Abstract

Myocardial infarction, caused by a major blockage of a coronary artery, creates a border zone (BZ) between perfused and nonperfused tissue, which is believed to be the origin of fatal cardiac arrhythmias. We used a combination of optical clearing and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to visualize a three-dimensional organization of the BZ in isolated rabbit hearts (n=5) at the microscopic level with a high spatial resolution. We found that the BZ has a complex three-dimensional structure with nonperfused areas penetrating into perfused tissue with finger-like projections. These “fingers” may play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of ventricular arrhythmias.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
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  19. M. T. Vivaldi, R. A. Kloner, and F. J. Schoen, “Triphenyltetrazolium staining of irreversible ischemic injury following coronary artery occlusion in rats,” Am. J. Pathol. 121, 522–530 (1985).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, and E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 453–460 (2004).
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  27. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
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  36. P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  39. J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361–1367 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

E. Dall Armellina and R. P. Choudhury, “The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with acute coronary syndromes,” Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 54, 230–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. Peng, Z. Ruan, F. Long, J. H. Simpson, and E. W. Myers, “V3D enables real-time 3D visualization and quantitative analysis of large-scale biological image data sets,” Nat. Biotechnol. 28, 348–353 (2010).
[CrossRef]

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Al-Qaisi and T. Akkin, “Swept-source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography based on polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express 18, 3392–3403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Hucker, C. M. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, “Bimodal biophotonic imaging of the structure-function relationship in cardiac tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Szeverenyi, B. Searles, and A. Pertsov, “Contrast enhanced MRI characterization of the perfusion territories fed by individual coronary arteries in ex-vivo porcine heart,” Proc. SPIE 6916, 69161W (2008).

R. M. Smith, A. Matiukas, C. W. Zemlin, and A. M. Pertsov, “Nondestructive optical determination of fiber organization in intact myocardial wall,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 510–516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

N. L. Walker, F. L. Burton, S. Kettlewell, G. L. Smith, and S. M. Cobbe, “Mapping of epicardial activation in a rabbit model of chronic myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 18, 862–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Panse, C. Klassen, N. Panse, A. Siuciak, C. Rickers, M. Jerosch-Herold, and N. M. Wilke, “Magnetic resonance quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve demonstrates improved myocardial blood flow after angiogenic implant therapy,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 23, 217–224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Bucciarelli-Ducci, E. Wu, D. C. Lee, T. A. Holly, F. J. Klocke, and R. O. Bonow, “Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in the evaluation of myocardial infarction and myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Curr. Probl. Cardiol. 31, 128–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Anavekar, “Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging,” Heart Lung Circ. 14, Suppl 2, S39–S45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. C.-C. Hu, W. Bao, S. C. Lenhard, T. R. Schaeffer, T.-L. Yue, R. N. Willette, and B. M. Jucker, “Simultaneous assessment of left-ventricular infarction size, function and tissue viability in a murine model of myocardial infarction by cardiac manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI),” NMR Biomed. 17, 620–626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, and E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

X. Xu and R. K. Wang, “The role of water desorption on optical clearing of biotissue: studied with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 30, 1246–1253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361–1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

H. Mahrholdt, A. Wagner, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation 106, 2322–2327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 105, 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

2001 (1)

W. T. Baxter, S. F. Mironov, A. V. Zaitsev, J. Jalife, and A. M. Pertsov, “Visualizing excitation waves inside cardiac muscle using transillumination,” Biophys. J. 80, 516–530 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. M. Shaw and Y. Rudy, “Electrophysiologic effects of acute myocardial ischemia. A mechanistic investigation of action potential conduction and conduction failure,” Circ. Res. 80, 124–138 (1997).

1995 (2)

R. M. Shaw and Y. Rudy, “The vulnerable window for unidirectional block in cardiac tissue: characterization and dependence on membrane excitability and intercellular coupling,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 6, 115–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kanai and G. Salama, “Optical mapping reveals that repolarization spreads anisotropically and is guided by fiber orientation in guinea pig hearts,” Circ. Res. 77, 784–802 (1995).

1992 (1)

R. Coronel, F. J. Wilms-Schopman, T. Opthof, J. Cinca, J. W. Fiolet, and M. J. Janse, “Reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated perfused pig hearts. Inhomogeneities in extracellular potassium, ST and TQ potentials, and transmembrane action potentials,” Circ. Res. 71, 1131–1142 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. G. Dilly and M. J. Lab, “Electrophysiological alternans and restitution during acute regional ischaemia in myocardium of anaesthetized pig,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 402, 315–333 (1988).

1985 (1)

M. T. Vivaldi, R. A. Kloner, and F. J. Schoen, “Triphenyltetrazolium staining of irreversible ischemic injury following coronary artery occlusion in rats,” Am. J. Pathol. 121, 522–530 (1985).

