Abstract

The circadian and visual-performance-based mesopic systems of photometry were applied for the optimization of the spectral power distributions (SPDs) of the solid-state sources of light for low-illuminance lighting applications. At mesopic adaptation luminances typical of outdoor lighting (0.12cd/m2), the optimal SPDs were obtained through the minimization of the mesopic circadian action factor, which is the ratio of the circadian efficacy of radiation to mesopic luminous efficacy of radiation. For correlated color temperatures below 3000K, the optimized dichromatic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are shown to pose a lower circadian hazard than high-pressure sodium lamps and common warm white LEDs; also they are potentially more efficacious and have acceptable color rendition properties under mesopic conditions.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Holonyak, “Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?” Am. J. Phys. 68, 864–866 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Taguchi, Y. Uchida, T. Setomoto, and K. Kobashi, “Application of white LED lighting to energy-saving type street lamps,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 7–12 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, “LEDs: a promising energy-saving light source for road lighting,” in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2798–2800.
  4. P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, “Exploring user-centered intelligent road lighting design: a road map and future research directions,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788–793 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Žukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).
  8. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).
  10. K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. M. Pauley, “Lighting for human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has became a public health issue,” Med. Hypotheses 63, 588–596 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. J. M. van Bommel, “Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work,” Appl. Ergon. 37, 461–466 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. R. Webb, “Considerations for lighting in the built environment: non-visual effects of light,” Energy Build. 38, 721–727 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, “Lighting in indoor environments: visual and non-visual effects of light sources with different spectral power distributions,” Build. Environ. 46, 1984–1992 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. P. Wright, R. J. Hughes, R. E. Kronauer, D.-J. Dijk, and C. A. Czeisler, “Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14027–14032 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Glickman, R. Levin, and G. C. Brainard, “Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer,” Neuroendocrinol. Lett. 23, 17–22 (2008).
  19. D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714–2722 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Gall and V. Lapuente, “Beleuchtungsrelevante Aspekte bei der Auswahl eines förderlichen Lampenspektrums,” Licht 54, 860–871 (2002).
  22. D. Gall and K. Bieske, “Definition and measurement of circadian radiometric quantities,” in Proceedings of the CIE Symposium ’04 on Light and Health: Non-Visual Effects (CIE, 2004), pp. 129–132.
  23. M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian photobiology: an emerging framework for lighting practice and research,” Lighting Res. Technol. 34, 177–190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Kozakov, H. Schöpp, St. Franke, C. Stoll, and D. Kunz, “Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action,” J. Phys. D 43, 234007 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Lang, “Energy efficient illumination for the biological clock,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795402 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Lang, “Blue enhanced light sources opportunities and risks,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827803 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234–236 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, “Recommended system for mesopic photometry based on visual performance,” Pub. CIE 191:2010.
  31. M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 85–111 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Gall, “Circadiane Lichtgrößen und deren messtechnische Ermittlung,” Licht 54, 1292–1297 (2002).
  34. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 2000).
  35. H. W. Leverenz, “Optimum efficiency conditions for white luminescent screens in kinescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 309–315 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. K. Ridley, Quantum Processes in Semiconductors (Oxford University, 2006).
  37. M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1691–1703 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. G. Blasse and A. Brill, “Investigation of some Ce3+-astivated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5139–5145 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. K. Park, K. J. Choi, K. N. Kim, and C. H. Kim, “Investigation of strontium silicate yellow phosphors for white light emitting diodes from a combinatorial chemistry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. Kozakov, S. Franke, and H. Schöpp, “Approach to an effective biological spectrum of a light source,” Leukos 4, 255–263 (2008).
  41. W. R. J. Brown, “The influence of luminance level on visual sensitivity to color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 684–688 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  42. Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, “Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources,” Pub. CIE 13.3:1995.
  43. D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to color differences in daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  44. R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186–197 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  45. H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  46. A. A. Kruithof, “Tabular luminescence lamps for general illumination,” Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65–73 (1941).

2012 (2)

D. Lang, “Blue enhanced light sources opportunities and risks,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Lang, “Energy efficient illumination for the biological clock,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, “Exploring user-centered intelligent road lighting design: a road map and future research directions,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788–793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, “Lighting in indoor environments: visual and non-visual effects of light sources with different spectral power distributions,” Build. Environ. 46, 1984–1992 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714–2722 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. Kozakov, H. Schöpp, St. Franke, C. Stoll, and D. Kunz, “Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action,” J. Phys. D 43, 234007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

G. Glickman, R. Levin, and G. C. Brainard, “Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer,” Neuroendocrinol. Lett. 23, 17–22 (2008).

