Abstract

Minimally invasive functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRs) technology was utilized to assess the effects of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE). Rats with TBE models were given mannitol or HS in different dosages for different groups. The reduced scattering coefficient (μs) of the local cortex of rats was simultaneously monitored and recorded in vivo and real time by the minimally invasive fNIRs system. Brain water content (BWC) was measured by the wet and dry weight method at 1, 6, 24, 72, and 120h after injury and treatment. Effects of treating TBE with different dehydration agents were then assessed by recording μs and BWC before and after administration of dehydration. In this study, the dynamic changes of brain edema and the effects of dehydration therapy were continuously monitored. Results implied that μs of the local cortex in rats is a good indicator for assessing effects of treatment of TBE. By recording changes in the value of μs, the following conclusions were obtained: HS is more effective than mannitol in reducing cerebral edema. The effect of dehydration of HS is only related to osmotic gradient and has no correlation with concentration.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Goldwasser and S. Fotino, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion. Appropriate response of tubuloglomerular feedback?,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2214–2216(1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. R. Dorman, J. H. Sondheimer, and P. Cadnapaphornchai, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” Medicine (Baltimore) 69, 153–159 (1990).
  5. A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003).
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  7. G. Wang, “Mannitol-induced renal injury and its prevention,” New Chin. Med. 31, 413–414 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).
  22. M. Hirsh, L. Dyugovskaya, Y. Bashenko, and M. M. Krausz, “Reduced rate of bacterial translocation and improved variables of natural killer cell and T-cell activity in rats surviving controlled hemorrhagic shock and treated with hypertonic saline,” Crit. Care Med. 30, 861–865 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).
  28. P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a near infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head,” Stroke 32, 2492–2500 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Xie, Z. Qian, L. He, and T. Yang, “Study on assessment effects of mannitol on treatment TBE based on measurement mini-invasive optical parameter (μs′),” Spectr. Spectr. Anal. 29, 3254–3258 (2009).
  31. Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).
  32. Z. Qian, Y. Gu, and H. Liu, “In vivo and real time measurement of rat brain reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” Chin. J. Med. Phys. 22, 463–465 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. K. Okiyama, D. H. Smith, M. J. Thomas, and T. K. Mcintosh, “Evaluation of a novel calcium channel blocker, (S)-emopamil, on regional cerebral edema and neurobehavioral function after experimental brain injury,” J. Neurosurg. 77, 607–615(1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. A. Rabinstein, “Treatment of cerebral edema,” Neurologist 12, 59–73 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. M. Todd, J. Cutkomp, and J. E. Brian, “Influence of mannitol and furosemide, alone and in combination, on brain water content after fluid percussion injury,” Anesthesiology 105, 1176–1181 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. H. E. James, “The effect of intravenous fluid replacement on the response to mannitol in experimental cerebral edema: an analysis of intracranial pressure, serum osmolality, serum electrolytes, and brain water content,” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 96, 125–129 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, “Effects of hypertonic (10%) saline in patients with raised intracranial pressure after stroke,” Stroke 33, 136–140 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. T. N. Wenham, A. P. Hormis, and J. C. Andrzejowski, “Hypertonic saline after traumatic brain injury in UK neuro-critical care practice,” Anaesthesia 63, 558–559 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Xie, Z. Qian, L. He, and T. Yang, “Study on assessment effects of mannitol on treatment TBE based on measurement mini-invasive optical parameter (μs′),” Spectr. Spectr. Anal. 29, 3254–3258 (2009).

2008 (2)

L. Dai, Z. Qian, K. Li, T. Yang, and H. Wang, “In vivo detection of reduced scattering coefficient of C6 glioma in rat brain tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044003(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Wenham, A. P. Hormis, and J. C. Andrzejowski, “Hypertonic saline after traumatic brain injury in UK neuro-critical care practice,” Anaesthesia 63, 558–559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Brain Trauma Foundation, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. VI. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring,” J. Neurotrauma 24, S37–S44 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (5)

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

A. A. Rabinstein, “Treatment of cerebral edema,” Neurologist 12, 59–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Todd, J. Cutkomp, and J. E. Brian, “Influence of mannitol and furosemide, alone and in combination, on brain water content after fluid percussion injury,” Anesthesiology 105, 1176–1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. James, “The effect of intravenous fluid replacement on the response to mannitol in experimental cerebral edema: an analysis of intracranial pressure, serum osmolality, serum electrolytes, and brain water content,” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 96, 125–129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Ashman, W. A. Gordon, J. B. Cantor, and M. R. Hibbard, “Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury,” Mt. Sinai J. Med. 73, 999–1005 (2006).

