Abstract

Experimentally measured optical properties of photonic crystal LEDs are reported here. Photonic crystal and photonic quasi-crystal structures were fabricated on GaN epilayer LED wafer material using both direct-write electron beam lithography and nanoimprint lithography. Some of these structures were processed to make finished LEDs. Both electroluminescence and photoluminescence measurements were performed on these structures. Devices were characterized for their current-voltage characteristics, emission spectra, far-field emission pattern, and angular emission pattern. These results are useful for fabricating photonic crystal LEDs and assessing their operational properties.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3, 160–174 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C.-F. Lai, J.-Y. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Chao, H.-T. Hsueh, J.-F. T. Wang, and W.-Y. Yeh, “Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 7285–7294 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Rahman and A. Khokhar, “Holey LEDs target TV backlights,” Comp. Semiconduc. 14, 23–25 (2008).
  5. F. Rahman, “Photonic crystal LEDs,” Opt. Photon. News 20(6), 24–29 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Weisman, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231–1233 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, and Y. Fainman, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals with controlled defects by use of multiple exposures and direct write,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5450–5456 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Steingrüber, S. Golka, and H. Heidrich, “Useful and cost-efficient fabrication of dot arrays for photonic crystals by direct-write electron-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 157–161 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light-emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18, 055306–055310 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091106–091108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, C.-H. Hong, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Insertion of two-dimensional photonic crystal pattern on p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 5242–5246 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19, 255302–255306 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “A novel GaN photonic crystal structure comprising nanopillars with inclined sidewalls,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S639–S642(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, V. F. Mymrin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Current spreading and thermal effects in blue LED dice,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 45–48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J.-H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K.-D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nanoimprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14, 8654–8660 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 142–144 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. J. Wierer, Jr., A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 3, 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

J. J. Wierer, Jr., A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “A novel GaN photonic crystal structure comprising nanopillars with inclined sidewalls,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S639–S642(2009).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Rahman, “Photonic crystal LEDs,” Opt. Photon. News 20(6), 24–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Weisman, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Lai, J.-Y. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Chao, H.-T. Hsueh, J.-F. T. Wang, and W.-Y. Yeh, “Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 7285–7294 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rahman and A. Khokhar, “Holey LEDs target TV backlights,” Comp. Semiconduc. 14, 23–25 (2008).

A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, C.-H. Hong, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Insertion of two-dimensional photonic crystal pattern on p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 5242–5246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19, 255302–255306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light-emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18, 055306–055310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091106–091108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, V. F. Mymrin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Current spreading and thermal effects in blue LED dice,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 45–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3, 160–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J.-H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K.-D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nanoimprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14, 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, and Y. Fainman, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals with controlled defects by use of multiple exposures and direct write,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5450–5456 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Steingrüber, S. Golka, and H. Heidrich, “Useful and cost-efficient fabrication of dot arrays for photonic crystals by direct-write electron-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 157–161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, S. J.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D, W. E.

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arakcheeva, E. M.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, C.-H. Hong, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Insertion of two-dimensional photonic crystal pattern on p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 5242–5246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

C. Weisman, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bulashevich, K. A.

K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, V. F. Mymrin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Current spreading and thermal effects in blue LED dice,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 45–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, K.-J.

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, C.-H. Hong, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Insertion of two-dimensional photonic crystal pattern on p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 5242–5246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091106–091108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carlin, J. F.

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-H.

Charlton, M. D. B.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chi, J.-Y.

Cho, H. K.

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, H. W.

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “A novel GaN photonic crystal structure comprising nanopillars with inclined sidewalls,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S639–S642(2009).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19, 255302–255306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J.-H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K.-D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nanoimprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14, 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-H.

Craford, M. G.

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, Jr., A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erchak, A. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evstratov, I. Y.

K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, V. F. Mymrin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Current spreading and thermal effects in blue LED dice,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 45–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, W. Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “A novel GaN photonic crystal structure comprising nanopillars with inclined sidewalls,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S639–S642(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

R. Steingrüber, S. Golka, and H. Heidrich, “Useful and cost-efficient fabrication of dot arrays for photonic crystals by direct-write electron-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 157–161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gurevich, S. A.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

R. Steingrüber, S. Golka, and H. Heidrich, “Useful and cost-efficient fabrication of dot arrays for photonic crystals by direct-write electron-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 157–161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-H.

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, C.-H. Hong, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Insertion of two-dimensional photonic crystal pattern on p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 5242–5246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, H.-T.

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. K.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, G.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-Y.

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, C.-H. Hong, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Insertion of two-dimensional photonic crystal pattern on p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 5242–5246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091106–091108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Jeon, S. C.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. P.

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karpov, S. Y.

K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, V. F. Mymrin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Current spreading and thermal effects in blue LED dice,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 45–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khokhar, A.

F. Rahman and A. Khokhar, “Holey LEDs target TV backlights,” Comp. Semiconduc. 14, 23–25 (2008).

Khokhar, A. Z.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. S.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light-emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18, 055306–055310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S.-K.

Koleske, D. D.

A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Krauss, T. F.

