Abstract

We present in vivo experimental evidence that multispectral quantitative photoacoustic tomography (qPAT) has the potential to detect osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints. In this pilot study, two OA patients and three healthy volunteers were enrolled, and their distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints were examined photoacoustically by a multispectral PAT scanner. Images of tissue physiological/functional parameters including oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, oxygen saturation, and water content, along with the tissue acoustic velocity of all the examined joints, were simultaneously recovered using a finite element reconstruction algorithm for multispectral photoacoustic measurements. The recovered multispectral photoacoustic images show that the OA joints have significantly elevated water content, decreased oxygen saturation, and increased acoustic velocity compared to the normal joints.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

2008 (2)

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray-guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044006(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Noninvasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

2006 (4)

S. B. Abramson, M. Attur, and Y. Yazici, “Prospect for disease modification in osteoarthritis,” Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 2, 304–312 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gerwin, C. Hops, and A. Lucke, “Intraarticular drug delivery in osteoarthritis,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58, 226–242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cox, S. Arridge, K. Kostli, and P. Beard, “2-D quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction of absorption distributions in scattering medium using a simple iterative method,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1866–1875 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 213301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Henrotin, B. Kurz, and T. Aigner, “Oxygen and reactive oxygen species in cartilage degradation: friends or foes,” Osteoarthr. Cartil. 13, 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

F. J. Blanco, M. J. Lopz-Armada, and E. Maneriro, “Mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis,” Mitochondrion 4, 715–728(2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Terslev, S. Torp-Pedersen, E. Qvistgaard, P. von der Recke, and H. Bliddal, “Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrists and finger joints,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63, 644–648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bluestone, G. Abdoulaev, C. Schmitz, R. Barbour, and A. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head,” Opt. Express 9, 272–286(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, “Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissue,” Opt. Lett. 23, 648–650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Knott and A. Bailey, “Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: a review of their chemistry, function and clinical relevance,” Bone 22, 181–187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Muller, “The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes,” Biomed. Tech. 42, 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ostergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Lovgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. Brandt, K. Brandt, and M. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritis changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Tyler, P. Watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 266, 130–138 (1995).

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 426–428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, “Simultaneous reconstruction of absorption and scattering maps in turbid media from near-infrared frequency-domain data,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2128–2130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New Engl. J. Med. 331, 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. S. Howell and R. D. Altman, “Cartilage repair and conservation in osteoarthritis,” Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 19, 713–724 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiography, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 157, 799–806(1991).

1987 (1)

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Zero, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chrondrocytes as grafts for detects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220, 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

Abdoulaev, G.

Abramovici, A.

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Zero, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chrondrocytes as grafts for detects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220, 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

Abramson, S. B.

S. B. Abramson, M. Attur, and Y. Yazici, “Prospect for disease modification in osteoarthritis,” Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 2, 304–312 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aigner, T.

Y. Henrotin, B. Kurz, and T. Aigner, “Oxygen and reactive oxygen species in cartilage degradation: friends or foes,” Osteoarthr. Cartil. 13, 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, M.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. Brandt, K. Brandt, and M. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritis changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Altman, R. D.

D. S. Howell and R. D. Altman, “Cartilage repair and conservation in osteoarthritis,” Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 19, 713–724 (1993).
[PubMed]

Andreev, V.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arokoski, J.

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

Attur, M.

S. B. Abramson, M. Attur, and Y. Yazici, “Prospect for disease modification in osteoarthritis,” Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 2, 304–312 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Au, G.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, A.

L. Knott and A. Bailey, “Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: a review of their chemistry, function and clinical relevance,” Bone 22, 181–187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R.

Beard, P.

Beuthan, J.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Muller, “The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes,” Biomed. Tech. 42, 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, F. J.

F. J. Blanco, M. J. Lopz-Armada, and E. Maneriro, “Mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis,” Mitochondrion 4, 715–728(2004).
[CrossRef]

Bliddal, H.

L. Terslev, S. Torp-Pedersen, E. Qvistgaard, P. von der Recke, and H. Bliddal, “Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrists and finger joints,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63, 644–648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bluestone, A.

Boas, D.

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Brandt, D.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. Brandt, K. Brandt, and M. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritis changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Brandt, K.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. Brandt, K. Brandt, and M. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritis changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Brandt, K. D.

K. D. Brandt, “Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis,” in Textbook of Rheumatology, W.N.Kelly, E.D.Harris, S.Ruddy, and C.Sledge, eds., 5th ed. (WB Saunders, 1997).

Brittberg, M.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New Engl. J. Med. 331, 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, P. R.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Noninvasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. P.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiography, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 157, 799–806(1991).

Chance, B.

Chen, H.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Noninvasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, B.

de Mul, F. F.

Dekker, A.

Dines, K.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. Brandt, K. Brandt, and M. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritis changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Esenaliev, R.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, D.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gatalica, Z.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaudette, T.