2005 (1)

Z. Qian, Y. Gu, and H. Liu, “In vivo and real time measurement of rat brain reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” Chin. J. Med. Phys. 22, 463–465 (2005).

2004 (3)

Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).

M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).

J. A. Kolsen-Petersen, “Immune effect of hypertonic saline: fact or fiction?,” Acta Anaesth. Scand. 48, 667–678 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

E. A. Deitch, H. P. Shi, E. Feketeova, C. J. Hauser, and D. Xu, “Hypertonic saline resuscitation limits neutrophil activation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock,” Shock Waves 19, 328–333(2003).

T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Junger, D. B. Edelman, and W. G. Junger, “Hypertonicity promotes survival of corticospinal motoneurons via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling,” J. Molec. Neurosci. 21, 111–120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hirsh, L. Dyugovskaya, Y. Bashenko, and M. M. Krausz, “Reduced rate of bacterial translocation and improved variables of natural killer cell and T-cell activity in rats surviving controlled hemorrhagic shock and treated with hypertonic saline,” Crit. Care Med. 30, 861–865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, “Effects of hypertonic (10%) saline in patients with raised intracranial pressure after stroke,” Stroke 33, 136–140 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a near infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head,” Stroke 32, 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).

2000 (4)

G. Wang, “Mannitol-induced renal injury and its prevention,” New Chin. Med. 31, 413–414 (2000).

Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Qureshi and J. Suarez, “Use of hypertonic saline solutions in treatment of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 3301–3313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Prough and M. H. Zornow, “Mannitol: an old friend in the skids?,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 997–998 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

G. Zhu, J. Yao, Z. Qin, and X. Sun, “The effect of mannitol on brain edema of cerebral vascular disease (CVD) patients: a study with MRI,” Chin. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 286–288 (1997).

P. Visweswaran, E. K. Massin, and T. D. Dubose, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8, 1028–1033 (1997).
[PubMed]

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Donato, Y. Shapira, A. Artru, and K. Powers, “Effect of mannitol on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and brain tissue edema,” Anesth. Analg. 78, 58–66 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. C. Hartwell and L. N. Sutton, “Mannitol intracranial pressure and vasogenic edema,” Neurosurg. 32, 440–450 (1993).

1992 (1)

K. Okiyama, D. H. Smith, M. J. Thomas, and T. K. Mcintosh, “Evaluation of a novel calcium channel blocker, (S)-emopamil, on regional cerebral edema and neurobehavioral function after experimental brain injury,” J. Neurosurg. 77, 607–615(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H. R. Dorman, J. H. Sondheimer, and P. Cadnapaphornchai, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” Medicine (Baltimore) 69, 153–159 (1990).

1984 (2)

T. V. Whelan, M. E. Bacon, M. Madden, T. G. Patel, and R. Handy, “Acute renal failure associated with mannitol intoxication: report of a case,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2053–2055(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Goldwasser and S. Fotino, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion. Appropriate response of tubuloglomerular feedback?,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2214–2216(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Rawi, P. G.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a near infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head,” Stroke 32, 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Brain Trauma Foundation

Brain Trauma Foundation, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. VI. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring,” J. Neurotrauma 24, S37–S44 (2007).
[PubMed]

Andrzejowski, J. C.

T. N. Wenham, A. P. Hormis, and J. C. Andrzejowski, “Hypertonic saline after traumatic brain injury in UK neuro-critical care practice,” Anaesthesia 63, 558–559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aneman, A.

Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anjos-Valotta, E. A.

M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).

Artru, A.

T. Donato, Y. Shapira, A. Artru, and K. Powers, “Effect of mannitol on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and brain tissue edema,” Anesth. Analg. 78, 58–66 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aschoff, A.

