Abstract

A noninvasive eye tracking system based on infrared 3-D video-oculographic techniques is proposed for the automatic monitoring of eye position and orientation in external beam radiotherapy of ocular tumors. The presented method can be applied for the real-time estimation of lesion position and tumor–beam misalignments, allowing automatic patient setup and eye movement gated treatments. A prototypal eye tracker was developed and tested on five subjects, achieving gaze estimation errors of 0.5° and eye monitoring frequencies of 125 Hz. The proposed application can potentially improve quality and efficacy of ocular radiotherapy treatments, currently based on invasive, qualitative, and manual control procedures.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2011

R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Kacperek, “Protontherapy of eye tumours in the UK: a review of treatment at Clatterbridge,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67, 378–386 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Villanueva and R. Cabeza, “A novel gaze estimation system with one calibration point,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 38, 1123–1138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Z. Zhu and Q. Ji, “Novel eye gaze tracking techniques under natural head movement,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54, 2246–2260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Guestrin and M. Eizenman, “General theory of remote gaze estimation using the pupil center and corneal reflections,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1124–1133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Gragoudas, “Proton beam irradiation of uveal melanomas: the first 30 years. The Weisenfeld Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4666–4673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. Damato, “Developments in the management of uveal melanoma,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 32, 639–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Shih and J. Liu, “A novel approach to 3-D gaze tracking using stereo cameras,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 34, 234–245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Petersch, J. Bogner, K. Dieckmann, R. Pötter, and D. Georga, “Automatic real-time surveillance of eye position and gating for stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma,” Med. Phys. 31, 3521–3527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jaywant, E. K. Osei, and S. Ladak, “Stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of ocular melanoma: a noninvasive eye fixation aid and tracking system,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 4, 156–161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. H. Char, S. Kroll, T. L. Phillips, and J. M. Quivey, “Late radiation failures after iodine 125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma compared with charged-particle (proton or helium ion) therapy,” Ophthalmol. 109, 1850–1854 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Dieckmann, J. Bogner, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, G. Kren, and R. Pötter, “A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma,” Radiother. Oncol. 61, 49–56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330–1334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

ICNIRP, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38–3 µm),” Health Phys. 73, 539–554 (1997).

1996

I. K. Daftari, T. R. Renner, L. J. Verhey, R. P. Singh, M. Nyman, P. L. Petti, and J. R. Castro, “New UCSF proton ocular beam facility at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory Cyclotron (UC Davis),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 380, 597–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, J.

D. Li, J. Babcock, and D. J. Parkhurst, “OpenEyes: A low-cost head-mounted eye-tracking solution,” in Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA, 2006), pp. 95–100.

Babcock, J. S.

J. S. Babcock and J. B. Pelz, “Building a lightweight eyetracking headgear,” in Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA, 2004), pp. 109–113.

Bechrakis, N. E.

S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogner, J.

K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Petersch, J. Bogner, K. Dieckmann, R. Pötter, and D. Georga, “Automatic real-time surveillance of eye position and gating for stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma,” Med. Phys. 31, 3521–3527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Dieckmann, J. Bogner, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, G. Kren, and R. Pötter, “A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma,” Radiother. Oncol. 61, 49–56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bondiau, P. Y.

P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bradski, G.

G. Bradski and A. Kaehler, Learning OpenCV (O’Reilly Media, 2008).

Cabeza, R.

A. Villanueva and R. Cabeza, “A novel gaze estimation system with one calibration point,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 38, 1123–1138 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Goni, J. Echeto, A. Villanueva, and R. Cabeza, “Robust algorithm for pupil-glint vector detection in a video-oculography eyetracking system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 941–944.

Castro, J. R.

I. K. Daftari, T. R. Renner, L. J. Verhey, R. P. Singh, M. Nyman, P. L. Petti, and J. R. Castro, “New UCSF proton ocular beam facility at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory Cyclotron (UC Davis),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 380, 597–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caujolle, J. P.

P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Char, D. H.

D. H. Char, S. Kroll, T. L. Phillips, and J. M. Quivey, “Late radiation failures after iodine 125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma compared with charged-particle (proton or helium ion) therapy,” Ophthalmol. 109, 1850–1854 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chauvel, P.

P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, Y. Tong, W. Gray, and Q. Ji, “A robust 3-D eye gaze tracking system using noise reduction,” in Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA, 2008), pp. 189–196.

Chorvat, M.

K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cirrone, G. A. P.

G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cordini, D.

S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Courdi, A.

P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuttone, G.

G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daftari, I. K.

I. K. Daftari, T. R. Renner, L. J. Verhey, R. P. Singh, M. Nyman, P. L. Petti, and J. R. Castro, “New UCSF proton ocular beam facility at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory Cyclotron (UC Davis),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 380, 597–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Damato, B.

B. Damato, “Developments in the management of uveal melanoma,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 32, 639–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dieckmann, K.

R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Petersch, J. Bogner, K. Dieckmann, R. Pötter, and D. Georga, “Automatic real-time surveillance of eye position and gating for stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma,” Med. Phys. 31, 3521–3527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Dieckmann, J. Bogner, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, G. Kren, and R. Pötter, “A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma,” Radiother. Oncol. 61, 49–56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dunavoelgyi, R.