R. Kozakov, S. Franke, and H. Schöpp, “Approach to an effective biological spectrum of a light source,” Leukos 4, 255–263 (2008).

2007 (2)

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

W. J. M. van Bommel, “Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work,” Appl. Ergon. 37, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Webb, “Considerations for lighting in the built environment: non-visual effects of light,” Energy Build. 38, 721–727 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. J. Choi, K. N. Kim, and C. H. Kim, “Investigation of strontium silicate yellow phosphors for white light emitting diodes from a combinatorial chemistry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186–197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Pauley, “Lighting for human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has became a public health issue,” Med. Hypotheses 63, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Gall and V. Lapuente, “Beleuchtungsrelevante Aspekte bei der Auswahl eines förderlichen Lampenspektrums,” Licht 54, 860–871 (2002).

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian photobiology: an emerging framework for lighting practice and research,” Lighting Res. Technol. 34, 177–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Gall, “Circadiane Lichtgrößen und deren messtechnische Ermittlung,” Licht 54, 1292–1297 (2002).

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

K. P. Wright, R. J. Hughes, R. E. Kronauer, D.-J. Dijk, and C. A. Czeisler, “Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14027–14032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Taguchi, Y. Uchida, T. Setomoto, and K. Kobashi, “Application of white LED lighting to energy-saving type street lamps,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Holonyak, “Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?” Am. J. Phys. 68, 864–866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

G. Blasse and A. Brill, “Investigation of some Ce3+-astivated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5139–5145 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

1942 (1)

1941 (1)

A. A. Kruithof, “Tabular luminescence lamps for general illumination,” Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65–73 (1941).

1940 (1)

Alferdinck, J.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arendt, J.

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Atici, Ç.

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, “Exploring user-centered intelligent road lighting design: a road map and future research directions,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788–793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, M. A.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

Bellia, L.

L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, “Lighting in indoor environments: visual and non-visual effects of light sources with different spectral power distributions,” Build. Environ. 46, 1984–1992 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berson, D. M.

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bierman, A.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bieske, K.

D. Gall and K. Bieske, “Definition and measurement of circadian radiometric quantities,” in Proceedings of the CIE Symposium ’04 on Light and Health: Non-Visual Effects (CIE, 2004), pp. 129–132.

Bisegna, F.

L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, “Lighting in indoor environments: visual and non-visual effects of light sources with different spectral power distributions,” Build. Environ. 46, 1984–1992 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blask, D. E.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse and A. Brill, “Investigation of some Ce3+-astivated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5139–5145 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bodrogi, P.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, C.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, G. C.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Glickman, R. Levin, and G. C. Brainard, “Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer,” Neuroendocrinol. Lett. 23, 17–22 (2008).

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Brill, A.

G. Blasse and A. Brill, “Investigation of some Ce3+-astivated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5139–5145 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. R. J.

Bullough, J. D.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian photobiology: an emerging framework for lighting practice and research,” Lighting Res. Technol. 34, 177–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, B.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Cecil, K. S.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

Cen, S.

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, “LEDs: a promising energy-saving light source for road lighting,” in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2798–2800.

Chen, Y.

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, “LEDs: a promising energy-saving light source for road lighting,” in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2798–2800.

Choi, K. J.

J. K. Park, K. J. Choi, K. N. Kim, and C. H. Kim, “Investigation of strontium silicate yellow phosphors for white light emitting diodes from a combinatorial chemistry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cinzano, P.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714–2722 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corell, D.

H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Czeisler, C. A.

K. P. Wright, R. J. Hughes, R. E. Kronauer, D.-J. Dijk, and C. A. Czeisler, “Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14027–14032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dam-Hansen, C.

H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dauchy, E.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dauchy, R. T.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dijk, D.-J.

K. P. Wright, R. J. Hughes, R. E. Kronauer, D.-J. Dijk, and C. A. Czeisler, “Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14027–14032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, F. A.

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duplessis, T.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eloholma, M.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elvidge, C. D.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714–2722 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Falchi, F.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714–2722 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Figueiro, M. G.

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian photobiology: an emerging framework for lighting practice and research,” Lighting Res. Technol. 34, 177–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, A.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franke, S.

R. Kozakov, S. Franke, and H. Schöpp, “Approach to an effective biological spectrum of a light source,” Leukos 4, 255–263 (2008).

