Abstract

An innovative flooded mask allows seeing both in air and underwater, thus overcoming the drawbacks of commercially available masks. The underwater telescope scheme is applied to a new flooded scuba mask obtaining correct eyesight in both underwater and above-water conditions. Optical design analyses and a test campaign on a sample of free divers have demonstrated that the mask is able to provide a well- corrected vision in both conditions. Three prototypes, with increasing optical performances, have been optically and mechanically optimized and then realized.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Pelizzari and S. Tovaglieri, Manual of Freediving: Underwater on a Single Breath(Idelson Gnocchi, 2004).
  2. F. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1972).
  3. E. Hecht and A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1977).
  4. J. M. Geary, Introduction to Lens Design (Willmann-Bell, 2002).
  5. B. H. Walker, Optical Engineering Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, 1995).
  6. M. Millodot, Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 6th ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004).
  7. Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche, Istituto Nazionale Ottica Applicata, “Diving mask for underwater and air vision,” PCT patent WO2009138959 (13 May 2009).

2004 (2)

U. Pelizzari and S. Tovaglieri, Manual of Freediving: Underwater on a Single Breath(Idelson Gnocchi, 2004).

M. Millodot, Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 6th ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004).

2002 (1)

J. M. Geary, Introduction to Lens Design (Willmann-Bell, 2002).

1995 (1)

B. H. Walker, Optical Engineering Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

1977 (1)

E. Hecht and A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1977).

1972 (1)

F. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1972).

Geary, J. M.

J. M. Geary, Introduction to Lens Design (Willmann-Bell, 2002).

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht and A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1977).

Jenkins, F.

F. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1972).

Millodot, M.

M. Millodot, Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 6th ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004).

Pelizzari, U.

U. Pelizzari and S. Tovaglieri, Manual of Freediving: Underwater on a Single Breath(Idelson Gnocchi, 2004).

Tovaglieri, S.

U. Pelizzari and S. Tovaglieri, Manual of Freediving: Underwater on a Single Breath(Idelson Gnocchi, 2004).

Walker, B. H.

B. H. Walker, Optical Engineering Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

White, H. E.

F. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1972).

Zajac, A.

E. Hecht and A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1977).

Other (7)

U. Pelizzari and S. Tovaglieri, Manual of Freediving: Underwater on a Single Breath(Idelson Gnocchi, 2004).

F. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1972).

E. Hecht and A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1977).

J. M. Geary, Introduction to Lens Design (Willmann-Bell, 2002).

B. H. Walker, Optical Engineering Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

M. Millodot, Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 6th ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004).

Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche, Istituto Nazionale Ottica Applicata, “Diving mask for underwater and air vision,” PCT patent WO2009138959 (13 May 2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Underwater telescope, in underwater (upper scheme) and air (lower scheme) conditions. The eye is shown on the right, with (a) cornea and (b) lens. The liquid filling Chamber3, which is directly in contact with the eye, is a physiological solution (yellow), whereas sea or pool water is indicated in blue. For more clarity, the medium surrounding the mask in both operative conditions is also indicated, as well as the mechanical length of the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TracePro simulations on the first prototype: underwater (above) and above-water (below) retinal images. The numbers shown in horizontal and vertical coordinates of the pictures are expressed in millimeters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Zemax simulations on the first prototype: underwater (left) and above-water (center) retinal images. The retinal image obtained in air without goggles is shown on the right. The height of the vertical bar in the picture is 0.3 mm . The object dimensions correspond to 3/10 (20/67 in the U.S. type notation) of the Snellen table (i.e., the object height is 24.24 mm and the distance between the object and the retina is 5 m ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D model of the third prototype and photo of the realized prototype.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retinal images, Zemax simulations: (a) first prototype, underwater; (b) first prototype, above water; (c) third prototype, underwater; (d) third prototype, above water. The height of the vertical bars in each row is 0.3 mm . The object dimensions correspond to 3/10 (20/67 in the U.S. type notation) of the Snellen table (i.e., the object height is 24.24 mm and the distance between the object and the retina is 5 m , the object subtends an angle of 16.6 arcmin ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Underwater (left) and above-water (center) retinal images obtained with the third prototype. On the right, the picture seen by the bare eye without a mask. The object height is 15 deg .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Visual Acuity Results Underwater and Above Water a

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