R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Echeto, J.

S. Goni, J. Echeto, A. Villanueva, and R. Cabeza, “Robust algorithm for pupil-glint vector detection in a video-oculography eyetracking system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 941–944.

Eizenman, M.

E. D. Guestrin and M. Eizenman, “General theory of remote gaze estimation using the pupil center and corneal reflections,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1124–1133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Guestrin, and M. Eizenman, “Remote point-of-gaze estimation with free head movements requiring a single-point calibration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 4556–4560.

Foerster, M. H.

S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gastaud, P.

P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Georg, D.

R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Dieckmann, J. Bogner, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, G. Kren, and R. Pötter, “A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma,” Radiother. Oncol. 61, 49–56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Georga, D.

B. Petersch, J. Bogner, K. Dieckmann, R. Pötter, and D. Georga, “Automatic real-time surveillance of eye position and gating for stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma,” Med. Phys. 31, 3521–3527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georgopoulos, M.

R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gleiss, A.

R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goni, S.

S. Goni, J. Echeto, A. Villanueva, and R. Cabeza, “Robust algorithm for pupil-glint vector detection in a video-oculography eyetracking system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 941–944.

Gragoudas, E. S.

E. S. Gragoudas, “Proton beam irradiation of uveal melanomas: the first 30 years. The Weisenfeld Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4666–4673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gray, W.

J. Chen, Y. Tong, W. Gray, and Q. Ji, “A robust 3-D eye gaze tracking system using noise reduction,” in Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA, 2008), pp. 189–196.

Guestrin, E. D.

E. D. Guestrin and M. Eizenman, “General theory of remote gaze estimation using the pupil center and corneal reflections,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1124–1133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Guestrin, and M. Eizenman, “Remote point-of-gaze estimation with free head movements requiring a single-point calibration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 4556–4560.

Hammoud, R. I.

R. I. Hammoud, Passive Eye Monitoring: Algorithms, Applications and Experiments (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

Heufelder, J.

S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hinkelbein, W.

S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Höcht, S.

S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iborra, N.

P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
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S. M. Jaywant, E. K. Osei, and S. Ladak, “Stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of ocular melanoma: a noninvasive eye fixation aid and tracking system,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 4, 156–161 (2003).
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Ji, Q.

Z. Zhu and Q. Ji, “Novel eye gaze tracking techniques under natural head movement,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54, 2246–2260 (2007).
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J. Chen, Y. Tong, W. Gray, and Q. Ji, “A robust 3-D eye gaze tracking system using noise reduction,” in Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA, 2008), pp. 189–196.

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P. Viola and M. Jones, “Rapid object detection using a boosted cascade of simple features,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 511–518.

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A. Kacperek, “Protontherapy of eye tumours in the UK: a review of treatment at Clatterbridge,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67, 378–386 (2009).
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D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
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S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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K. Dieckmann, J. Bogner, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, G. Kren, and R. Pötter, “A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma,” Radiother. Oncol. 61, 49–56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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D. H. Char, S. Kroll, T. L. Phillips, and J. M. Quivey, “Late radiation failures after iodine 125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma compared with charged-particle (proton or helium ion) therapy,” Ophthalmol. 109, 1850–1854 (2002).
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S. M. Jaywant, E. K. Osei, and S. Ladak, “Stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of ocular melanoma: a noninvasive eye fixation aid and tracking system,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 4, 156–161 (2003).
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D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
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Lim, Y.

D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
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S. W. Shih and J. Liu, “A novel approach to 3-D gaze tracking using stereo cameras,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 34, 234–245 (2004).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
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S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
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I. K. Daftari, T. R. Renner, L. J. Verhey, R. P. Singh, M. Nyman, P. L. Petti, and J. R. Castro, “New UCSF proton ocular beam facility at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory Cyclotron (UC Davis),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 380, 597–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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S. M. Jaywant, E. K. Osei, and S. Ladak, “Stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of ocular melanoma: a noninvasive eye fixation aid and tracking system,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 4, 156–161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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D. Li, J. Babcock, and D. J. Parkhurst, “OpenEyes: A low-cost head-mounted eye-tracking solution,” in Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA, 2006), pp. 95–100.

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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Petersch, J. Bogner, K. Dieckmann, R. Pötter, and D. Georga, “Automatic real-time surveillance of eye position and gating for stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma,” Med. Phys. 31, 3521–3527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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L. C. Silva, A. Petraglia, and M. R. Petraglia, “A robust method for camera calibration and 3-D reconstruction for stereo vision systems,” in Proceedings of European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO, 2004), pp. 1151–1554.