1981 (3)

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Weiss, B. H. Bulkley, G. M. Hutchins, and S. J. Mason, “Two-dimensional echocardiographic recognition of myocardial injury in man: comparison with postmortem studies,” Circulation 63, 401–408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hearse and D. M. Yellon, “The ‘border zone’ in evolving myocardial infarction: controversy or confusion?,” Am. J. Cardiol. 47, 1321–1334 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

1969 (1)

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, and E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24, 339–347 (1969).

Abraham, M. R.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adams, R. J.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

Al-Qaisi, M. K.

Amado, L. C.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anavekar, N. S.

N. S. Anavekar, “Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging,” Heart Lung Circ. 14, Suppl 2, S39–S45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aquaro, G. D.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashikaga, H.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bao, W.

T. C.-C. Hu, W. Bao, S. C. Lenhard, T. R. Schaeffer, T.-L. Yue, R. N. Willette, and B. M. Jucker, “Simultaneous assessment of left-ventricular infarction size, function and tissue viability in a murine model of myocardial infarction by cardiac manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI),” NMR Biomed. 17, 620–626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, H. H.

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

Basavanhally, A. N.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, W. T.

W. T. Baxter, S. F. Mironov, A. V. Zaitsev, J. Jalife, and A. M. Pertsov, “Visualizing excitation waves inside cardiac muscle using transillumination,” Biophys. J. 80, 516–530 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Becker, L. C.

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Begieneman, M. P. V.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berger, R. D.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berman, D. S.

P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).

Bernus, O.

O. Bernus, R. M. Smith, N. M. Szeverenyi, M. Qin, and A. M. Pertsov, “The geometry of the ischemic region as an arrhythmogenic factor: insights from an MRI-based modeling study,” Heart Rhythm5, S310 PO5–8 (2008).

Bluemke, D. A.

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bonow, R. O.

C. Bucciarelli-Ducci, E. Wu, D. C. Lee, T. A. Holly, F. J. Klocke, and R. O. Bonow, “Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in the evaluation of myocardial infarction and myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Curr. Probl. Cardiol. 31, 128–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Mahrholdt, A. Wagner, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation 106, 2322–2327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K. A.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. M.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bucciarelli-Ducci, C.

C. Bucciarelli-Ducci, E. Wu, D. C. Lee, T. A. Holly, F. J. Klocke, and R. O. Bonow, “Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in the evaluation of myocardial infarction and myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Curr. Probl. Cardiol. 31, 128–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulkley, B. H.

J. L. Weiss, B. H. Bulkley, G. M. Hutchins, and S. J. Mason, “Two-dimensional echocardiographic recognition of myocardial injury in man: comparison with postmortem studies,” Circulation 63, 401–408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burton, F. L.

N. L. Walker, F. L. Burton, S. Kettlewell, G. L. Smith, and S. M. Cobbe, “Mapping of epicardial activation in a rabbit model of chronic myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 18, 862–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calkins, H.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, R.

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

Carnethon, M.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Castro, V.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. W.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, R. P.

E. Dall Armellina and R. P. Choudhury, “The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with acute coronary syndromes,” Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 54, 230–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chughtai, O. Q.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cinca, J.

R. Coronel, F. J. Wilms-Schopman, T. Opthof, J. Cinca, J. W. Fiolet, and M. J. Janse, “Reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated perfused pig hearts. Inhomogeneities in extracellular potassium, ST and TQ potentials, and transmembrane action potentials,” Circ. Res. 71, 1131–1142 (1992).

Cobbe, S. M.

N. L. Walker, F. L. Burton, S. Kettlewell, G. L. Smith, and S. M. Cobbe, “Mapping of epicardial activation in a rabbit model of chronic myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 18, 862–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, M. A. S.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coronel, R.

R. Coronel, F. J. Wilms-Schopman, T. Opthof, J. Cinca, J. W. Fiolet, and M. J. Janse, “Reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated perfused pig hearts. Inhomogeneities in extracellular potassium, ST and TQ potentials, and transmembrane action potentials,” Circ. Res. 71, 1131–1142 (1992).

d’Alnoncourt, C. N.

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

Dai, S.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dall Armellina, E.

E. Dall Armellina and R. P. Choudhury, “The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with acute coronary syndromes,” Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 54, 230–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Simone, G.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Waha, S.

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Desch, S.

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di Bella, G.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Di Carli, M.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Di Carli, M. F.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dickfeld, T.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dickfeld, T. L.

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dilly, S. G.

S. G. Dilly and M. J. Lab, “Electrophysiological alternans and restitution during acute regional ischaemia in myocardium of anaesthetized pig,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 402, 315–333 (1988).

Donahue, J. K.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Durrer, D.

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

Dutta, P.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, I. R.

W. J. Hucker, C. M. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, “Bimodal biophotonic imaging of the structure-function relationship in cardiac tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eitel, I.

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, M. D.

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Mahrholdt, A. Wagner, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation 106, 2322–2327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enomoto, Y.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evers, R.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. V.

W. J. Hucker, C. M. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, “Bimodal biophotonic imaging of the structure-function relationship in cardiac tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, M. D.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 105, 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, T. B.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernandes, V. R.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fieno, D.