S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, “Effects of hypertonic (10%) saline in patients with raised intracranial pressure after stroke,” Stroke 33, 136–140 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashman, T. A.

T. A. Ashman, W. A. Gordon, J. B. Cantor, and M. R. Hibbard, “Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury,” Mt. Sinai J. Med. 73, 999–1005 (2006).

Bacon, M. E.

T. V. Whelan, M. E. Bacon, M. Madden, T. G. Patel, and R. Handy, “Acute renal failure associated with mannitol intoxication: report of a case,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2053–2055(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, B.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bashenko, Y.

M. Hirsh, L. Dyugovskaya, Y. Bashenko, and M. M. Krausz, “Reduced rate of bacterial translocation and improved variables of natural killer cell and T-cell activity in rats surviving controlled hemorrhagic shock and treated with hypertonic saline,” Crit. Care Med. 30, 861–865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, A.

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyeson, M. G.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brian, J. E.

M. M. Todd, J. Cutkomp, and J. E. Brian, “Influence of mannitol and furosemide, alone and in combination, on brain water content after fluid percussion injury,” Anesthesiology 105, 1176–1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bullock, M. R.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Cadnapaphornchai, P.

H. R. Dorman, J. H. Sondheimer, and P. Cadnapaphornchai, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” Medicine (Baltimore) 69, 153–159 (1990).

Cantor, J. B.

T. A. Ashman, W. A. Gordon, J. B. Cantor, and M. R. Hibbard, “Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury,” Mt. Sinai J. Med. 73, 999–1005 (2006).

Cao, W.

W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).

Chen, C.

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

Chen, F.

W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).

Chen, R.

Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).

W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).

Chesnut, R.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Coimbra, R.

M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).

Cutkomp, J.

M. M. Todd, J. Cutkomp, and J. E. Brian, “Influence of mannitol and furosemide, alone and in combination, on brain water content after fluid percussion injury,” Anesthesiology 105, 1176–1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlqvist, M.

Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

L. Dai, Z. Qian, K. Li, T. Yang, and H. Wang, “In vivo detection of reduced scattering coefficient of C6 glioma in rat brain tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044003(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dail, W. G.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Nadal, M.

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deitch, E. A.

E. A. Deitch, H. P. Shi, E. Feketeova, C. J. Hauser, and D. Xu, “Hypertonic saline resuscitation limits neutrophil activation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock,” Shock Waves 19, 328–333(2003).

DeKosky, S. T.

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donato, T.

T. Donato, Y. Shapira, A. Artru, and K. Powers, “Effect of mannitol on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and brain tissue edema,” Anesth. Analg. 78, 58–66 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorman, H. R.

H. R. Dorman, J. H. Sondheimer, and P. Cadnapaphornchai, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” Medicine (Baltimore) 69, 153–159 (1990).

Dubose, T. D.

P. Visweswaran, E. K. Massin, and T. D. Dubose, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8, 1028–1033 (1997).
[PubMed]

Dyugovskaya, L.

M. Hirsh, L. Dyugovskaya, Y. Bashenko, and M. M. Krausz, “Reduced rate of bacterial translocation and improved variables of natural killer cell and T-cell activity in rats surviving controlled hemorrhagic shock and treated with hypertonic saline,” Crit. Care Med. 30, 861–865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, T.

T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edelman, D. B.

H. Junger, D. B. Edelman, and W. G. Junger, “Hypertonicity promotes survival of corticospinal motoneurons via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling,” J. Molec. Neurosci. 21, 111–120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewert, S.

Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feeney, D. M.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feketeova, E.

E. A. Deitch, H. P. Shi, E. Feketeova, C. J. Hauser, and D. Xu, “Hypertonic saline resuscitation limits neutrophil activation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock,” Shock Waves 19, 328–333(2003).

Ferrer, A. M.

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotino, S.

P. Goldwasser and S. Fotino, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion. Appropriate response of tubuloglomerular feedback?,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2214–2216(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gándara, A.

A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnacho, A.

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgiadis, D.

