Abstract

A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was developed for determination of toxic metals Cr in wastewater collected from a refuse incineration power plant near Poyang Lake. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm on the surface of liquid. Experimental conditions were optimized for improving the sensitivity and repeatability of the LIBS system through a parametric dependence study in potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7) aqueous solutions. Calibration curves for Cr I 425.43 and 357.87 nm lines are compared and the limit of detection is found to be 39 and 86 ppm, respectively. This calibration curve of Cr I 425.43 nm has been used for quantification of Cr in wastewater collected from a refuse incineration power plant near Poyang Lake where the concentration of Cr is found to be 97 ppm. The results between LIBS and standard analytical technique such as atomic absorption spectroscopy were compared, and the relative standard deviation was 8.5%.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Sarin and K. K. Pant, “Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark,” Bioresource Technol. 97, 15–20 (2006).
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  8. D. Chen, B. Hu, and C. Huang, “Chitosan modified ordered mesoporous silica as micro-column packing materials for on-line flow injection-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination of trace heavy metals in environmental water samples,” Talanta 78, 491–497 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. D. Marcos-Martinez, and J. A. Ayala, “Identification and discrimination of bacterial strains by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and neural networks,” Talanta 84, 730–737 (2011).
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  16. V. Lazic and A. Palucci, “Detection of explosives in traces by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 66, 644–655 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  33. S. Koch and W. Garen, “Detection of chromium in liquids by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1071–1073 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS—an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835–838 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “Detection sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for Cr II in liquid samples,” Appl. Opt. 47, G105–G111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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2012

M. M. Özcan and M. Harmankaya, “Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 184, 313–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. V. Kumar and R. A. Kumar, “Prospects for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for biomedical applications: a review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 673–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcos-Martinez, and J. A. Ayala, “Identification and discrimination of bacterial strains by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and neural networks,” Talanta 84, 730–737 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Lazic and A. Palucci, “Detection of explosives in traces by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 66, 644–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. M. da Silva and D. Santos, “Evaluation of grinding methods for pellets preparation aiming at the analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectrometry,” Talanta 85, 1744–1750 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Christopher and P. X. Fang, “Dynamics of laser-induced cavitation in liquid,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 1131–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Nasr and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome-tanned leather using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z.-X. Wang, J.-Q. Chen, and L.-Y. Chai, “Environmental impact and site-specific human health risks of chromium in the vicinity of a ferro-alloy manufactory, China,” J. Hazard. Mater. 190, 980–985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sadegh Cheri and S. H. Tavassoli, “Quantitative analysis of toxic metals lead and cadmium in water jet by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1227–1233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. E. Sadat, A. F. M. Y. Haider, K. M. Abedin, M. Wahadoszamen, and A. I. Talkukder, “Semiquantitative determination of chromium content of river bed soil of Buriganga River at different locations,” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 34, 123–131 (2010).

F. Zhao and Z. Chen, “Ultra-sensitive detection of heavy metal ions in tap water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with the assistance of electrical-deposition,” Anal. Methods Instrum. 2, 408–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Fortes and T. Ctvrtnícková, “Spectrochemical study for the in situ detection of oil spill residues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 683, 52–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. N. K.-I. Aristidis and G. Ioannou, “On-line sequential injection dispersive liquid—liquid microextraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and lead in water samples,” Talanta 79, 86–91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, B. Hu, and C. Huang, “Chitosan modified ordered mesoporous silica as micro-column packing materials for on-line flow injection-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination of trace heavy metals in environmental water samples,” Talanta 78, 491–497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Godoi, and J. Santos, “Preliminary studies of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb in toys,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 573–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Senesi and M. Dell’Aglio, “Heavy metal concentrations in soils as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), with special emphasis on chromium,” Environ. Res.413–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Owlad and M. K. Aroua, “Removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water and wastewater: a review,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 200, 59–77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “Detection sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for Cr II in liquid samples,” Appl. Opt. 47, G105–G111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen and H. Li, “Fast and sensitive trace metal analysis in aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using wood slice substrates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 64–68 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS—an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water from dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. De Giacomo and M. Dell’Aglio, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 721–738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in wastewater collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Zahromi and A. Bidari, “Dispersive liquid—liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: ultra trace determination of cadmium in water samples,” Anal. Chim. Acta 585, 305–311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pasquini and J. Cortez, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Brazilian Chem. Soc. 18, 463–512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. C. Windom and P. K. Diwakar, “Dual-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for analysis of gaseous and aerosol systems: plasma-analyte interactions,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 788–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Sarin and K. K. Pant, “Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark,” Bioresource Technol. 97, 15–20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Díaz Pace and C. A. D’Angelo, “Analysis of heavy metals in liquids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy by liquid-to-solid matrix conversion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 929–933 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