P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).

Fiolet, J. W.

R. Coronel, F. J. Wilms-Schopman, T. Opthof, J. Cinca, J. W. Fiolet, and M. J. Janse, “Reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated perfused pig hearts. Inhomogeneities in extracellular potassium, ST and TQ potentials, and transmembrane action potentials,” Circ. Res. 71, 1131–1142 (1992).

Fleming, C. P.

W. J. Hucker, C. M. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, “Bimodal biophotonic imaging of the structure-function relationship in cardiac tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ford, E.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, G. L.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 105, 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, J. D.

P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).

Fuernau, G.

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361–1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furenlid, L. R.

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

Furie, K.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garrison, J. G.

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

George, R. T.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Germano, G.

P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).

Gillespie, C.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Go, A.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorbatov, R.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, J. H.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, R. C.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greenlund, K.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S. N.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gutberlet, M.

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haase, N.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hailpern, S.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Halperin, H. R.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J. M.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, S. W.

P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).

Hearse, D. J.

D. J. Hearse and D. M. Yellon, “The ‘border zone’ in evolving myocardial infarction: controversy or confusion?,” Am. J. Cardiol. 47, 1321–1334 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Helm, R. H.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. M.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holly, T. A.

C. Bucciarelli-Ducci, E. Wu, D. C. Lee, T. A. Holly, F. J. Klocke, and R. O. Bonow, “Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in the evaluation of myocardial infarction and myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Curr. Probl. Cardiol. 31, 128–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Mahrholdt, A. Wagner, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation 106, 2322–2327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hopenfeld, B.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howard, V.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, E. W.

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, and E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, I.-J.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T. C.-C.

T. C.-C. Hu, W. Bao, S. C. Lenhard, T. R. Schaeffer, T.-L. Yue, R. N. Willette, and B. M. Jucker, “Simultaneous assessment of left-ventricular infarction size, function and tissue viability in a murine model of myocardial infarction by cardiac manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI),” NMR Biomed. 17, 620–626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hucker, W. J.

W. J. Hucker, C. M. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, “Bimodal biophotonic imaging of the structure-function relationship in cardiac tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hutchins, G. M.

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Weiss, B. H. Bulkley, G. M. Hutchins, and S. J. Mason, “Two-dimensional echocardiographic recognition of myocardial injury in man: comparison with postmortem studies,” Circulation 63, 401–408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, Y.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B. M.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jalife, J.

W. T. Baxter, S. F. Mironov, A. V. Zaitsev, J. Jalife, and A. M. Pertsov, “Visualizing excitation waves inside cardiac muscle using transillumination,” Biophys. J. 80, 516–530 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Janse, M. J.

R. Coronel, F. J. Wilms-Schopman, T. Opthof, J. Cinca, J. W. Fiolet, and M. J. Janse, “Reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated perfused pig hearts. Inhomogeneities in extracellular potassium, ST and TQ potentials, and transmembrane action potentials,” Circ. Res. 71, 1131–1142 (1992).

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

Jenkins, M. W.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jerosch-Herold, M.

P. Panse, C. Klassen, N. Panse, A. Siuciak, C. Rickers, M. Jerosch-Herold, and N. M. Wilke, “Magnetic resonance quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve demonstrates improved myocardial blood flow after angiogenic implant therapy,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 23, 217–224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, and E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jucker, B. M.

T. C.-C. Hu, W. Bao, S. C. Lenhard, T. R. Schaeffer, T.-L. Yue, R. N. Willette, and B. M. Jucker, “Simultaneous assessment of left-ventricular infarction size, function and tissue viability in a murine model of myocardial infarction by cardiac manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI),” NMR Biomed. 17, 620–626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Judd, R. M.

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Mahrholdt, A. Wagner, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation 106, 2322–2327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jugdutt, B. I.

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kallman, C. A.

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, A.

A. Kanai and G. Salama, “Optical mapping reveals that repolarization spreads anisotropically and is guided by fiber orientation in guinea pig hearts,” Circ. Res. 77, 784–802 (1995).

Kastis, G. A.

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

Kettlewell, S.

N. L. Walker, F. L. Burton, S. Kettlewell, G. L. Smith, and S. M. Cobbe, “Mapping of epicardial activation in a rabbit model of chronic myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 18, 862–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y.-W.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 105, 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R. J.

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Mahrholdt, A. Wagner, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation 106, 2322–2327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kissela, B.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kittner, S.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klassen, C.

P. Panse, C. Klassen, N. Panse, A. Siuciak, C. Rickers, M. Jerosch-Herold, and N. M. Wilke, “Magnetic resonance quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve demonstrates improved myocardial blood flow after angiogenic implant therapy,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 23, 217–224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kléber, A. G.

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

Klocke, F. J.

C. Bucciarelli-Ducci, E. Wu, D. C. Lee, T. A. Holly, F. J. Klocke, and R. O. Bonow, “Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in the evaluation of myocardial infarction and myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Curr. Probl. Cardiol. 31, 128–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kloner, R. A.