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

Kwon, M.-K.

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light-emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18, 055306–055310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C.-F.

Lai, P. T.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19, 255302–255306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

Lee, B. D.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, C.-H. Hong, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Insertion of two-dimensional photonic crystal pattern on p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 5242–5246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091106–091108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. M.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. Y.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-D.

Lee, T.

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Leung, C. H.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19, 255302–255306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, K. M.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

C. Weisman, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MacIntyre, D. S.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maksimov, M. V.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massoubre, D.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

Mcintyre, D.

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, Jr., A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Mueller-Mach, R.

Mymrin, V. F.

K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, V. F. Mymrin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Current spreading and thermal effects in blue LED dice,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 45–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, W.

Nakamura, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

Nesterov, S. I.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. N.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19, 255302–255306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

Park, J. B.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light-emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18, 055306–055310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, K.

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, F.

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Rahman, “Photonic crystal LEDs,” Opt. Photon. News 20(6), 24–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Rahman and A. Khokhar, “Holey LEDs target TV backlights,” Comp. Semiconduc. 14, 23–25 (2008).

Rakich, P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rattier, M.

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Weisman, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seekamp, J.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shields, P. A.

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. J. M.

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R.

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steingrüber, R.

R. Steingrüber, S. Golka, and H. Heidrich, “Useful and cost-efficient fabrication of dot arrays for photonic crystals by direct-write electron-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 157–161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Subramania, G.

A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanklevskaya, E. M.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tillin, M.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-F. T.

Wang, S. C.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. N.

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weisman, C.

C. Weisman, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, Jr., A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. K.-Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “A novel GaN photonic crystal structure comprising nanopillars with inclined sidewalls,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S639–S642(2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W.-Y.

Yu, C. C.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Zoorob, M. E.

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124–061126(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502–103502–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091106–091108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Comp. Semiconduc. (1)

F. Rahman and A. Khokhar, “Holey LEDs target TV backlights,” Comp. Semiconduc. 14, 23–25 (2008).

ECS Trans. (1)

A. J. Fischer, G. Subramania, Y. J. Lee, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, and D. D. Koleske, “Improved InGaN LED efficiency using photonic crystal patterning and surface plasmon-enhanced emission,” ECS Trans. 13 (3), 5–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, T. Lee, M. E. Zoorob, D, W. E. Allsopp, and W. N. Wang, “Enhanced light extraction by photonic quasi-crystals in GaN blue LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1269–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, C.-H. Hong, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Insertion of two-dimensional photonic crystal pattern on p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 5242–5246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Weisman, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

R. Steingrüber, S. Golka, and H. Heidrich, “Useful and cost-efficient fabrication of dot arrays for photonic crystals by direct-write electron-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 157–161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19, 255302–255306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light-emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18, 055306–055310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. J. Wierer, Jr., A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

F. Rahman, “Photonic crystal LEDs,” Opt. Photon. News 20(6), 24–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light-emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79–89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (2)

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “A novel GaN photonic crystal structure comprising nanopillars with inclined sidewalls,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S639–S642(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, V. F. Mymrin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Current spreading and thermal effects in blue LED dice,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 45–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Tillin, M. D. B. Charlton, Z. Gong, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, F. Rahman, N. P. Johnson, D. Mcintyre, R. M. De La Rue, K. Parsons, and S. Lin, “Photonic quasi-crystal light-emitting diodes:comparisons of device performance with pattern pitch,” Proc. SPIE 7713, 77130B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nanoimprint lithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 085008(2009).
[CrossRef]

Tech. Phys. (1)

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor-and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50, 1043–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, closeup scanning electron micrograph of a photonic quasicrystal pattern on a GaN LED chip. Right, closeup of defective patterning when the incoming wafer is not perfectly flat, leading to nonuniform nanoimprinting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM micrograph of one of the PhQC LEDs showing (left) p contact and (right) n contact.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current-voltage characteristics of several PhQC LEDs with 100 nm hole depth. Inset shows light emission from one LED during on-wafer testing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light emission from PhQC LED. Left, low current operation. Right, high current operation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for exciting and measuring angle- resolved photoluminescence from patterned GaN LED material samples. The dotted curve shows the probe track.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffraction images generated when a 405 nm pump laser beam interacts with the photonic crystal pattern on an LED wafer. Left, diffraction from regular sixfold symmetry PhC pattern. Middle, from a twelvefold symmetry PhQC pattern. Right, from a quasi-random PhC pattern.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Far-field radiation pattern from a photonic quasi-crystal LED chip operated with 8 mA of forward current. The pointed dark protruding features at the right and left of the center are due to bond wires.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral plot showing the pump laser beam at 405 nm and the PL emission from the patterned LED wafer material at 451 nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angle-resolved PL intensity profiles for one unpatterned and three patterned GaN LED samples. The patterns tested were: regular hexagonal photonic crystal (RPC), 12-fold symmetry quasi-periodic photonic crystal (QPC) and a square symmetry quasi-random photonic crystal. All patterns were etched down to a depth of 100 nm into the wafer material.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the intensity profiles as recorded through electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements.

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