Franke, St.

R. Kozakov, H. Schöpp, St. Franke, C. Stoll, and D. Kunz, “Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action,” J. Phys. D 43, 234007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freiding, A.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gall, D.

D. Gall, “Circadiane Lichtgrößen und deren messtechnische Ermittlung,” Licht 54, 1292–1297 (2002).

D. Gall and V. Lapuente, “Beleuchtungsrelevante Aspekte bei der Auswahl eines förderlichen Lampenspektrums,” Licht 54, 860–871 (2002).

D. Gall and K. Bieske, “Definition and measurement of circadian radiometric quantities,” in Proceedings of the CIE Symposium ’04 on Light and Health: Non-Visual Effects (CIE, 2004), pp. 129–132.

Gaska, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).

Gerner, E.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Glickman, G.

G. Glickman, R. Levin, and G. C. Brainard, “Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer,” Neuroendocrinol. Lett. 23, 17–22 (2008).

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Goodman, T.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greeson, J. M.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Haim, A.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714–2722 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Halonen, L.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanifin, J. P.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. M.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holonyak, N.

N. Holonyak, “Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?” Am. J. Phys. 68, 864–866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. J.

K. P. Wright, R. J. Hughes, R. E. Kronauer, D.-J. Dijk, and C. A. Czeisler, “Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14027–14032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jablonski, M. R.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

James, M.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keith, D. M.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714–2722 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. H.

J. K. Park, K. J. Choi, K. N. Kim, and C. H. Kim, “Investigation of strontium silicate yellow phosphors for white light emitting diodes from a combinatorial chemistry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. N.

J. K. Park, K. J. Choi, K. N. Kim, and C. H. Kim, “Investigation of strontium silicate yellow phosphors for white light emitting diodes from a combinatorial chemistry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobashi, K.

T. Taguchi, Y. Uchida, T. Setomoto, and K. Kobashi, “Application of white LED lighting to energy-saving type street lamps,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kozakov, R.

R. Kozakov, H. Schöpp, St. Franke, C. Stoll, and D. Kunz, “Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action,” J. Phys. D 43, 234007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Kozakov, S. Franke, and H. Schöpp, “Approach to an effective biological spectrum of a light source,” Leukos 4, 255–263 (2008).

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kronauer, R. E.

K. P. Wright, R. J. Hughes, R. E. Kronauer, D.-J. Dijk, and C. A. Czeisler, “Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14027–14032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kruithof, A. A.

A. A. Kruithof, “Tabular luminescence lamps for general illumination,” Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65–73 (1941).

Kunz, D.

R. Kozakov, H. Schöpp, St. Franke, C. Stoll, and D. Kunz, “Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action,” J. Phys. D 43, 234007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lang, D.

D. Lang, “Blue enhanced light sources opportunities and risks,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lang, “Energy efficient illumination for the biological clock,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lapuente, V.

D. Gall and V. Lapuente, “Beleuchtungsrelevante Aspekte bei der Auswahl eines förderlichen Lampenspektrums,” Licht 54, 860–871 (2002).

Leverenz, H. W.

Levin, R.

G. Glickman, R. Levin, and G. C. Brainard, “Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer,” Neuroendocrinol. Lett. 23, 17–22 (2008).

Li, F.

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, “LEDs: a promising energy-saving light source for road lighting,” in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2798–2800.

Li, X.

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, P.

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lukkien, J. J.

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, “Exploring user-centered intelligent road lighting design: a road map and future research directions,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788–793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

Maida, J.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

Mao, L.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melgosa, M.

R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186–197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Y.

H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Özçelebi, T.

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, “Exploring user-centered intelligent road lighting design: a road map and future research directions,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788–793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. K.

J. K. Park, K. J. Choi, K. N. Kim, and C. H. Kim, “Investigation of strontium silicate yellow phosphors for white light emitting diodes from a combinatorial chemistry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pauley, S. M.

S. M. Pauley, “Lighting for human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has became a public health issue,” Med. Hypotheses 63, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, P.-M.

H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Petrulis, A.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, P. B.

H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pridmore, R. W.

R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186–197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian photobiology: an emerging framework for lighting practice and research,” Lighting Res. Technol. 34, 177–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reklaitis, I.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, B. K.

B. K. Ridley, Quantum Processes in Semiconductors (Oxford University, 2006).

Rollag, M. D.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, L. A.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schöpp, H.