V. Lazic and F. Colao, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in water: improvement of the detection threshold by signal processing,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1002–1013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. St-Onge, and E. Kwong, “Rapid analysis of liquid formulations containing sodium chloride using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 36, 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Koch and W. Garen, “Detection of chromium in liquids by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1071–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

J.-S. Huang and C.-B. Ke, “The correlation between ion production and emission intensity in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquid droplets,” Spectrochim. Acta B 57, 35–48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. O. Cáceres and J. Tornero López, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 831–838(2001).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. M.

M. E. Sadat, A. F. M. Y. Haider, K. M. Abedin, M. Wahadoszamen, and A. I. Talkukder, “Semiquantitative determination of chromium content of river bed soil of Buriganga River at different locations,” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 34, 123–131 (2010).

Aristidis, A. N. K.-I.

A. N. K.-I. Aristidis and G. Ioannou, “On-line sequential injection dispersive liquid—liquid microextraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and lead in water samples,” Talanta 79, 86–91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aroua, M. K.

M. Owlad and M. K. Aroua, “Removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water and wastewater: a review,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 200, 59–77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ayala, J. A.

D. Marcos-Martinez, and J. A. Ayala, “Identification and discrimination of bacterial strains by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and neural networks,” Talanta 84, 730–737 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bidari, A.

E. Zahromi and A. Bidari, “Dispersive liquid—liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: ultra trace determination of cadmium in water samples,” Anal. Chim. Acta 585, 305–311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cáceres, J. O.

J. O. Cáceres and J. Tornero López, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 831–838(2001).
[CrossRef]

Chai, L.-Y.

Z.-X. Wang, J.-Q. Chen, and L.-Y. Chai, “Environmental impact and site-specific human health risks of chromium in the vicinity of a ferro-alloy manufactory, China,” J. Hazard. Mater. 190, 980–985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, B. Hu, and C. Huang, “Chitosan modified ordered mesoporous silica as micro-column packing materials for on-line flow injection-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination of trace heavy metals in environmental water samples,” Talanta 78, 491–497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-Q.

Z.-X. Wang, J.-Q. Chen, and L.-Y. Chai, “Environmental impact and site-specific human health risks of chromium in the vicinity of a ferro-alloy manufactory, China,” J. Hazard. Mater. 190, 980–985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

F. Zhao and Z. Chen, “Ultra-sensitive detection of heavy metal ions in tap water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with the assistance of electrical-deposition,” Anal. Methods Instrum. 2, 408–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen and H. Li, “Fast and sensitive trace metal analysis in aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using wood slice substrates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 64–68 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christopher, S.

S. Christopher and P. X. Fang, “Dynamics of laser-induced cavitation in liquid,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 1131–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Colao, F.

V. Lazic and F. Colao, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in water: improvement of the detection threshold by signal processing,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1002–1013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cortez, J.

C. Pasquini and J. Cortez, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Brazilian Chem. Soc. 18, 463–512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ctvrtnícková, T.

F. J. Fortes and T. Ctvrtnícková, “Spectrochemical study for the in situ detection of oil spill residues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 683, 52–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, C. A.

D. M. Díaz Pace and C. A. D’Angelo, “Analysis of heavy metals in liquids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy by liquid-to-solid matrix conversion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 929–933 (2006).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, G. M.

