Abstract

This paper proposes a three-dimensional scanner system, which is built by using an ingenious geometric construction method based on monocular vision. The system is simple, low cost, and easy to use, and the measurement results are very precise. To build it, one web camera, one handheld linear laser, and one background calibration board are required. The experimental results show that the system is robust and effective, and the scanning precision can be satisfied for normal users.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 12, 1–8 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Lanman and G. Taubin, “Build your own 3D scanner: 3D photography for beginners,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’09 (ACM, 2009), article no. 8.
  4. D. Lanman and G. Taubin, “Build your own 3D scanner: optical triangulation for beginners,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia ’09 (ACM, 2009), article no. 2.
  5. S. Y. Park and M. Subbarao, “A multiview 3D modeling system based on stereo vision techniques,” Mach. Vis. Appl. 3, 148–156 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Censi, L. Iocchi, and G. Grisetti, “Scan matching in the Hough domain,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 2739–2744.
  7. M. A. Merraez, J. G. Boticario, M. J. Labor, and D. R. Burton, “Agglomerative clustering-based approach for two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1129–1140 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Guhring, “Dense 3-D surface acquisition by structured light using off-the-shelf components,” Proc. SPIE 4309, 220–231 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Wang, K. Liu, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Period coded phase shifting strategy for 3-D real-time acquisition and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 3001–3013 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Winkelbach, S. Molkenstruck, and F. M. Wahl, “Low-cost laser range scanner and fast surface registration approach,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 4174, 718–728 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Molkenstruck, S. Winkelbach, and F. M. Wahl, “3D body scanning in a mirror cabinet,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 5096, 284–293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sheehan, A. Harrison, and P. Newman, “Automatic self-calibration of a full field-of-view 3D n-laser scanner,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (2010) (Mobile Robotics Group, Oxford University, 2010), pp. 1–14.
  13. E. Nasset and R. Nelson, “Using airborne laser scanning to monitor tree migration in the boreal-alpine transition zone,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 357–369, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Lv and Z. Zhang, “Build 3D laser scanner based on binocular stereo vision,” in Proceedings of 2011 Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, Vol. 1 (IEEE, 2011), pp. 600–603.
  15. Z. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Shi, “An algorithm for detecting center of structured light stripe combining gradient sharpening with Barvcenter method,” J. Image Graphics 13(1), 64–68 (2008).
  16. H. Xiong, Z. Zong, Q. Gao, and C. Chen, “Precise method for extracting center of structured light stripe,” Comput. Eng. Appl. 45(10), 235–237 (2009).
  17. J. Wu, P. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Wu, “Method of linear structured light sub-pixel center position extracting based on gradient barycenter,” J. Image Graphics 14(7), 1354–1360 (2009).

2011 (1)

Y. Wang, K. Liu, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Period coded phase shifting strategy for 3-D real-time acquisition and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 3001–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Xiong, Z. Zong, Q. Gao, and C. Chen, “Precise method for extracting center of structured light stripe,” Comput. Eng. Appl. 45(10), 235–237 (2009).

J. Wu, P. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Wu, “Method of linear structured light sub-pixel center position extracting based on gradient barycenter,” J. Image Graphics 14(7), 1354–1360 (2009).

2008 (2)

Z. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Shi, “An algorithm for detecting center of structured light stripe combining gradient sharpening with Barvcenter method,” J. Image Graphics 13(1), 64–68 (2008).

S. Molkenstruck, S. Winkelbach, and F. M. Wahl, “3D body scanning in a mirror cabinet,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 5096, 284–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. Nasset and R. Nelson, “Using airborne laser scanning to monitor tree migration in the boreal-alpine transition zone,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 357–369, (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Winkelbach, S. Molkenstruck, and F. M. Wahl, “Low-cost laser range scanner and fast surface registration approach,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 4174, 718–728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 12, 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

S. Y. Park and M. Subbarao, “A multiview 3D modeling system based on stereo vision techniques,” Mach. Vis. Appl. 3, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Guhring, “Dense 3-D surface acquisition by structured light using off-the-shelf components,” Proc. SPIE 4309, 220–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boticario, J. G.

Brown, G. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burton, D. R.

Censi, A.

A. Censi, L. Iocchi, and G. Grisetti, “Scan matching in the Hough domain,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 2739–2744.

Chen, C.

H. Xiong, Z. Zong, Q. Gao, and C. Chen, “Precise method for extracting center of structured light stripe,” Comput. Eng. Appl. 45(10), 235–237 (2009).

Chen, F.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Wu, P. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Wu, “Method of linear structured light sub-pixel center position extracting based on gradient barycenter,” J. Image Graphics 14(7), 1354–1360 (2009).

Gao, Q.

H. Xiong, Z. Zong, Q. Gao, and C. Chen, “Precise method for extracting center of structured light stripe,” Comput. Eng. Appl. 45(10), 235–237 (2009).

Grisetti, G.