R. Kozakov, H. Schöpp, St. Franke, C. Stoll, and D. Kunz, “Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action,” J. Phys. D 43, 234007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Kozakov, S. Franke, and H. Schöpp, “Approach to an effective biological spectrum of a light source,” Leukos 4, 255–263 (2008).

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Setomoto, T.

T. Taguchi, Y. Uchida, T. Setomoto, and K. Kobashi, “Application of white LED lighting to energy-saving type street lamps,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).

Skene, D. J.

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D. H.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, “LEDs: a promising energy-saving light source for road lighting,” in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2798–2800.

Spada, G.

L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, “Lighting in indoor environments: visual and non-visual effects of light sources with different spectral power distributions,” Build. Environ. 46, 1984–1992 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stanikunas, R.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 2000).

Stoll, C.

R. Kozakov, H. Schöpp, St. Franke, C. Stoll, and D. Kunz, “Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action,” J. Phys. D 43, 234007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stonkus, A.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szamas, A.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

T. Taguchi, Y. Uchida, T. Setomoto, and K. Kobashi, “Application of white LED lighting to energy-saving type street lamps,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takao, M.

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thapan, K.

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tuzikas, A.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, Y.

T. Taguchi, Y. Uchida, T. Setomoto, and K. Kobashi, “Application of white LED lighting to energy-saving type street lamps,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Bommel, W. J. M.

W. J. M. van Bommel, “Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work,” Appl. Ergon. 37, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Varady, G.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vitta, P.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Walkey, H.

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warfield, B.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A. R.

A. R. Webb, “Considerations for lighting in the built environment: non-visual effects of light,” Energy Build. 38, 721–727 (2006).
[CrossRef]

West, K. E.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

Wright, K. P.

K. P. Wright, R. J. Hughes, R. E. Kronauer, D.-J. Dijk, and C. A. Czeisler, “Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14027–14032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 2000).

Xiang, S.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Žukauskas, A.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

N. Holonyak, “Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?” Am. J. Phys. 68, 864–866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Ergon. (1)

W. J. M. van Bommel, “Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work,” Appl. Ergon. 37, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. J. Choi, K. N. Kim, and C. H. Kim, “Investigation of strontium silicate yellow phosphors for white light emitting diodes from a combinatorial chemistry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Build. Environ. (1)

L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, “Lighting in indoor environments: visual and non-visual effects of light sources with different spectral power distributions,” Build. Environ. 46, 1984–1992 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186–197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Energy Build. (1)

A. R. Webb, “Considerations for lighting in the built environment: non-visual effects of light,” Energy Build. 38, 721–727 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, “Exploring user-centered intelligent road lighting design: a road map and future research directions,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788–793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626(2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. Blasse and A. Brill, “Investigation of some Ce3+-astivated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5139–5145 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Environ. Manage. (1)

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714–2722 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Phys. D (1)

R. Kozakov, H. Schöpp, St. Franke, C. Stoll, and D. Kunz, “Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action,” J. Phys. D 43, 234007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol. (1)

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Pineal Res. (1)

D. E. Blask, S. M. Hill, R. T. Dauchy, S. Xiang, L. Yuan, T. Duplessis, L. Mao, E. Dauchy, and L. A. Sauer, “Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night,” J. Pineal Res. 51, 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leukos (1)

R. Kozakov, S. Franke, and H. Schöpp, “Approach to an effective biological spectrum of a light source,” Leukos 4, 255–263 (2008).

Licht (2)

D. Gall and V. Lapuente, “Beleuchtungsrelevante Aspekte bei der Auswahl eines förderlichen Lampenspektrums,” Licht 54, 860–871 (2002).

D. Gall, “Circadiane Lichtgrößen und deren messtechnische Ermittlung,” Licht 54, 1292–1297 (2002).

Lighting Res. Technol. (3)

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Goodman, A. Forbes, H. Walkey, M. Eloholma, L. Halonen, J. Alferdinck, A. Freiding, P. Bodrogi, G. Varady, and A. Szamas, “Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications,” Lighting Res. Technol. 39, 365–392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian photobiology: an emerging framework for lighting practice and research,” Lighting Res. Technol. 34, 177–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Med. Hypotheses (1)

S. M. Pauley, “Lighting for human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has became a public health issue,” Med. Hypotheses 63, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neuroendocrinol. Lett. (1)

G. Glickman, R. Levin, and G. C. Brainard, “Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer,” Neuroendocrinol. Lett. 23, 17–22 (2008).

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

A. A. Kruithof, “Tabular luminescence lamps for general illumination,” Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65–73 (1941).

