Abstract

Optical microscopy is a simple, yet essential, imaging technology. Conventional laboratory-grade optical microscopes are bulky and costly, confining their use to within laboratory settings and restricting their accessibility in regions of limited resources. With the aim of overcoming these limitations, we have realized a portable, low-cost, and highly automated optical microscope that integrates mass-manufactured components, including light-emitting diodes, a web camera, optical disk drives, and a microcontroller. Our implementation is capable of bright-field and fluorescence imaging with micrometer-scale resolution and controlled mechanical actuation of both the lens and sample. We interface the lighting, image capture, and mechanical actuators of the microscope into a single software environment, enabling automation of common microscope operations, such as image focusing and large-area sample visualization. Combination of mechanical actuation and software automation into a compact, low-cost microscope system is an important initial step toward the goal of making optical microscopy universally accessible, portable, and easy to use.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLos ONE 4, e6230 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Zhu, S. Mavandadi, A. F. Coskum, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone,” Anal. Chem. 83, 6641–6647 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (5)

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T.-W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11, 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, S. Mavandadi, A. F. Coskum, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone,” Anal. Chem. 83, 6641–6647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip 11, 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer and K. J. Chau, “Improving the signal visibility of optical-disk-drive sensors by analyte patterning and frequency-domain analysis,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 045302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

J. A. Ferrari, E. Frins, G. Ayubi, J. Gentilini, and C. D. Perciante, “Application of DVD/CD pickup optics to microscopy and fringe projection,” Am. J. Phys. 78, 603–607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS ONE 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLos ONE 4, e6230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Li, L. M. L. Ou, and H.-Z. Yu, “Digitized molecular diagnostics: reading disk-based bioassays with standard computer drives,” Anal. Chem. 80, 8216–8223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, “Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5893–5899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1991 (1)

Abdolrahimi, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ayubi, G.

J. A. Ferrari, E. Frins, G. Ayubi, J. Gentilini, and C. D. Perciante, “Application of DVD/CD pickup optics to microscopy and fringe projection,” Am. J. Phys. 78, 603–607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bahrmand, A. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, A.

Benschop, J.

Bishara, W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip 11, 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyette, S.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, “Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5893–5899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Breslauer, D. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLos ONE 4, e6230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chau, K. J.

S. Schaefer and K. J. Chau, “Improving the signal visibility of optical-disk-drive sensors by analyte patterning and frequency-domain analysis,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 045302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coskum, A. F.

H. Zhu, S. Mavandadi, A. F. Coskum, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone,” Anal. Chem. 83, 6641–6647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davis, G. L.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fateh, A.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, J. A.

J. A. Ferrari, E. Frins, G. Ayubi, J. Gentilini, and C. D. Perciante, “Application of DVD/CD pickup optics to microscopy and fringe projection,” Am. J. Phys. 78, 603–607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, D. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLos ONE 4, e6230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frins, E.

J. A. Ferrari, E. Frins, G. Ayubi, J. Gentilini, and C. D. Perciante, “Application of DVD/CD pickup optics to microscopy and fringe projection,” Am. J. Phys. 78, 603–607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gentilini, J.

J. A. Ferrari, E. Frins, G. Ayubi, J. Gentilini, and C. D. Perciante, “Application of DVD/CD pickup optics to microscopy and fringe projection,” Am. J. Phys. 78, 603–607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ghazanfari, M.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS ONE 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Graviss, E. A.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Isikman, S. O.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip 11, 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khademhosseini, B.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kihara, N.

N. Kihara, K. Osato, and K. Kishima, “Microscope system and method of controlling a microscope system,” U.S. patent application 20110102572 (5May2011).

Kishima, K.

N. Kihara, K. Osato, and K. Kishima, “Microscope system and method of controlling a microscope system,” U.S. patent application 20110102572 (5May2011).

Lam, W. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLos ONE 4, e6230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leach, A. M.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, “Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5893–5899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, L. M. L. Ou, and H.-Z. Yu, “Digitized molecular diagnostics: reading disk-based bioassays with standard computer drives,” Anal. Chem. 80, 8216–8223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luckhart, S.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maamari, R. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLos ONE 4, e6230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mavandadi, S.

H. Zhu, S. Mavandadi, A. F. Coskum, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone,” Anal. Chem. 83, 6641–6647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morris, W. G.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, “Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5893–5899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mudanyali, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oden, Z. M.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, R. J.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osato, K.

N. Kihara, K. Osato, and K. Kishima, “Microscope system and method of controlling a microscope system,” U.S. patent application 20110102572 (5May2011).

Ou, L. M. L.

Y. Li, L. M. L. Ou, and H.-Z. Yu, “Digitized molecular diagnostics: reading disk-based bioassays with standard computer drives,” Anal. Chem. 80, 8216–8223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozcan, A.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip 11, 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, S. Mavandadi, A. F. Coskum, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone,” Anal. Chem. 83, 6641–6647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T.-W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11, 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oztoprak, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Perciante, C. D.

J. A. Ferrari, E. Frins, G. Ayubi, J. Gentilini, and C. D. Perciante, “Application of DVD/CD pickup optics to microscopy and fringe projection,” Am. J. Phys. 78, 603–607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS ONE 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poggi, P.

Poorazar, S.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Potyrailo, R. A.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, “Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5893–5899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quercioli, F.

Razavi, M. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS ONE 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakhaie, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, S.