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I. K. Daftari, T. R. Renner, L. J. Verhey, R. P. Singh, M. Nyman, P. L. Petti, and J. R. Castro, “New UCSF proton ocular beam facility at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory Cyclotron (UC Davis),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 380, 597–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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P. Y. Bondiau, G. Malandain, P. Chauvel, F. Peyrade, A. Courdi, N. Iborra, J. P. Caujolle, and P. Gastaud, “Automatic three-dimensional model for protontherapy of the eye: preliminary results,” Med. Phys. 30, 1013–1020 (2003).
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D. H. Char, S. Kroll, T. L. Phillips, and J. M. Quivey, “Late radiation failures after iodine 125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma compared with charged-particle (proton or helium ion) therapy,” Ophthalmol. 109, 1850–1854 (2002).
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R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
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K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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B. Petersch, J. Bogner, K. Dieckmann, R. Pötter, and D. Georga, “Automatic real-time surveillance of eye position and gating for stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma,” Med. Phys. 31, 3521–3527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Dieckmann, J. Bogner, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, G. Kren, and R. Pötter, “A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma,” Radiother. Oncol. 61, 49–56 (2001).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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D. H. Char, S. Kroll, T. L. Phillips, and J. M. Quivey, “Late radiation failures after iodine 125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma compared with charged-particle (proton or helium ion) therapy,” Ophthalmol. 109, 1850–1854 (2002).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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I. K. Daftari, T. R. Renner, L. J. Verhey, R. P. Singh, M. Nyman, P. L. Petti, and J. R. Castro, “New UCSF proton ocular beam facility at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory Cyclotron (UC Davis),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 380, 597–612 (1996).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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S. W. Shih and J. Liu, “A novel approach to 3-D gaze tracking using stereo cameras,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 34, 234–245 (2004).
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D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
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L. C. Silva, A. Petraglia, and M. R. Petraglia, “A robust method for camera calibration and 3-D reconstruction for stereo vision systems,” in Proceedings of European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO, 2004), pp. 1151–1554.

Singh, R. P.

I. K. Daftari, T. R. Renner, L. J. Verhey, R. P. Singh, M. Nyman, P. L. Petti, and J. R. Castro, “New UCSF proton ocular beam facility at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory Cyclotron (UC Davis),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 380, 597–612 (1996).
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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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S. Höcht, R. Stark, F. Seiler, J. Heufelder, N. E. Bechrakis, D. Cordini, S. Marnitz, H. Kluge, M. H. Foerster, and W. Hinkelbein, “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 181, 783–788 (2005).
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J. Chen, Y. Tong, W. Gray, and Q. Ji, “A robust 3-D eye gaze tracking system using noise reduction,” in Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA, 2008), pp. 189–196.

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G. A. P. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, P. A. Lojacono, S. Lo Nigro, V. Mongelli, I. V. Patti, G. Privitera, L. Raffaele, D. Rifuggiato, M. G. Sabini, V. Salamone, C. Spatola, and L. M. Valastro, “A 62 MeV Proton beam for the treatment of ocular melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN (CATANIA),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 860–865 (2004).
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I. K. Daftari, T. R. Renner, L. J. Verhey, R. P. Singh, M. Nyman, P. L. Petti, and J. R. Castro, “New UCSF proton ocular beam facility at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory Cyclotron (UC Davis),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 380, 597–612 (1996).
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P. Viola and M. Jones, “Rapid object detection using a boosted cascade of simple features,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 511–518.

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K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
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D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
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R. Dunavoelgyi, K. Dieckmann, A. Gleiss, S. Sacu, K. Kircher, M. Georgopoulos, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, and R. Poetter, “Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 81, 199–205 (2011).
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K. Dieckmann, D. Georg, J. Bogner, M. Zehetmayer, B. Petersch, M. Chorvat, H. Weitmann, and R. Potter, “Optimizing linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years’ clinical experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, S47–S52 (2006).
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K. Dieckmann, J. Bogner, D. Georg, M. Zehetmayer, G. Kren, and R. Pötter, “A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma,” Radiother. Oncol. 61, 49–56 (2001).
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D. Shin, M. Yoon, Y. Lim, D. Kim, S. Ahn, S. Lee, S. Park, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “The development of eye treatment gating system for the proton therapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 2562 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Captured image of the monitored eye, showing the dark pupil and two corneal reflections.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of the modeled eyeball, showing the orientation of the eye coordinate system identified from the cornea (C) and pupil (P) centers. The glints (G), the light sources (L), and the optical centers (O) of the cameras are also represented.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Hardware components of the implemented eye tracking prototype.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Graphical user interface of the eye tracking application. The occurrence of an ocular movement is represented, simulating an overthreshold deviation between the lesion and the radiation beam.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spatial distribution of the gaze points estimated in Session I for subjects 2(a) and 3(b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Percentages of the computational time associated to the different functions involved in eye monitoring.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Accuracy Results of the 3-D Reconstruction Test

Tables Icon

Table 2. Accuracy Results of the Eye Gaze Estimation Test

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Table 3. Results of the Computational Performance Test

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s 1 = l 1 + v 1 t and s 2 = l 2 + v 2 t ,
t = ( v 3 × v 2 ) · ( v 1 × v 2 ) v 1 × v 2 2 .
l = l 2 ( l q ) T n ) n ,
g = c + k [ sin ( φ ) cos ( ω ) sin ( ω ) cos ( φ ) cos ( ω ) ] ,
k = c z cos ( φ ) cos ( ω ) .

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