S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, “Effects of hypertonic (10%) saline in patients with raised intracranial pressure after stroke,” Stroke 33, 136–140 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghajar, J.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Giller, C. A.

Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).

Goldwasser, P.

P. Goldwasser and S. Fotino, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion. Appropriate response of tubuloglomerular feedback?,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2214–2216(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, L.

A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, D.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Gordon, W. A.

T. A. Ashman, W. A. Gordon, J. B. Cantor, and M. R. Hibbard, “Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury,” Mt. Sinai J. Med. 73, 999–1005 (2006).

Gratton, E.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

Z. Qian, Y. Gu, and H. Liu, “In vivo and real time measurement of rat brain reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” Chin. J. Med. Phys. 22, 463–465 (2005).

Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).

Haljamäe, H.

Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Handa, Y.

H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Handy, R.

T. V. Whelan, M. E. Bacon, M. Madden, T. G. Patel, and R. Handy, “Acute renal failure associated with mannitol intoxication: report of a case,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2053–2055(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanley, D. F.

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, R.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Hartwell, R. C.

R. C. Hartwell and L. N. Sutton, “Mannitol intracranial pressure and vasogenic edema,” Neurosurg. 32, 440–450 (1993).

Hauser, C. J.

E. A. Deitch, H. P. Shi, E. Feketeova, C. J. Hauser, and D. Xu, “Hypertonic saline resuscitation limits neutrophil activation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock,” Shock Waves 19, 328–333(2003).

He, L.

J. Xie, Z. Qian, L. He, and T. Yang, “Study on assessment effects of mannitol on treatment TBE based on measurement mini-invasive optical parameter (μs′),” Spectr. Spectr. Anal. 29, 3254–3258 (2009).

Hibbard, M. R.

T. A. Ashman, W. A. Gordon, J. B. Cantor, and M. R. Hibbard, “Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury,” Mt. Sinai J. Med. 73, 999–1005 (2006).

Hirsh, M.

M. Hirsh, L. Dyugovskaya, Y. Bashenko, and M. M. Krausz, “Reduced rate of bacterial translocation and improved variables of natural killer cell and T-cell activity in rats surviving controlled hemorrhagic shock and treated with hypertonic saline,” Crit. Care Med. 30, 861–865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. N. Wenham, A. P. Hormis, and J. C. Andrzejowski, “Hypertonic saline after traumatic brain injury in UK neuro-critical care practice,” Anaesthesia 63, 558–559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ide, H.

H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

James, H. E.

H. E. James, “The effect of intravenous fluid replacement on the response to mannitol in experimental cerebral edema: an analysis of intracranial pressure, serum osmolality, serum electrolytes, and brain water content,” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 96, 125–129 (2006).
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W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).

Junger, H.

H. Junger, D. B. Edelman, and W. G. Junger, “Hypertonicity promotes survival of corticospinal motoneurons via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling,” J. Molec. Neurosci. 21, 111–120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junger, W. G.

H. Junger, D. B. Edelman, and W. G. Junger, “Hypertonicity promotes survival of corticospinal motoneurons via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling,” J. Molec. Neurosci. 21, 111–120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabuto, M.

H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kelsey, S. F.

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, P. J.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a near infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head,” Stroke 32, 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimkowicz, A.

T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, H.

H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kochanek, P. M.

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolsen-Petersen, J. A.

J. A. Kolsen-Petersen, “Immune effect of hypertonic saline: fact or fiction?,” Acta Anaesth. Scand. 48, 667–678 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, M. M.

M. Hirsh, L. Dyugovskaya, Y. Bashenko, and M. M. Krausz, “Reduced rate of bacterial translocation and improved variables of natural killer cell and T-cell activity in rats surviving controlled hemorrhagic shock and treated with hypertonic saline,” Crit. Care Med. 30, 861–865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubota, T.

H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

Li, K.

L. Dai, Z. Qian, K. Li, T. Yang, and H. Wang, “In vivo detection of reduced scattering coefficient of C6 glioma in rat brain tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044003(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linn, R. T.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Z. Qian, Y. Gu, and H. Liu, “In vivo and real time measurement of rat brain reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” Chin. J. Med. Phys. 22, 463–465 (2005).

Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).

Madden, M.

T. V. Whelan, M. E. Bacon, M. Madden, T. G. Patel, and R. Handy, “Acute renal failure associated with mannitol intoxication: report of a case,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2053–2055(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, J. H.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marion, D. W.

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massin, E. K.

P. Visweswaran, E. K. Massin, and T. D. Dubose, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8, 1028–1033 (1997).
[PubMed]

Mcintosh, T. K.

K. Okiyama, D. H. Smith, M. J. Thomas, and T. K. Mcintosh, “Evaluation of a novel calcium channel blocker, (S)-emopamil, on regional cerebral edema and neurobehavioral function after experimental brain injury,” J. Neurosurg. 77, 607–615(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirski, M.

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munar, F.

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murry, H. M.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newell, D. W.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Obrist, Walter D.

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oi, Y.

Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okiyama, K.

K. Okiyama, D. H. Smith, M. J. Thomas, and T. K. Mcintosh, “Evaluation of a novel calcium channel blocker, (S)-emopamil, on regional cerebral edema and neurobehavioral function after experimental brain injury,” J. Neurosurg. 77, 607–615(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, A. M.

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, T. G.

T. V. Whelan, M. E. Bacon, M. Madden, T. G. Patel, and R. Handy, “Acute renal failure associated with mannitol intoxication: report of a case,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2053–2055(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pazos, B.

A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedraza, S.

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penrod, L. E.

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez-Pérez, A. J.

A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poca, M. A.

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powers, K.

T. Donato, Y. Shapira, A. Artru, and K. Powers, “Effect of mannitol on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and brain tissue edema,” Anesth. Analg. 78, 58–66 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prough, D. S.

D. S. Prough and M. H. Zornow, “Mannitol: an old friend in the skids?,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 997–998 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, Z.

J. Xie, Z. Qian, L. He, and T. Yang, “Study on assessment effects of mannitol on treatment TBE based on measurement mini-invasive optical parameter (μs′),” Spectr. Spectr. Anal. 29, 3254–3258 (2009).

L. Dai, Z. Qian, K. Li, T. Yang, and H. Wang, “In vivo detection of reduced scattering coefficient of C6 glioma in rat brain tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044003(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Qian, Y. Gu, and H. Liu, “In vivo and real time measurement of rat brain reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” Chin. J. Med. Phys. 22, 463–465 (2005).

Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).

Qin, Z.

G. Zhu, J. Yao, Z. Qin, and X. Sun, “The effect of mannitol on brain edema of cerebral vascular disease (CVD) patients: a study with MRI,” Chin. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 286–288 (1997).

Qureshi, A. I.

A. I. Qureshi and J. Suarez, “Use of hypertonic saline solutions in treatment of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 3301–3313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabinstein, A. A.

A. A. Rabinstein, “Treatment of cerebral edema,” Neurologist 12, 59–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rog, T. M.

T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahuquillo, J.

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sannomiya, P.

M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).

Schnitzer, M. S.

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwab, S.

S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, “Effects of hypertonic (10%) saline in patients with raised intracranial pressure after stroke,” Stroke 33, 136–140 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, S.

S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, “Effects of hypertonic (10%) saline in patients with raised intracranial pressure after stroke,” Stroke 33, 136–140 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Servadei, F.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Shapira, Y.

T. Donato, Y. Shapira, A. Artru, and K. Powers, “Effect of mannitol on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and brain tissue edema,” Anesth. Analg. 78, 58–66 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, H. P.

E. A. Deitch, H. P. Shi, E. Feketeova, C. J. Hauser, and D. Xu, “Hypertonic saline resuscitation limits neutrophil activation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock,” Shock Waves 19, 328–333(2003).

Silva, M. R. E.

M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).

Slowik, A.

T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smielewski, P.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a near infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head,” Stroke 32, 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. H.

K. Okiyama, D. H. Smith, M. J. Thomas, and T. K. Mcintosh, “Evaluation of a novel calcium channel blocker, (S)-emopamil, on regional cerebral edema and neurobehavioral function after experimental brain injury,” J. Neurosurg. 77, 607–615(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobrado, J.

