H. Rushmeier, "Tone reproduction for realistic images," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 13, 42-48 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, A.

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, and J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

Vorozcovs, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, "Colorimetric and photometric properties of a2-deg fundamental observer," Color Res. Appl. 3, 125-128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Walter, B.

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

Ward, G.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rushmeier, G. Ward, C. Piatko, P. Sanders, and B. Rust, "Comparing real and synthetic images: some ideas about metrics," in Rendering Techniques '95: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, P.Hanrahan and W.Purgathofer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 82-91.

Ward, G. J.

G. J. Ward, "The RADIANCE lighting simulation and rendering system," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 94 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 459-472.
[CrossRef]

Ward Larson, G.

G. Ward Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Ward Larson and R. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance: The Art and Science of Lighting Visualization (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

Whitehead, L.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

Yang, J.

J. Yang and S. K. Shevell, "Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy," J. Vision 3, 369-379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. N.

J. N. Yang and L. T. Maloney, "Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three candidate cues," Vision Res. 41, 2581-2600 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACM Trans. Graphics

G. W. Meyer, H. E. Rushmeier, M. F. Cohen, D. P. Greenberg, and K. E. Torrance, "An experimental evaluation of computer graphics imagery," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 30-50 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 760-768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stokes, M. D. Fairchild, and R. S. Berns, "Precision requirements for digital color reproduction," ACM Trans. Graphics 11, 406-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl.

J. J. Vos, "Colorimetric and photometric properties of a2-deg fundamental observer," Color Res. Appl. 3, 125-128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Graph.

F. Drago and K. Myszkowski, "Validation proposal for global illumination and rendering techniques," Comput. Graph. 25, 511-518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, H. Takaoka, T. Oshima, and Y. Ogata, "Accurate rendering technique based on colorimetric conception," Comput. Graph. 24, 263-272 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Borges, "Trichromatic approximation for computer graphics illumination models," Comput. Graph. 25, 101-104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process.

G. W. Meyer, "Wavelength selection for synthetic image generation," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 41, 57-79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl.

R. Hall, "Comparing spectral color computation methods," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 36-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Johnson and M. D. Fairchild, "Full-spectral color calculations in realistic image synthesis," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 19, 47-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Tumblin and H. Rushmeier, "Tone reproduction for realistic images," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 13, 42-48 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.

G. Ward Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Illum. Eng. Soc.

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and I. C. Pasini, "Toward the accuracy of lighting simulations in physically based computer graphics software," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 28, 117-129 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vision

H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, and S. Hersh, "The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes," J. Vision 3, 541-553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Boyaci, K. Doerschner, and L. T. Maloney, "Perceived surface color in binocularly viewed scenes with two light sources differing in chromaticity," J. Vision 4, 664-679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, "Human observers compensate for secondary illumination originating in nearby chromatic surfaces," J. Vision 4, 92-105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, "Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties," J. Vision 3, 347-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fleming, A. Torralba, and E. H. Adelson, "Specular reflections and the perception of shape," J. Vision 4, 798-820 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang and S. K. Shevell, "Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy," J. Vision 3, 369-379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Does human color constancy incorporate the statistical regularity of natural daylight?" J. Vision 4, 57-81 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, "Color constancy under changes in reflected illumination," J. Vision 4, 764-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Light. Res. Technol.

J. Mardaljevic, "Validation of a lighting simulation program under real sky conditions," Light. Res. Technol. 27, 181-188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

J. M. Kraft and D. H. Brainard, "Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 307-312 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spatial Vis.

D. H. Brainard, "The Psychophysics Toolbox," Spatial Vis. 10, 433-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

A. Johnston and W. Curran, "Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects," Vision Res. 36, 2827-2835 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Yang and L. T. Maloney, "Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three candidate cues," Vision Res. 41, 2581-2600 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visual Comput.

K. Myszkowski and T. L. Kunii, "A case study towards validation of global illumination algorithms: progressive hierarchical radiosity with clustering," Visual Comput. 16, 271-288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. A. Macmillan and C. D. Creelman, Detection Theory: A User's Guide (Cambridge U. Press, 1991).

A. Khodulev and E. Kopylov, "Physically accurate lighting simulation in computer graphics software," presented at the Sixth International Conference on Computer Graphics and Visualization, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1-5 July 1996; http://www.keldysh.ru/pages/cgraph/articles/pals/.

See http://www.cvrl.org/database/text/cmfs/ciexyzjv.htm.

M. S. Rea, The IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th ed. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2000).

G. Ward Larson and R. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance: The Art and Science of Lighting Visualization (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

We compared simulation results for different numbers of light bounces, i.e., changing the parameter −ab, and found no difference between three and more bounces.

S. A. Shafer, "Shape recovery from interreflection," in Physics-Based Vision: Principles and Practice: Shape Recovery, L.B.Wolff, S.A.Shafer, and G.E.Healey, eds. (Jones and Bartlett, 1992), pp. 303-304.