G. M. da Silva and D. Santos, “Evaluation of grinding methods for pellets preparation aiming at the analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectrometry,” Talanta 85, 1744–1750 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Giacomo, A.

A. De Giacomo and M. Dell’Aglio, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 721–738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Aglio, M.

G. S. Senesi and M. Dell’Aglio, “Heavy metal concentrations in soils as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), with special emphasis on chromium,” Environ. Res.413–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo and M. Dell’Aglio, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 721–738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Díaz Pace, D. M.

D. M. Díaz Pace and C. A. D’Angelo, “Analysis of heavy metals in liquids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy by liquid-to-solid matrix conversion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 929–933 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diwakar, P. K.

B. C. Windom and P. K. Diwakar, “Dual-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for analysis of gaseous and aerosol systems: plasma-analyte interactions,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 788–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, P. X.

S. Christopher and P. X. Fang, “Dynamics of laser-induced cavitation in liquid,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 1131–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fortes, F. J.

F. J. Fortes and T. Ctvrtnícková, “Spectrochemical study for the in situ detection of oil spill residues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 683, 52–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garen, W.

S. Koch and W. Garen, “Detection of chromium in liquids by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1071–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Godoi, Q.

Q. Godoi, and J. Santos, “Preliminary studies of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb in toys,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 573–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gondal, M. A.

M. M. Nasr and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome-tanned leather using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water from dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in wastewater collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haider, A. F. M. Y.

M. E. Sadat, A. F. M. Y. Haider, K. M. Abedin, M. Wahadoszamen, and A. I. Talkukder, “Semiquantitative determination of chromium content of river bed soil of Buriganga River at different locations,” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 34, 123–131 (2010).

Harmankaya, M.

M. M. Özcan and M. Harmankaya, “Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 184, 313–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

Hu, B.

D. Chen, B. Hu, and C. Huang, “Chitosan modified ordered mesoporous silica as micro-column packing materials for on-line flow injection-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination of trace heavy metals in environmental water samples,” Talanta 78, 491–497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

D. Chen, B. Hu, and C. Huang, “Chitosan modified ordered mesoporous silica as micro-column packing materials for on-line flow injection-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination of trace heavy metals in environmental water samples,” Talanta 78, 491–497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-S.

J.-S. Huang and C.-B. Ke, “The correlation between ion production and emission intensity in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquid droplets,” Spectrochim. Acta B 57, 35–48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, T.

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water from dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in wastewater collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ioannou, G.

A. N. K.-I. Aristidis and G. Ioannou, “On-line sequential injection dispersive liquid—liquid microextraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and lead in water samples,” Talanta 79, 86–91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ke, C.-B.

J.-S. Huang and C.-B. Ke, “The correlation between ion production and emission intensity in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquid droplets,” Spectrochim. Acta B 57, 35–48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S.

S. Koch and W. Garen, “Detection of chromium in liquids by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1071–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R. A.

S. V. Kumar and R. A. Kumar, “Prospects for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for biomedical applications: a review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 673–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S. V.

S. V. Kumar and R. A. Kumar, “Prospects for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for biomedical applications: a review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 673–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, E.

L. St-Onge, and E. Kwong, “Rapid analysis of liquid formulations containing sodium chloride using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 36, 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lazic, V.

V. Lazic and A. Palucci, “Detection of explosives in traces by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 66, 644–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Lazic and F. Colao, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in water: improvement of the detection threshold by signal processing,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1002–1013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Z. Chen and H. Li, “Fast and sensitive trace metal analysis in aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using wood slice substrates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 64–68 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marcos-Martinez, D.

D. Marcos-Martinez, and J. A. Ayala, “Identification and discrimination of bacterial strains by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and neural networks,” Talanta 84, 730–737 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mercuro, D.

V. Thomsen, D. Schatzlein, and D. Mercuro, “Limits of detection in spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy18, 112–114 (2008).

Nasr, M. M.

M. M. Nasr and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome-tanned leather using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Owlad, M.

M. Owlad and M. K. Aroua, “Removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water and wastewater: a review,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 200, 59–77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Özcan, M. M.