M. T. Vivaldi, R. A. Kloner, and F. J. Schoen, “Triphenyltetrazolium staining of irreversible ischemic injury following coronary artery occlusion in rats,” Am. J. Pathol. 121, 522–530 (1985).

Kupinski, M. A.

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

Kwong, R. Y.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L’Abbate, A.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lab, M. J.

S. G. Dilly and M. J. Lab, “Electrophysiological alternans and restitution during acute regional ischaemia in myocardium of anaesthetized pig,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 402, 315–333 (1988).

Lackland, D.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lardo, A. C.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. C.

C. Bucciarelli-Ducci, E. Wu, D. C. Lee, T. A. Holly, F. J. Klocke, and R. O. Bonow, “Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in the evaluation of myocardial infarction and myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Curr. Probl. Cardiol. 31, 128–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. W.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lenhard, S. C.

T. C.-C. Hu, W. Bao, S. C. Lenhard, T. R. Schaeffer, T.-L. Yue, R. N. Willette, and B. M. Jucker, “Simultaneous assessment of left-ventricular infarction size, function and tissue viability in a murine model of myocardial infarction by cardiac manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI),” NMR Biomed. 17, 620–626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leuschner, F.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, A. N.

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lima, J. A. C.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lisabeth, L.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

Lloyd-Jones, D.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lombardi, M.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Long, F.

H. Peng, Z. Ruan, F. Long, J. H. Simpson, and E. W. Myers, “V3D enables real-time 3D visualization and quantitative analysis of large-scale biological image data sets,” Nat. Biotechnol. 28, 348–353 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-W.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, L.-S.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lurz, P.

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luu, T. M.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahrholdt, H.

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Mahrholdt, A. Wagner, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation 106, 2322–2327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marbán, E.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marelli, A.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marinelli, B.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mason, S. J.

J. L. Weiss, B. H. Bulkley, G. M. Hutchins, and S. J. Mason, “Two-dimensional echocardiographic recognition of myocardial injury in man: comparison with postmortem studies,” Circulation 63, 401–408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Matiukas, A.

R. M. Smith, A. Matiukas, C. W. Zemlin, and A. M. Pertsov, “Nondestructive optical determination of fiber organization in intact myocardial wall,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 510–516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McDermott, M. M.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McVeigh, E. R.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meigs, J.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meininger, G. R.

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 105, 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mironov, S. F.

W. T. Baxter, S. F. Mironov, A. V. Zaitsev, J. Jalife, and A. M. Pertsov, “Visualizing excitation waves inside cardiac muscle using transillumination,” Biophys. J. 80, 516–530 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morsink, H.

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

Mozaffarian, D.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mussolino, M.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Myers, E. W.

H. Peng, Z. Ruan, F. Long, J. H. Simpson, and E. W. Myers, “V3D enables real-time 3D visualization and quantitative analysis of large-scale biological image data sets,” Nat. Biotechnol. 28, 348–353 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nahrendorf, M.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nazarian, S.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nichol, G.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niessen, H. W. M.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opthof, T.

R. Coronel, F. J. Wilms-Schopman, T. Opthof, J. Cinca, J. W. Fiolet, and M. J. Janse, “Reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated perfused pig hearts. Inhomogeneities in extracellular potassium, ST and TQ potentials, and transmembrane action potentials,” Circ. Res. 71, 1131–1142 (1992).

Palmieri, C.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pandya, K.

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, and E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panse, N.

P. Panse, C. Klassen, N. Panse, A. Siuciak, C. Rickers, M. Jerosch-Herold, and N. M. Wilke, “Magnetic resonance quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve demonstrates improved myocardial blood flow after angiogenic implant therapy,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 23, 217–224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panse, P.

P. Panse, C. Klassen, N. Panse, A. Siuciak, C. Rickers, M. Jerosch-Herold, and N. M. Wilke, “Magnetic resonance quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve demonstrates improved myocardial blood flow after angiogenic implant therapy,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 23, 217–224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parish, L. M.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parker, M.

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patel, D. P.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, and E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24, 339–347 (1969).

Patton, D. D.

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

Peng, H.

H. Peng, Z. Ruan, F. Long, J. H. Simpson, and E. W. Myers, “V3D enables real-time 3D visualization and quantitative analysis of large-scale biological image data sets,” Nat. Biotechnol. 28, 348–353 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pertsov, A.

N. M. Szeverenyi, B. Searles, and A. Pertsov, “Contrast enhanced MRI characterization of the perfusion territories fed by individual coronary arteries in ex-vivo porcine heart,” Proc. SPIE 6916, 69161W (2008).

Pertsov, A. M.