S. Schaefer and K. J. Chau, “Improving the signal visibility of optical-disk-drive sensors by analyte patterning and frequency-domain analysis,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 045302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sencan, I.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS ONE 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sikora, U.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sivavec, T. M.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, “Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5893–5899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, T.-W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T.-W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11, 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Switz, N. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLos ONE 4, e6230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiribilli, B.

Tseng, D.

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T.-W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11, 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Rosmalen, G.

Williams, M. D.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS ONE 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wisnudel, M. B.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, “Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5893–5899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yaglidere, O.

H. Zhu, S. Mavandadi, A. F. Coskum, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone,” Anal. Chem. 83, 6641–6647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T.-W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11, 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip 11, 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeah, J.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip 11, 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.-Z.

Y. Li, L. M. L. Ou, and H.-Z. Yu, “Digitized molecular diagnostics: reading disk-based bioassays with standard computer drives,” Anal. Chem. 80, 8216–8223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip 11, 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T.-W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11, 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, S. Mavandadi, A. F. Coskum, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone,” Anal. Chem. 83, 6641–6647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

J. A. Ferrari, E. Frins, G. Ayubi, J. Gentilini, and C. D. Perciante, “Application of DVD/CD pickup optics to microscopy and fringe projection,” Am. J. Phys. 78, 603–607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (3)

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, “Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5893–5899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, L. M. L. Ou, and H.-Z. Yu, “Digitized molecular diagnostics: reading disk-based bioassays with standard computer drives,” Anal. Chem. 80, 8216–8223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, S. Mavandadi, A. F. Coskum, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone,” Anal. Chem. 83, 6641–6647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Lab Chip (4)

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T.-W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11, 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip 11, 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Schaefer and K. J. Chau, “Improving the signal visibility of optical-disk-drive sensors by analyte patterning and frequency-domain analysis,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 045302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

PLoS ONE (2)

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5, e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS ONE 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLos ONE 4, e6230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

http://www.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/Haseloff/analysis/cheaposcope/index.html .

N. Kihara, K. Osato, and K. Kishima, “Microscope system and method of controlling a microscope system,” U.S. patent application 20110102572 (5May2011).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the low-cost, portable microscope system. (a) The upper portion of the microscope is an adapted optical pickup unit consisting of an LED light source, a beam splitter, a moving objective lens mounted on a coil actuator, and a web camera. We create an armature attachment to the optical pickup unit holding a condenser lens and another LED light source. (b) Mechanical stage of the microscope consisting of two linear translations stages extracted from optical disk drives.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Exploded view of the microscope system highlighting the integration of its optical and mechanical components. The optical pickup unit is mounted on the upper translation stage, and a custom-machined slide holder is mounted on the lower translation stage. The configuration permits full three-dimensional translation of the objective lens with respect to a sample. (b) Image of the prototype microscope system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Image of a calibration slide consisting of 10 μm spaced rulings using white-light illumination in (a) transmission mode and (b) reflection mode. Image of dispersed fluorescent beads (10 μm diameter) using (c) white-light illumination in transmission mode and (d) UV (460 nm) illumination in reflection mode. The fluorescence image has been obtained using a 20 nm bandpass filter centered at the emission wavelength of 500 nm placed in front of the camera. The beads were dispensed in solution onto a microscope slide, air dried, and imaged without a coverslip. The images are directly obtained from the web camera and have not been digitally processed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of bright-field transmission images of stained biological samples (mounted between a microscope slide and a coverslip) captured using our portable automated microscope and a conventional laboratory-grade microscope (Zeiss Axio Imager). The images are color matched and cropped to match their FOVs, but are otherwise unprocessed. Stained human red blood cells viewed using (a) our portable microscope and (b) the conventional microscope using a 50× objective lens. Small intestine cross section viewed using (c) our portable microscope and (d) the conventional microscope using a 20× objective lens. Spinal cord cross section viewed using (e) our portable microscope and (f) the conventional microscope using a 20× objective lens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Left: flow chart describing the autofocusing algorithm. The algorithm iteratively searches for the lens position yielding the maximum image sharpness. Right: sequence of images corresponding to the sharpest image detected by the autofocusing algorithm after five successive lens position searches.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Implementation of an algorithm to image large-area sample areas with high magnification. (a) Mosaic of images taken automatically by the microscope of a sample consisting of dispersed beads (10–50 μm in diameter). The blue lines highlight the edges of the individual images. (b) The images are then blended to create a single composite image covering an area of 0.45mm×0.35mm. Image blending is performed using Adobe Photoshop CS3.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Composite image generation using our microscope implementation. (a) Image of a calibration slide over an area of 0.25mm×0.83mm under white-light illumination in transmission mode. (b) and (c) show bright-field and fluorescence images, respectively, of dispersed fluorescent beads (10 μm diameter) over an area of 1.0mm×0.6mm. Images (a) and (b) have not been digitally processed. Image (c) has been digitally sharpened using an image sharpening function in Adobe Photoshop CS3 to accentuate the edges of the beads.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of large-area (0.53mm×0.50mm) bright-field transmission images of Penicillium fungi that are (a) created by stitching multiple images taken using our portable microscope and (b) captured using a conventional laboratory-grade microscope (Zeiss Axio Imager) using a 20× objective lens. The images are color matched, but are otherwise unprocessed. Note that the fungi sample shifted slightly in the time between the acquisition of the two images.

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