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerwin, N.

N. Gerwin, C. Hops, and A. Lucke, “Intraarticular drug delivery in osteoarthritis,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58, 226–242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, L.

J. A. Tyler, P. Watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Helminen, H.

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henrotin, Y.

Y. Henrotin, B. Kurz, and T. Aigner, “Oxygen and reactive oxygen species in cartilage degradation: friends or foes,” Osteoarthr. Cartil. 13, 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrod, N.

J. A. Tyler, P. Watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Hielscher, A.

Hoelen, C. G. A.

Hops, C.

N. Gerwin, C. Hops, and A. Lucke, “Intraarticular drug delivery in osteoarthritis,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58, 226–242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howell, D. S.

D. S. Howell and R. D. Altman, “Cartilage repair and conservation in osteoarthritis,” Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 19, 713–724 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hyttinen, M.

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaksson, O.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New Engl. J. Med. 331, 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itay, S. A.

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Zero, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chrondrocytes as grafts for detects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220, 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, C.

M. Ostergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Lovgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

L. Yao and H. Jiang, “Finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography in time domain,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 085301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Simultaneous recovery of tissue physiological and acoustic properties and the criteria for wavelength selection in multispectral photoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1714–1716 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yao, Y. Sun, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography based the radiative transfer equation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1765–1767 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Noninvasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray-guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044006(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method,” Opt. Express 15, 18076–18081(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic imaging of absolute optical absorption coefficient in turbid media using combined photoacoustic and diffusing light measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2556–2558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 213301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, “Simultaneous reconstruction of absorption and scattering maps in turbid media from near-infrared frequency-domain data,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2128–2130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karabutov, A.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. A.

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kivitanta, I.

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knott, L.

L. Knott and A. Bailey, “Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: a review of their chemistry, function and clinical relevance,” Bone 22, 181–187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koh, H.

J. A. Tyler, P. Watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Kostli, K.

Krause, A.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Muller, “The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes,” Biomed. Tech. 42, 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ku, G.

Kurz, B.

Y. Henrotin, B. Kurz, and T. Aigner, “Oxygen and reactive oxygen species in cartilage degradation: friends or foes,” Osteoarthr. Cartil. 13, 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, P.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiography, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 157, 799–806(1991).

Langsjo, T.

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindahl, A.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New Engl. J. Med. 331, 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Noninvasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopz-Armada, M. J.

F. J. Blanco, M. J. Lopz-Armada, and E. Maneriro, “Mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis,” Mitochondrion 4, 715–728(2004).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, I.

M. Ostergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Lovgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovgreen-Nielsen, P.

M. Ostergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Lovgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucke, A.

N. Gerwin, C. Hops, and A. Lucke, “Intraarticular drug delivery in osteoarthritis,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58, 226–242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandeville, J.

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maneriro, E.

F. J. Blanco, M. J. Lopz-Armada, and E. Maneriro, “Mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis,” Mitochondrion 4, 715–728(2004).
[CrossRef]

Mans, J.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Muller, “The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes,” Biomed. Tech. 42, 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mansell, J.

J. Mansell, “Bone, not cartilage, should be the major focus in osteoarthritis,” Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 3, 306–307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marota, J.

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minet, O.

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Muller, “The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes,” Biomed. Tech. 42, 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Myers, S. L.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. Brandt, K. Brandt, and M. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritis changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Naber, R.

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, A.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New Engl. J. Med. 331, 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Leary, M. A.

Ohlsson, C.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New Engl. J. Med. 331, 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A.

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osterberg, U. L.

Ostergaard, M.

M. Ostergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Lovgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paltauf, G.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panula, H. E.

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

Pelttari, A.

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Y.

Peterson, L.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New Engl. J. Med. 331, 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

Pongers, R.

Prahl, S.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prapavat, V.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Muller, “The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes,” Biomed. Tech. 42, 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qvistgaard, E.

L. Terslev, S. Torp-Pedersen, E. Qvistgaard, P. von der Recke, and H. Bliddal, “Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrists and finger joints,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63, 644–648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robson, M.

J. A. Tyler, P. Watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Roper, S. N.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Noninvasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Runge, W.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Muller, “The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes,” Biomed. Tech. 42, 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savateeva, E.

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, C.

Singh, H.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sobel, E.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobel, E. S.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray-guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044006(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, M. P.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiography, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 157, 799–806(1991).

Stoica, G.

Stoltenberg, M.

M. Ostergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Lovgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strangman, G.

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Terslev, L.

L. Terslev, S. Torp-Pedersen, E. Qvistgaard, P. von der Recke, and H. Bliddal, “Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrists and finger joints,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63, 644–648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torp-Pedersen, S.

L. Terslev, S. Torp-Pedersen, E. Qvistgaard, P. von der Recke, and H. Bliddal, “Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrists and finger joints,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63, 644–648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, J. A.

J. A. Tyler, P. Watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Viator, J. A.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volck, B.

M. Ostergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Lovgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von der Recke, P.

L. Terslev, S. Torp-Pedersen, E. Qvistgaard, P. von der Recke, and H. Bliddal, “Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrists and finger joints,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63, 644–648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

Watson, P.

J. A. Tyler, P. Watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Yao, L.

L. Yao and H. Jiang, “Finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography in time domain,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 085301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Yao, Y. Sun, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography based the radiative transfer equation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1765–1767 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazici, Y.

S. B. Abramson, M. Attur, and Y. Yazici, “Prospect for disease modification in osteoarthritis,” Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 2, 304–312 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

Yodh, A. G.

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Simultaneous recovery of tissue physiological and acoustic properties and the criteria for wavelength selection in multispectral photoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1714–1716 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Noninvasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray-guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044006(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method,” Opt. Express 15, 18076–18081(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 213301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zero, Z.

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Zero, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chrondrocytes as grafts for detects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220, 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray-guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044006(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Noninvasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic imaging of absolute optical absorption coefficient in turbid media using combined photoacoustic and diffusing light measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2556–2558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Orthop. Scand. (1)

J. A. Tyler, P. Watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

N. Gerwin, C. Hops, and A. Lucke, “Intraarticular drug delivery in osteoarthritis,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58, 226–242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiography, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 157, 799–806(1991).

Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2)

H. E. Panula, M. Hyttinen, J. Arokoski, T. Langsjo, A. Pelttari, I. Kivitanta, and H. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Terslev, S. Torp-Pedersen, E. Qvistgaard, P. von der Recke, and H. Bliddal, “Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrists and finger joints,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63, 644–648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 213301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arthritis Rheum. (1)

M. Ostergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Lovgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Tech. (1)

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Muller, “The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes,” Biomed. Tech. 42, 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bone (1)

L. Knott and A. Bailey, “Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: a review of their chemistry, function and clinical relevance,” Bone 22, 181–187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1)

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Zero, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chrondrocytes as grafts for detects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220, 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray-guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044006(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Yao and H. Jiang, “Finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography in time domain,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 085301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Rheumatol. (1)

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. Brandt, K. Brandt, and M. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritis changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. Jacques, S. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitochondrion (1)

F. J. Blanco, M. J. Lopz-Armada, and E. Maneriro, “Mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis,” Mitochondrion 4, 715–728(2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology (2)

S. B. Abramson, M. Attur, and Y. Yazici, “Prospect for disease modification in osteoarthritis,” Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 2, 304–312 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mansell, “Bone, not cartilage, should be the major focus in osteoarthritis,” Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 3, 306–307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NeuroImage (1)

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New Engl. J. Med. (1)

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New Engl. J. Med. 331, 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

X. Wang, Y. Peng, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. Wang, “Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1739–1741 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Simultaneous recovery of tissue physiological and acoustic properties and the criteria for wavelength selection in multispectral photoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1714–1716 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic imaging of absolute optical absorption coefficient in turbid media using combined photoacoustic and diffusing light measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2556–2558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 426–428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, “Simultaneous reconstruction of absorption and scattering maps in turbid media from near-infrared frequency-domain data,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2128–2130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of the transducer array/ finger interface of the photoacoustic tomography system used for the current study. S, laser source; T1–T8, transducers. (b) Schematic of the sagittal section/plane for the transducer scanning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recovered Hb (a), (b) and Hb O 2 (c), (d) images for a typical normal (a), (c) and OA (b), (d) joints. The color scale indicates the Hb or Hb O 2 ( μM ). Dp, distal phalanx; mp, middle phalanx; jt, joint cavity; vp, volar plate; ee, extensor expansion; su, skin and subcutaneous soft tissues.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recovered H 2 O (a), (b) and acoustic velocity (c), (d) images for a typical normal (a), (c) and OA (b), (d) joints. The color scale indicates the H 2 O (%) or acoustic velocity ( m / s ). Dp, distal phalanx; mp, middle phalanx; jt, joint cavity; ee, extensor expansion; su, skin and subcutaneous soft tissues; fdpt, flexor digitorum profundus tendon; nail and subungual space (n and sus).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sagittal MRI of a model normal DIP joint. Dp, distal phalanx; mp, middle phalanx; jt, joint cavity; vp, volar plate; ee, extensor expansion; su, skin and subcutaneous soft tissues; fdpt, flexor digitorum profundus tendon; nail and subungual space (n and sus).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average oxygen saturation of the joint (yellow) and phalanx bones (gray) for the healthy (H1–H4) and osteoarthritic (OA1–OA2) joints.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average water content of the joint (yellow) and phalanx bones (gray) for the healthy (H1–H4) and osteoarthritic (OA1–OA2) joints.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average acoustic velocity of the joint (yellow) and phalanx bones (gray) for the healthy (H1–H4) and osteoarthritic (OA1–OA2) joints.

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