R. M. Smith, A. Matiukas, C. W. Zemlin, and A. M. Pertsov, “Nondestructive optical determination of fiber organization in intact myocardial wall,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 510–516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Baxter, S. F. Mironov, A. V. Zaitsev, J. Jalife, and A. M. Pertsov, “Visualizing excitation waves inside cardiac muscle using transillumination,” Biophys. J. 80, 516–530 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Bernus, R. M. Smith, N. M. Szeverenyi, M. Qin, and A. M. Pertsov, “The geometry of the ischemic region as an arrhythmogenic factor: insights from an MRI-based modeling study,” Heart Rhythm5, S310 PO5–8 (2008).

Petronio, A. S.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piek, J. J.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pingitore, A.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pittet, M. J.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Plappert, T.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qin, M.

O. Bernus, R. M. Smith, N. M. Szeverenyi, M. Qin, and A. M. Pertsov, “The geometry of the ischemic region as an arrhythmogenic factor: insights from an MRI-based modeling study,” Heart Rhythm5, S310 PO5–8 (2008).

Regenfus, M.

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, H. G.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rickers, C.

P. Panse, C. Klassen, N. Panse, A. Siuciak, C. Rickers, M. Jerosch-Herold, and N. M. Wilke, “Magnetic resonance quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve demonstrates improved myocardial blood flow after angiogenic implant therapy,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 23, 217–224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ripplinger, C. M.

W. J. Hucker, C. M. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, “Bimodal biophotonic imaging of the structure-function relationship in cardiac tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roger, V. L.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roguin, A.

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Hucker, C. M. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, “Bimodal biophotonic imaging of the structure-function relationship in cardiac tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosamond, W.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ross, J.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, and E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24, 339–347 (1969).

Rovai, D.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

H. Peng, Z. Ruan, F. Long, J. H. Simpson, and E. W. Myers, “V3D enables real-time 3D visualization and quantitative analysis of large-scale biological image data sets,” Nat. Biotechnol. 28, 348–353 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rudy, Y.

R. M. Shaw and Y. Rudy, “Electrophysiologic effects of acute myocardial ischemia. A mechanistic investigation of action potential conduction and conduction failure,” Circ. Res. 80, 124–138 (1997).

R. M. Shaw and Y. Rudy, “The vulnerable window for unidirectional block in cardiac tissue: characterization and dependence on membrane excitability and intercellular coupling,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 6, 115–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sacco, R.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, H.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salama, G.

A. Kanai and G. Salama, “Optical mapping reveals that repolarization spreads anisotropically and is guided by fiber orientation in guinea pig hearts,” Circ. Res. 77, 784–802 (1995).

Salgo, I.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saliaris, A. P.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, T.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffer, T. R.

T. C.-C. Hu, W. Bao, S. C. Lenhard, T. R. Schaeffer, T.-L. Yue, R. N. Willette, and B. M. Jucker, “Simultaneous assessment of left-ventricular infarction size, function and tissue viability in a murine model of myocardial infarction by cardiac manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI),” NMR Biomed. 17, 620–626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schoen, F. J.

M. T. Vivaldi, R. A. Kloner, and F. J. Schoen, “Triphenyltetrazolium staining of irreversible ischemic injury following coronary artery occlusion in rats,” Am. J. Pathol. 121, 522–530 (1985).

Schuler, G.

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schuleri, K. H.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Searles, B.

N. M. Szeverenyi, B. Searles, and A. Pertsov, “Contrast enhanced MRI characterization of the perfusion territories fed by individual coronary arteries in ex-vivo porcine heart,” Proc. SPIE 6916, 69161W (2008).

Sena, B. F.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, R. M.

R. M. Shaw and Y. Rudy, “Electrophysiologic effects of acute myocardial ischemia. A mechanistic investigation of action potential conduction and conduction failure,” Circ. Res. 80, 124–138 (1997).

R. M. Shaw and Y. Rudy, “The vulnerable window for unidirectional block in cardiac tissue: characterization and dependence on membrane excitability and intercellular coupling,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 6, 115–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shayne, A. J.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Silva, C.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. H.

H. Peng, Z. Ruan, F. Long, J. H. Simpson, and E. W. Myers, “V3D enables real-time 3D visualization and quantitative analysis of large-scale biological image data sets,” Nat. Biotechnol. 28, 348–353 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Siuciak, A.

P. Panse, C. Klassen, N. Panse, A. Siuciak, C. Rickers, M. Jerosch-Herold, and N. M. Wilke, “Magnetic resonance quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve demonstrates improved myocardial blood flow after angiogenic implant therapy,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 23, 217–224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slomka, P. J.

P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).

Smith, G. L.

N. L. Walker, F. L. Burton, S. Kettlewell, G. L. Smith, and S. M. Cobbe, “Mapping of epicardial activation in a rabbit model of chronic myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 18, 862–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. M.

R. M. Smith, A. Matiukas, C. W. Zemlin, and A. M. Pertsov, “Nondestructive optical determination of fiber organization in intact myocardial wall,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 510–516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Bernus, R. M. Smith, N. M. Szeverenyi, M. Qin, and A. M. Pertsov, “The geometry of the ischemic region as an arrhythmogenic factor: insights from an MRI-based modeling study,” Heart Rhythm5, S310 PO5–8 (2008).