M. M. Özcan and M. Harmankaya, “Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 184, 313–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Palucci, A.

V. Lazic and A. Palucci, “Detection of explosives in traces by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 66, 644–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pant, K. K.

V. Sarin and K. K. Pant, “Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark,” Bioresource Technol. 97, 15–20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pasquini, C.

C. Pasquini and J. Cortez, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Brazilian Chem. Soc. 18, 463–512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, H. L.

Rai, A. K.

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “Detection sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for Cr II in liquid samples,” Appl. Opt. 47, G105–G111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS—an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rai, N. K.

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS—an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “Detection sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for Cr II in liquid samples,” Appl. Opt. 47, G105–G111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sadat, M. E.

M. E. Sadat, A. F. M. Y. Haider, K. M. Abedin, M. Wahadoszamen, and A. I. Talkukder, “Semiquantitative determination of chromium content of river bed soil of Buriganga River at different locations,” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 34, 123–131 (2010).

Sadegh Cheri, M.

Santos, D.

G. M. da Silva and D. Santos, “Evaluation of grinding methods for pellets preparation aiming at the analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectrometry,” Talanta 85, 1744–1750 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J.

Q. Godoi, and J. Santos, “Preliminary studies of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb in toys,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 573–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarin, V.

V. Sarin and K. K. Pant, “Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark,” Bioresource Technol. 97, 15–20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schatzlein, D.

V. Thomsen, D. Schatzlein, and D. Mercuro, “Limits of detection in spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy18, 112–114 (2008).

Senesi, G. S.

G. S. Senesi and M. Dell’Aglio, “Heavy metal concentrations in soils as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), with special emphasis on chromium,” Environ. Res.413–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

St-Onge, L.

L. St-Onge, and E. Kwong, “Rapid analysis of liquid formulations containing sodium chloride using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 36, 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talkukder, A. I.

M. E. Sadat, A. F. M. Y. Haider, K. M. Abedin, M. Wahadoszamen, and A. I. Talkukder, “Semiquantitative determination of chromium content of river bed soil of Buriganga River at different locations,” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 34, 123–131 (2010).

Tavassoli, S. H.

Thomsen, V.

V. Thomsen, D. Schatzlein, and D. Mercuro, “Limits of detection in spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy18, 112–114 (2008).

Tornero López, J.

J. O. Cáceres and J. Tornero López, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 831–838(2001).
[CrossRef]

Wahadoszamen, M.

M. E. Sadat, A. F. M. Y. Haider, K. M. Abedin, M. Wahadoszamen, and A. I. Talkukder, “Semiquantitative determination of chromium content of river bed soil of Buriganga River at different locations,” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 34, 123–131 (2010).

Wang, Z.-X.

Z.-X. Wang, J.-Q. Chen, and L.-Y. Chai, “Environmental impact and site-specific human health risks of chromium in the vicinity of a ferro-alloy manufactory, China,” J. Hazard. Mater. 190, 980–985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Windom, B. C.

B. C. Windom and P. K. Diwakar, “Dual-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for analysis of gaseous and aerosol systems: plasma-analyte interactions,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 788–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zahromi, E.

E. Zahromi and A. Bidari, “Dispersive liquid—liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: ultra trace determination of cadmium in water samples,” Anal. Chim. Acta 585, 305–311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

F. Zhao and Z. Chen, “Ultra-sensitive detection of heavy metal ions in tap water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with the assistance of electrical-deposition,” Anal. Methods Instrum. 2, 408–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

E. Zahromi and A. Bidari, “Dispersive liquid—liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: ultra trace determination of cadmium in water samples,” Anal. Chim. Acta 585, 305–311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Fortes and T. Ctvrtnícková, “Spectrochemical study for the in situ detection of oil spill residues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 683, 52–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Methods Instrum.

F. Zhao and Z. Chen, “Ultra-sensitive detection of heavy metal ions in tap water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with the assistance of electrical-deposition,” Anal. Methods Instrum. 2, 408–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

S. Koch and W. Garen, “Detection of chromium in liquids by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1071–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Christopher and P. X. Fang, “Dynamics of laser-induced cavitation in liquid,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 1131–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Bioresource Technol.