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

K. P. Wright, R. J. Hughes, R. E. Kronauer, D.-J. Dijk, and C. A. Czeisler, “Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14027–14032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, A. Petrulis, H. Vaitkevičius, and A. Žukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid-state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Taguchi, Y. Uchida, T. Setomoto, and K. Kobashi, “Application of white LED lighting to energy-saving type street lamps,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Lang, “Energy efficient illumination for the biological clock,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Lang, “Blue enhanced light sources opportunities and risks,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, S. Jin, Y. Wang, S. Cen, P. Liang, L. Wang, and X. Li, “The mesopic effect of different correlated color temperature LED light sources on road lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7991, 799106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, D. Corell, Y. Ou, P. B. Poulsen, C. Dam-Hansen, and P.-M. Petersen, “Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. Žukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, “LEDs: a promising energy-saving light source for road lighting,” in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2798–2800.

D. Gall and K. Bieske, “Definition and measurement of circadian radiometric quantities,” in Proceedings of the CIE Symposium ’04 on Light and Health: Non-Visual Effects (CIE, 2004), pp. 129–132.

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, “Recommended system for mesopic photometry based on visual performance,” Pub. CIE 191:2010.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 2000).

B. K. Ridley, Quantum Processes in Semiconductors (Oxford University, 2006).

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, “Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources,” Pub. CIE 13.3:1995.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photopic and scotopic luminous efficiency functions (bold solid lines), mesopic luminous efficiency functions for different MALs [30] (thin solid curves), and circadian action function [33] (dashed curve).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mesopic LER (a), CER (b), mesopic CAF (c), long-wavelength component peak position (d), and short-wavelength component relative radiant power (e), as functions of the short-wavelength component peak position for the SPD composed of two 30 nm wide bands at a MAL of 0.3cd/m2. The solid, dashed, dotted, and dash-dotted curves show data for CCTs of 2000, 3000, 4500, and 6500 K, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mesopic LER (a) and mesopic CAF (b) as functions of the short-wavelength component peak position for the SPDs composed of two 30 nm wide bands at a CCT of 3000 K. The solid, dashed, dotted, dash-dotted, dash-dot-dotted, bold dashed, and bold solid curves show the data for MALs of 0.005, 0.015, 0.05, 0.15, 0.5, 1.5, and 5cd/m2, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mesopic CAF (a) and (f), mesopic LER (b) and (g), short-wavelength component peak position (c) and (h), long-wavelength component peak position (d) and (i), and short-wavelength component relative radiant power (e) and (j) as functions of MAL for the PCP LEDs with minimized mesopic CAF (solid curves) and maximized mesopic LER (dashed curves) for CCTs of 2000 K (a–e) and 3000 K (f–j), respectively. Solid and open circles, mesopic LER and mesopic CAF for HPS lamp (a) and (b) and common warm white LED (f) and (g), respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Model SPDs of the PCP LEDs optimized for a MAL of 0.3cd/m2 (bold curves) compared to SPDs of common light sources (thin curves). (a) Optimized firelight LED versus HPS lamp and (b) optimized warm white LED versus common commercial warm white LED. The SPDs are normalized to equal radiant power.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the SPDs of “Firelight” Sources

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters of the SPDs of Solid-State Warm White Sources

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K=K0380nm780nmV(λ)S(λ)dλ/0S(λ)dλ,
K=K0380nm780nmV(λ)S(λ)dλ/0S(λ)dλ.
Vmes(λ)=M1(m)[mV(λ)+(1m)V(λ)],
Kmes=Kmes0380nm780nmVmes(λ)S(λ)dλ/0S(λ)dλ,
Kc=Kc0380nm780nmC(λ)S(λ)dλ/0S(λ)dλ,
ac,mes=Kc/Kmes=Kc0380nm780nmC(λ)S(λ)dλ/Kmes0380nm780nmVmes(λ)S(λ)dλ.
S(λ)=2ln(2)/πi=1npiwdiexp[4ln(2)(λλi)2/wdi2].
FCCT,MAL(λ1,λ2,p1,p2)=ac,mes,
SP(hν)=2ln(2)/π/WPexp[4ln(2)(hνhν0)2/WP2],
SP(λ)=k(λ/λ0)2exp[4ln(2)(λ1λ01)2/wP2],
Ra,mes=1004.6γ(Lmes)ΔE¯.
Ra,mes=100γ(Lmes)(100Ra).

Metrics