Smithies, O.

Y. Jiang, K. Pandya, O. Smithies, and E. W. Hsu, “Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 453–460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenblick, E. H.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, and E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24, 339–347 (1969).

Sorlie, P.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spotnitz, H. M.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, and E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24, 339–347 (1969).

St John Sutton, M. G.

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, R.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, G. D.

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

Stevenson, W. G.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Strata, E.

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Streeter, D. D.

D. D. Streeter, H. M. Spotnitz, D. P. Patel, J. Ross, and E. H. Sonnenblick, “Fiber orientation in the canine left ventricle during diastole and systole,” Circ. Res. 24, 339–347 (1969).

Sun, C.-W.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swirski, F. K.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Szeverenyi, N. M.

N. M. Szeverenyi, B. Searles, and A. Pertsov, “Contrast enhanced MRI characterization of the perfusion territories fed by individual coronary arteries in ex-vivo porcine heart,” Proc. SPIE 6916, 69161W (2008).

O. Bernus, R. M. Smith, N. M. Szeverenyi, M. Qin, and A. M. Pertsov, “The geometry of the ischemic region as an arrhythmogenic factor: insights from an MRI-based modeling study,” Heart Rhythm5, S310 PO5–8 (2008).

Tawakol, A.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thiele, H.

S. Desch, I. Eitel, S. de Waha, G. Fuernau, P. Lurz, M. Gutberlet, G. Schuler, and H. Thiele, “Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction,” Trials 12, 204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thom, T.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, L.

P. J. Slomka, D. Fieno, L. Thomson, J. D. Friedman, S. W. Hayes, G. Germano, and D. S. Berman, “Automatic detection and size quantification of infarcts by myocardial perfusion SPECT: clinical validation by delayed-enhancement MRI,” J. Nucl. Med. 46, 728–735 (2005).

Tomaselli, G. F.

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-T.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Capelle, F. J.

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

van der Laan, A. M.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Villard, J. W.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 105, 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vinegoni, C.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vivaldi, M. T.

M. T. Vivaldi, R. A. Kloner, and F. J. Schoen, “Triphenyltetrazolium staining of irreversible ischemic injury following coronary artery occlusion in rats,” Am. J. Pathol. 121, 522–530 (1985).

Wagner, A.

A. Wagner, H. Mahrholdt, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, M. Regenfus, M. Parker, F. J. Klocke, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced MRI and routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging for detection of subendocardial myocardial infarcts: an imaging study,” Lancet 361, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Mahrholdt, A. Wagner, T. A. Holly, M. D. Elliott, R. O. Bonow, R. J. Kim, and R. M. Judd, “Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation 106, 2322–2327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walker, N. L.

N. L. Walker, F. L. Burton, S. Kettlewell, G. L. Smith, and S. M. Cobbe, “Mapping of epicardial activation in a rabbit model of chronic myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 18, 862–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

X. Xu and R. K. Wang, “The role of water desorption on optical clearing of biotissue: studied with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 30, 1246–1253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-M.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wasserthiel-Smoller, S.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, S. P.

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, B.

C. P. Fleming, C. M. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “Quantification of cardiac fiber orientation using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weisfeldt, M. L.

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, J. L.

A. N. Lieberman, J. L. Weiss, B. I. Jugdutt, L. C. Becker, B. H. Bulkley, J. G. Garrison, G. M. Hutchins, C. A. Kallman, and M. L. Weisfeldt, “Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog,” Circulation 63, 739–746 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Weiss, B. H. Bulkley, G. M. Hutchins, and S. J. Mason, “Two-dimensional echocardiographic recognition of myocardial injury in man: comparison with postmortem studies,” Circulation 63, 401–408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R. G.

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

W. W. Lee, B. Marinelli, A. M. van der Laan, B. F. Sena, R. Gorbatov, F. Leuschner, P. Dutta, Y. Iwamoto, T. Ueno, M. P. V. Begieneman, H. W. M. Niessen, J. J. Piek, C. Vinegoni, M. J. Pittet, F. K. Swirski, A. Tawakol, M. Di Carli, R. Weissleder, and M. Nahrendorf, “PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 153–163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, N. M.

P. Panse, C. Klassen, N. Panse, A. Siuciak, C. Rickers, M. Jerosch-Herold, and N. M. Wilke, “Magnetic resonance quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve demonstrates improved myocardial blood flow after angiogenic implant therapy,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 23, 217–224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willette, R. N.

T. C.-C. Hu, W. Bao, S. C. Lenhard, T. R. Schaeffer, T.-L. Yue, R. N. Willette, and B. M. Jucker, “Simultaneous assessment of left-ventricular infarction size, function and tissue viability in a murine model of myocardial infarction by cardiac manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI),” NMR Biomed. 17, 620–626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilms-Schopman, F.