V. Sarin and K. K. Pant, “Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark,” Bioresource Technol. 97, 15–20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water from dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Monit. Assess.

M. M. Özcan and M. Harmankaya, “Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 184, 313–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Nasr and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome-tanned leather using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Res.

G. S. Senesi and M. Dell’Aglio, “Heavy metal concentrations in soils as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), with special emphasis on chromium,” Environ. Res.413–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci.

M. E. Sadat, A. F. M. Y. Haider, K. M. Abedin, M. Wahadoszamen, and A. I. Talkukder, “Semiquantitative determination of chromium content of river bed soil of Buriganga River at different locations,” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 34, 123–131 (2010).

J. Brazilian Chem. Soc.

C. Pasquini and J. Cortez, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Brazilian Chem. Soc. 18, 463–512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hazard. Mater.

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS—an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z.-X. Wang, J.-Q. Chen, and L.-Y. Chai, “Environmental impact and site-specific human health risks of chromium in the vicinity of a ferro-alloy manufactory, China,” J. Hazard. Mater. 190, 980–985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.

L. St-Onge, and E. Kwong, “Rapid analysis of liquid formulations containing sodium chloride using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 36, 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci.

S. V. Kumar and R. A. Kumar, “Prospects for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for biomedical applications: a review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 673–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B

Q. Godoi, and J. Santos, “Preliminary studies of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb in toys,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 573–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Lazic and A. Palucci, “Detection of explosives in traces by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 66, 644–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Lazic and F. Colao, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in water: improvement of the detection threshold by signal processing,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1002–1013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Windom and P. K. Diwakar, “Dual-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for analysis of gaseous and aerosol systems: plasma-analyte interactions,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 788–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo and M. Dell’Aglio, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 721–738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Huang and C.-B. Ke, “The correlation between ion production and emission intensity in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquid droplets,” Spectrochim. Acta B 57, 35–48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Díaz Pace and C. A. D’Angelo, “Analysis of heavy metals in liquids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy by liquid-to-solid matrix conversion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 929–933 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Cáceres and J. Tornero López, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 831–838(2001).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B

Z. Chen and H. Li, “Fast and sensitive trace metal analysis in aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using wood slice substrates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 64–68 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Talanta

M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in wastewater collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcos-Martinez, and J. A. Ayala, “Identification and discrimination of bacterial strains by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and neural networks,” Talanta 84, 730–737 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. M. da Silva and D. Santos, “Evaluation of grinding methods for pellets preparation aiming at the analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectrometry,” Talanta 85, 1744–1750 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. K.-I. Aristidis and G. Ioannou, “On-line sequential injection dispersive liquid—liquid microextraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and lead in water samples,” Talanta 79, 86–91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, B. Hu, and C. Huang, “Chitosan modified ordered mesoporous silica as micro-column packing materials for on-line flow injection-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination of trace heavy metals in environmental water samples,” Talanta 78, 491–497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Water Air Soil Pollut.

M. Owlad and M. K. Aroua, “Removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water and wastewater: a review,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 200, 59–77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

http://tuberose.com/Heavy_Metal_Toxicity.html .

http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/msd-di/index.cfm .

V. Thomsen, D. Schatzlein, and D. Mercuro, “Limits of detection in spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy18, 112–114 (2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the LIBS setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of intensity of Cr I 425.43 nm with incident laser energy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation of intensity of Cr I 425.43 nm with delay time signal to background (S/B) ratio.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of intensity of Cr I 425.43 nm with repetition rate

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical LIBS spectra of potassium bichromate solution in the region from 357 to 430 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calibration curve of Cr element in potassium bichromate aqueous soulution.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Relative intensity (Rel.Int.), Transition Probability Aki, Energy E and Statistical Weight g of Upper (Index u) and Lower (Index l) Excitation Levels for the Selected Spectral Lines

Equations (1)

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LOD=3δB/S

Metrics