A. Censi, L. Iocchi, and G. Grisetti, “Scan matching in the Hough domain,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 2739–2744.

Guhring, J.

J. Guhring, “Dense 3-D surface acquisition by structured light using off-the-shelf components,” Proc. SPIE 4309, 220–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, A.

M. Sheehan, A. Harrison, and P. Newman, “Automatic self-calibration of a full field-of-view 3D n-laser scanner,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (2010) (Mobile Robotics Group, Oxford University, 2010), pp. 1–14.

Hassebrook, L. G.

Y. Wang, K. Liu, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Period coded phase shifting strategy for 3-D real-time acquisition and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 3001–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. S.

S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 12, 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iocchi, L.

A. Censi, L. Iocchi, and G. Grisetti, “Scan matching in the Hough domain,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 2739–2744.

Labor, M. J.

Lanman, D.

D. Lanman and G. Taubin, “Build your own 3D scanner: 3D photography for beginners,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’09 (ACM, 2009), article no. 8.

D. Lanman and G. Taubin, “Build your own 3D scanner: optical triangulation for beginners,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia ’09 (ACM, 2009), article no. 2.

Lau, D. L.

Y. Wang, K. Liu, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Period coded phase shifting strategy for 3-D real-time acquisition and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 3001–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Shi, “An algorithm for detecting center of structured light stripe combining gradient sharpening with Barvcenter method,” J. Image Graphics 13(1), 64–68 (2008).

Liu, K.

Y. Wang, K. Liu, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Period coded phase shifting strategy for 3-D real-time acquisition and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 3001–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Z.

Z. Lv and Z. Zhang, “Build 3D laser scanner based on binocular stereo vision,” in Proceedings of 2011 Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, Vol. 1 (IEEE, 2011), pp. 600–603.

Merraez, M. A.

Molkenstruck, S.

S. Molkenstruck, S. Winkelbach, and F. M. Wahl, “3D body scanning in a mirror cabinet,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 5096, 284–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Winkelbach, S. Molkenstruck, and F. M. Wahl, “Low-cost laser range scanner and fast surface registration approach,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 4174, 718–728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nasset, E.

E. Nasset and R. Nelson, “Using airborne laser scanning to monitor tree migration in the boreal-alpine transition zone,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 357–369, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R.

E. Nasset and R. Nelson, “Using airborne laser scanning to monitor tree migration in the boreal-alpine transition zone,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 357–369, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P.

M. Sheehan, A. Harrison, and P. Newman, “Automatic self-calibration of a full field-of-view 3D n-laser scanner,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (2010) (Mobile Robotics Group, Oxford University, 2010), pp. 1–14.

Park, S. Y.

S. Y. Park and M. Subbarao, “A multiview 3D modeling system based on stereo vision techniques,” Mach. Vis. Appl. 3, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, M.

M. Sheehan, A. Harrison, and P. Newman, “Automatic self-calibration of a full field-of-view 3D n-laser scanner,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (2010) (Mobile Robotics Group, Oxford University, 2010), pp. 1–14.

Shi, Y.

Z. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Shi, “An algorithm for detecting center of structured light stripe combining gradient sharpening with Barvcenter method,” J. Image Graphics 13(1), 64–68 (2008).

Song, M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Subbarao, M.

S. Y. Park and M. Subbarao, “A multiview 3D modeling system based on stereo vision techniques,” Mach. Vis. Appl. 3, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taubin, G.

D. Lanman and G. Taubin, “Build your own 3D scanner: optical triangulation for beginners,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia ’09 (ACM, 2009), article no. 2.

D. Lanman and G. Taubin, “Build your own 3D scanner: 3D photography for beginners,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’09 (ACM, 2009), article no. 8.

Wahl, F. M.

S. Molkenstruck, S. Winkelbach, and F. M. Wahl, “3D body scanning in a mirror cabinet,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 5096, 284–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Winkelbach, S. Molkenstruck, and F. M. Wahl, “Low-cost laser range scanner and fast surface registration approach,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 4174, 718–728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Z. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Shi, “An algorithm for detecting center of structured light stripe combining gradient sharpening with Barvcenter method,” J. Image Graphics 13(1), 64–68 (2008).

Wang, P.

J. Wu, P. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Wu, “Method of linear structured light sub-pixel center position extracting based on gradient barycenter,” J. Image Graphics 14(7), 1354–1360 (2009).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Liu, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Period coded phase shifting strategy for 3-D real-time acquisition and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 3001–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Winkelbach, S.

S. Molkenstruck, S. Winkelbach, and F. M. Wahl, “3D body scanning in a mirror cabinet,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 5096, 284–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Winkelbach, S. Molkenstruck, and F. M. Wahl, “Low-cost laser range scanner and fast surface registration approach,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 4174, 718–728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, P. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Wu, “Method of linear structured light sub-pixel center position extracting based on gradient barycenter,” J. Image Graphics 14(7), 1354–1360 (2009).

Wu, M.