M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, "A standard default color space for the internet--sRGB," Version 1.10 (1996); http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

D. P. Greenberg, S.-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, E. Lafortune, J. A. Ferwerda, B. Walter, B. Trumbore, and S. Pattanaik, "A framework for realistic image synthesis," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1997), pp. 477-494.
[CrossRef]

G. G. Roy, "A comparative study of lighting simulation packages suitable for use in architectural design," School of Engineering, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia(2000); http://eng.murdoch.edu.au/FTPsite/LightSim.pdf.

We will refer to the software package RADIANCE in capital letters and to the physical quantity radiance [W/(sr m2)] in small letters.

G. J. Ward, "The RADIANCE lighting simulation and rendering system," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 94 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 459-472.
[CrossRef]

H. Rushmeier, G. Ward, C. Piatko, P. Sanders, and B. Rust, "Comparing real and synthetic images: some ideas about metrics," in Rendering Techniques '95: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, P.Hanrahan and W.Purgathofer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 82-91.

A. McNamara, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko, and E. Reinhard, "Fidelity of graphics reconstructions: a psychophysical investigation," in Rendering Techniques '98: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, G.Drettakis and N.L.Max, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 237-246.

K. Mania, T. Troscianko, R. Hawkes, and A. Chalmers, "Fidelity metrics for virtual environment simulations based on spatial memory awareness states," Presence, Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 12, 296-310 (2003).

J. A. Ferwerda, "Hi-Fi rendering," presented at the Perceptually Adaptive Graphics Preconference Proceedings, Snowbird, Utah, 26-29 May 2001; http://isg.cs.tcd.ie/campfire/jimferwerda2.html.

D. Travis, Effective Color Displays (Academic, 1991).

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, and J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1992).

M. S. Peercy, "Linear color representation for full spectral rendering," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 191-198.
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, "Color appearance and color difference specification," in The Science of Color, 2nd ed., S.K.Shevell, ed. (OSA and Elsevier Science, 2003), pp. 191-216.
[CrossRef]

See http://spectral.joensuu.fi/databases/index.html.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: Photograph of the lighting booth in which the simple and complex scenes were set up. The measurements were taken with a spectroradiometer. Middle and right: Sketch of the simple and complex illumination scenes. In the simple illumination scene the surface of the Macbeth ColorChecker was illuminated by a single spotlight at 0 deg and the color signal was measured at 45 deg . In the complex illumination scene the surface of a green card was illuminated by two spotlights at 0 deg . The light bouncing off the green card created a green gradient on the white cylinder. The color signal of the cylinder was measured.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: Example of the N-step algorithm. The reflectance spectrum (Original, dashed curve) is approximated either by 3 (black curve), 9 (dark gray curve), or 27 (light gray curve) steps. Right: CIE x , y chromaticity measurement of the simple (filled symbols) and the complex illumination (open symbols) scenes. The line connecting the open symbols represents all the chromaticity values that were measured along the gradient.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left: Relative root-mean-square ( rms rel ) luminance error for the simple and complex illumination scenes for different color-coding schemes. Right: Mean CIELAB Δ E for the simple ( n = 4 ) and complex illumination scenes ( n = 21 ) for different color-coding schemes. Bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top panels: CIE x , y chromaticity results for the WHITE and RED scenes with RGB (filled squares), sRGB (open squares), and N-step coding (open diamonds). The measured value is labeled with ORIG (filled circles). The inset enlarges the area close to the measured value. Bottom panels: CIE x , y chromaticity results for the GREEN and BLUE scenes. Symbols are the same as in the top panels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left: Temporal composition of a single trial in the perceptual experiment, starting with a fixation display for 1000 ms , followed by the pie display for 300 ms , and terminated with another fixation display until the observer responded. The odd stimulus in this example is the left pie piece. Right: Results of the perceptual experiment expressed as d values (left y axis) and percent correct (right y axis) averaged across all observers. Each bar represents 144 trials ( 36 trials × 4 observers ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left: CIE x , y chromaticity profile recovery of the complex illumination scene for different color-coding schemes. Arrows indicate the chromaticity where the cylinder touches the green card ( 0 cm ) . Right: Luminance profile recovery of the complex illumination scene for different color-coding schemes. Arrow indicates the luminance where the cylinder touches the green card ( 0 cm ) .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: Mean rms recovery error for 219 color signals from Munsell matt chips and natural spectra with a fluorescent light source. The mean rms error is normalized to 1 for the one-step approximation. Right: Accordingly for a D65 light source.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

rms rel = i = 1 n ( 1 S i M i ) 2 n .
rms = i = 1 n ( S i M i ) 2 n ;
S i = i th simulation result ,
M i = i th measurement .
X = k S ( λ ) x ( λ ) d λ ,
Y = k S ( λ ) y ( λ ) d λ ,
Z = k S ( λ ) z ( λ ) d λ .
x = X ( X + Y + Z ) ,
y = Y ( X + Y + Z ) .

Metrics