M. J. Janse, F. J. van Capelle, H. Morsink, A. G. Kléber, F. Wilms-Schopman, R. Cardinal, C. N. d’Alnoncourt, and D. Durrer, “Flow of ‘injury’ current and patterns of excitation during early ventricular arrhythmias in acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated porcine and canine hearts. Evidence for two different arrhythmogenic mechanisms,” Circ. Res. 47, 151–165 (1980).

Wilms-Schopman, F. J.

R. Coronel, F. J. Wilms-Schopman, T. Opthof, J. Cinca, J. W. Fiolet, and M. J. Janse, “Reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated perfused pig hearts. Inhomogeneities in extracellular potassium, ST and TQ potentials, and transmembrane action potentials,” Circ. Res. 71, 1131–1142 (1992).

Wilson, D. W.

Z. Liu, G. A. Kastis, G. D. Stevenson, H. H. Barrett, L. R. Furenlid, M. A. Kupinski, D. D. Patton, and D. W. Wilson, “Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarct in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion using a high-resolution stationary SPECT system,” J. Nucl. Med. 43, 933–939 (2002).

Wong, N. D.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

C. Bucciarelli-Ducci, E. Wu, D. C. Lee, T. A. Holly, F. J. Klocke, and R. O. Bonow, “Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in the evaluation of myocardial infarction and myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Curr. Probl. Cardiol. 31, 128–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K. C.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wylie-Rosett, J.

WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, and J. Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121, e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu and R. K. Wang, “The role of water desorption on optical clearing of biotissue: studied with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 30, 1246–1253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, A. T.

A. T. Yan, A. J. Shayne, K. A. Brown, S. N. Gupta, C. W. Chan, T. M. Luu, M. F. Di Carli, H. G. Reynolds, W. G. Stevenson, and R. Y. Kwong, “Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality,” Circulation 114, 32–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C.-W. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Lu, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, M.-T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C.-C. Wu, “Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yellon, D. M.

D. J. Hearse and D. M. Yellon, “The ‘border zone’ in evolving myocardial infarction: controversy or confusion?,” Am. J. Cardiol. 47, 1321–1334 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yue, T.-L.

T. C.-C. Hu, W. Bao, S. C. Lenhard, T. R. Schaeffer, T.-L. Yue, R. N. Willette, and B. M. Jucker, “Simultaneous assessment of left-ventricular infarction size, function and tissue viability in a murine model of myocardial infarction by cardiac manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI),” NMR Biomed. 17, 620–626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zaitsev, A. V.

W. T. Baxter, S. F. Mironov, A. V. Zaitsev, J. Jalife, and A. M. Pertsov, “Visualizing excitation waves inside cardiac muscle using transillumination,” Biophys. J. 80, 516–530 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zemlin, C. W.

R. M. Smith, A. Matiukas, C. W. Zemlin, and A. M. Pertsov, “Nondestructive optical determination of fiber organization in intact myocardial wall,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 510–516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zviman, M.

A. C. Lardo, M. A. S. Cordeiro, C. Silva, L. C. Amado, R. T. George, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri, V. R. Fernandes, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. R. Halperin, K. C. Wu, J. M. Hare, and J. A. C. Lima, “Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography viability imaging after myocardial infarction: characterization of myocyte death, microvascular obstruction, and chronic scar,” Circulation 113, 394–404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zviman, M. M.

H. Ashikaga, T. Sasano, J. Dong, M. M. Zviman, R. Evers, B. Hopenfeld, V. Castro, R. H. Helm, T. Dickfeld, S. Nazarian, J. K. Donahue, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, M. R. Abraham, E. Marbán, A. C. Lardo, E. R. McVeigh, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance-based anatomical analysis of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: implications for catheter ablation,” Circ. Res. 101, 939–947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nazarian, D. A. Bluemke, A. C. Lardo, M. M. Zviman, S. P. Watkins, T. L. Dickfeld, G. R. Meininger, A. Roguin, H. Calkins, G. F. Tomaselli, R. G. Weiss, R. D. Berger, J. A. C. Lima, and H. R. Halperin, “Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 112, 2821–2825 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Cardiol. (2)

D. J. Hearse and D. M. Yellon, “The ‘border zone’ in evolving myocardial infarction: controversy or confusion?,” Am. J. Cardiol. 47, 1321–1334 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, C. Palmieri, D. Rovai, A. S. Petronio, A. L’Abbate, and M. Lombardi, “Relation of pain-to-balloon time and myocardial infarct size in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 28–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Pathol. (1)

M. T. Vivaldi, R. A. Kloner, and F. J. Schoen, “Triphenyltetrazolium staining of irreversible ischemic injury following coronary artery occlusion in rats,” Am. J. Pathol. 121, 522–530 (1985).