J. Wu, P. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Wu, “Method of linear structured light sub-pixel center position extracting based on gradient barycenter,” J. Image Graphics 14(7), 1354–1360 (2009).

Xiong, H.

H. Xiong, Z. Zong, Q. Gao, and C. Chen, “Precise method for extracting center of structured light stripe,” Comput. Eng. Appl. 45(10), 235–237 (2009).

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 12, 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Lv and Z. Zhang, “Build 3D laser scanner based on binocular stereo vision,” in Proceedings of 2011 Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, Vol. 1 (IEEE, 2011), pp. 600–603.

Zong, Z.

H. Xiong, Z. Zong, Q. Gao, and C. Chen, “Precise method for extracting center of structured light stripe,” Comput. Eng. Appl. 45(10), 235–237 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Eng. Appl. (1)

H. Xiong, Z. Zong, Q. Gao, and C. Chen, “Precise method for extracting center of structured light stripe,” Comput. Eng. Appl. 45(10), 235–237 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

Y. Wang, K. Liu, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Period coded phase shifting strategy for 3-D real-time acquisition and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 3001–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Image Graphics (2)

J. Wu, P. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Wu, “Method of linear structured light sub-pixel center position extracting based on gradient barycenter,” J. Image Graphics 14(7), 1354–1360 (2009).

Z. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Shi, “An algorithm for detecting center of structured light stripe combining gradient sharpening with Barvcenter method,” J. Image Graphics 13(1), 64–68 (2008).

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (2)

S. Winkelbach, S. Molkenstruck, and F. M. Wahl, “Low-cost laser range scanner and fast surface registration approach,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 4174, 718–728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Molkenstruck, S. Winkelbach, and F. M. Wahl, “3D body scanning in a mirror cabinet,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 5096, 284–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mach. Vis. Appl. (1)

S. Y. Park and M. Subbarao, “A multiview 3D modeling system based on stereo vision techniques,” Mach. Vis. Appl. 3, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 12, 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Guhring, “Dense 3-D surface acquisition by structured light using off-the-shelf components,” Proc. SPIE 4309, 220–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

E. Nasset and R. Nelson, “Using airborne laser scanning to monitor tree migration in the boreal-alpine transition zone,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 357–369, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Z. Lv and Z. Zhang, “Build 3D laser scanner based on binocular stereo vision,” in Proceedings of 2011 Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, Vol. 1 (IEEE, 2011), pp. 600–603.

M. Sheehan, A. Harrison, and P. Newman, “Automatic self-calibration of a full field-of-view 3D n-laser scanner,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (2010) (Mobile Robotics Group, Oxford University, 2010), pp. 1–14.

A. Censi, L. Iocchi, and G. Grisetti, “Scan matching in the Hough domain,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 2739–2744.

D. Lanman and G. Taubin, “Build your own 3D scanner: 3D photography for beginners,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’09 (ACM, 2009), article no. 8.

D. Lanman and G. Taubin, “Build your own 3D scanner: optical triangulation for beginners,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia ’09 (ACM, 2009), article no. 2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometric transform of a projection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Construction of the geometric space by the background calibration board.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A linear laser can be used to irradiate the object that is placed before the background calibration board.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

How to determine the laser plane when there is a little error.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simple background pattern for the image distance calibration.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Camera–image distance calibration.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Scanned results of terracotta warriors.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Scanned results of clay pots.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Dependence Test Results for Laser Color, Wavelength, and Power and Illumination of Environmental Light for Different Laser Line Extraction Methods

Tables Icon

Table 2. Scanning Speeds for Different Image Sizes

Tables Icon

Table 3. Scanning Accuracy Situations for Different Scanning Distances

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d12+d22a2=(t1d1)2+(t2d2)2m2t1t2,d22+d32b2=(t2d2)2+(t3d3)2m2t2t3,d12+d32c2=(t1d1)2+(t3d3)24m2t1t3.
d1=xA2+yA2+dz2,d2=xB2+yB2+dz2,d3=xC2+yC2+dz2,
a=(xAxB)2+(yAyB)2,b=(xBxC)2+(yByC)2,c=(xAxC)2+(yAyC)2,
U=d12+d22a2,V=d22+d32b2,W=d12+d32c2,
T1=(Ud22)d122W(d12U2+d224),T2=(Vd22)d322W(d32V2+d224),M1=d224(Ud22)d322W,M2=d224(Vd22)d122W,N1=(Ud22)4m22Wm2,N2=(Vd2)24m22Wm2.
t1=M1N2+T2N1T1T2M1M2,t3=M2N1+T1N2T1T2M1M2,t2=t1+t32.
dzDAE=DOCεDAE,dzDAE=DOCεDAE.
ε=DAEDOCDAEDOCDAEDAE,
dz=DAEDAE(DOCDOC)DAE(DAEDAE).
Gc=i=ublbPiNii=ublbNi.
I(i,j)P=k=1n(V(i,j)RV((i.j))N)2.

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