Ann. Thorac. Surg (1)

B. M. Jackson, L. M. Parish, J. H. Gorman, Y. Enomoto, H. Sakamoto, T. Plappert, M. G. St John Sutton, I. Salgo, and R. C. Gorman, “Borderzone geometry after acute myocardial infarction: a three-dimensional contrast enhanced echocardiographic study,” Ann. Thorac. Surg 80, 2250–2255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

W. T. Baxter, S. F. Mironov, A. V. Zaitsev, J. Jalife, and A. M. Pertsov, “Visualizing excitation waves inside cardiac muscle using transillumination,” Biophys. J. 80, 516–530 (2001).
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Opt. Express (1)

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O. Bernus, R. M. Smith, N. M. Szeverenyi, M. Qin, and A. M. Pertsov, “The geometry of the ischemic region as an arrhythmogenic factor: insights from an MRI-based modeling study,” Heart Rhythm5, S310 PO5–8 (2008).

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: AVI (50845 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (50845 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (50845 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (5042 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (46159 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (15968 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Rabbit heart before and after clearing to show the surface BZ. (A) Rabbit heart in the air before dehydration and clearing. The white arrow shows the LCX. Scale bar=1cm. (B) The same heart rotated clockwise to show the BZ after dehydration and clearing with 1:2 (vol. %) BABB. The heart shows distinct regions of perfused and nonperfused tissue. The arrow indicates the BZ between these two regions. Inset shows an enlarged view of the perfused (amber color, right), the BZ, and nonperfused (normal colored, left) tissue. Scale bar=0.50cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the heart preparation for OCT imaging. (A) Longitudinal view of the BZ. For these scans, the heart was not sliced. The cleared region of the LCX is depicted by the amber color. The BZ is shown by the dotted line. The black line shows the region in which the 3D scan was performed. The letters N and P indicate the orientation of images shown in Figs. 3, 4, and 6. (B) The short-axis view of the imaged BZ. Two transmural slices were made, which resulted in a 3 mm thick slab, which was then imaged. The black line (Epi to Endo) shows how the region was scanned. The leters show the orientation of the images shown in Figs. 5 and 7.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OCT 2D image of the BZ. (A) Reflectivity en face image generated by integrating the data along depth. Topological information as well as the BZ (white dotted line) can be seen. (B) OCT reflectivity image. Due to refractive index matching, the cleared region (right) is dark because the light can penetrate deeper within the tissue, whereas the nonperfused tissue (left) is bright due to high scattering. (C) Retardance en face image. 3D representation of all 2D cross sections from Fig. 3D. The dark region on the left is the nonperfused region, while the bright color indicates the perfused region. The BZ can be seen between the two regions (white dotted line). (D) OCT phase-retardance image. Imaging of the BZ transmurally showed “finger-like” projections of perfused tissue penetrating nonperfused tissue. Scale bar=1mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OCT 2D image of an uncleared heart. (A) Reflectivity en face image generated by integrating the data along depth. Topological information can be seen but there is no presence of a BZ. (B) OCT reflectivity image of uncleared tissue. No border can be observed. (C) Retardance en face image. 3D representation of all 2D cross sections from Fig. 4D. The dark regions indicate that the tissue is nonperfused. (D) OCT phase retardance image. Only the epicardial surface can be seen due to the high level of scattering within the tissue. (E) OCT reflectivity image of the heart after treatment with ethanol. Ethanol does not affect penetration depth of the tissue as shown by the lack of border between the two regions. (F) OCT phase retardance image of the heart after treatment with ethanol. Only the epicardial surface is dark due to the high scattering within the tissue. Scale bar=1mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

OCT image of the rabbit heart sliced transversely (see Fig. 2B). (A) Reflectivity en face image generated by integrating the data along depth. Topological information as well as the BZ (white dotted line) can be seen. (B) OCT reflectivity image. Due to refractive index matching, the cleared region (left) is dark because the light can penetrate deeper within the tissue, whereas the nonperfused tissue (right) is bright due to the increased scattering. (C) Retardance en face image. 3D representation of all 2D cross sections from Fig. 5D. The dark region on the left is the nonperfused region, while the bright color indicates the perfused region. The BZ can be seen between the two regions (white dotted line). (D) OCT phase-retardance image. The letters indicate the orientation of the slice from Fig. 2B. Scale bar=1mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Snapshots of 2D OCT images of the perfused heart at different locations from apex to base. (A) Reflectivity. (B) Phase retardance. Slices start at the apex (0.03 mm) and progress to the base (9.09 mm). The reflectivity en face image shows where the slices were taken (as indicated by the blue line and letters). Arrows indicate “fingers.” Scale bar=1mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Snapshots of 2D OCT images of the perfused heart taken from the transmural slice. (A) Reflectivity. (B) Phase retardance. Slices start in the uncleared region (0.03 mm) and progress through the cleared region (9.09 mm). The reflectivity en face image shows where the slices were taken (as indicated by the blue line and letters). The dotted line shows the BZ. Arrows indicate “fingers.” Scale bar=1mm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

3D reconstruction of the BZ from the reflectivity images. The bright region is nonperfused tissue. Areas of low-reflectivity signal indicate cleared tissue of low signal from scattering of tissue in depth. “Fingers” of the border can be easily seen.

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