A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sondheimer, J. H.

H. R. Dorman, J. H. Sondheimer, and P. Cadnapaphornchai, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” Medicine (Baltimore) 69, 153–159 (1990).

Suarez, J.

A. I. Qureshi and J. Suarez, “Use of hypertonic saline solutions in treatment of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 3301–3313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suarez, J. I.

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

Sun, X.

G. Zhu, J. Yao, Z. Qin, and X. Sun, “The effect of mannitol on brain edema of cerebral vascular disease (CVD) patients: a study with MRI,” Chin. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 286–288 (1997).

Sutton, L. N.

R. C. Hartwell and L. N. Sutton, “Mannitol intracranial pressure and vasogenic edema,” Neurosurg. 32, 440–450 (1993).

Svensson, M.

Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szczudlik, A.

T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, M. J.

K. Okiyama, D. H. Smith, M. J. Thomas, and T. K. Mcintosh, “Evaluation of a novel calcium channel blocker, (S)-emopamil, on regional cerebral edema and neurobehavioral function after experimental brain injury,” J. Neurosurg. 77, 607–615(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todd, M. M.

M. M. Todd, J. Cutkomp, and J. E. Brian, “Influence of mannitol and furosemide, alone and in combination, on brain water content after fluid percussion injury,” Anesthesiology 105, 1176–1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyszczuk, L.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ulatowski, J. A.

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visweswaran, P.

P. Visweswaran, E. K. Massin, and T. D. Dubose, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8, 1028–1033 (1997).
[PubMed]

Walker, S. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walters, B. C.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Wang, F.

W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).

Wang, G.

G. Wang, “Mannitol-induced renal injury and its prevention,” New Chin. Med. 31, 413–414 (2000).

Wang, H.

L. Dai, Z. Qian, K. Li, T. Yang, and H. Wang, “In vivo detection of reduced scattering coefficient of C6 glioma in rat brain tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044003(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenham, T. N.

T. N. Wenham, A. P. Hormis, and J. C. Andrzejowski, “Hypertonic saline after traumatic brain injury in UK neuro-critical care practice,” Anaesthesia 63, 558–559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whelan, T. V.

T. V. Whelan, M. E. Bacon, M. Madden, T. G. Patel, and R. Handy, “Acute renal failure associated with mannitol intoxication: report of a case,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2053–2055(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilberger, J. E.

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

Williams, M. A.

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wisniewski, S. R.

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

Xie, J.

J. Xie, Z. Qian, L. He, and T. Yang, “Study on assessment effects of mannitol on treatment TBE based on measurement mini-invasive optical parameter (μs′),” Spectr. Spectr. Anal. 29, 3254–3258 (2009).

Xu, D.

E. A. Deitch, H. P. Shi, E. Feketeova, C. J. Hauser, and D. Xu, “Hypertonic saline resuscitation limits neutrophil activation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock,” Shock Waves 19, 328–333(2003).

Yada-Langui, M. M.

M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).

Yang, T.

J. Xie, Z. Qian, L. He, and T. Yang, “Study on assessment effects of mannitol on treatment TBE based on measurement mini-invasive optical parameter (μs′),” Spectr. Spectr. Anal. 29, 3254–3258 (2009).

L. Dai, Z. Qian, K. Li, T. Yang, and H. Wang, “In vivo detection of reduced scattering coefficient of C6 glioma in rat brain tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044003(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

G. Zhu, J. Yao, Z. Qin, and X. Sun, “The effect of mannitol on brain edema of cerebral vascular disease (CVD) patients: a study with MRI,” Chin. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 286–288 (1997).

Ye, H.

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

Yu, C.

W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

Zhan, G.

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

Zhu, G.

G. Zhu, J. Yao, Z. Qin, and X. Sun, “The effect of mannitol on brain edema of cerebral vascular disease (CVD) patients: a study with MRI,” Chin. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 286–288 (1997).

Zornow, M. H.

D. S. Prough and M. H. Zornow, “Mannitol: an old friend in the skids?,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 997–998 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Anaesth. Scand. (1)

J. A. Kolsen-Petersen, “Immune effect of hypertonic saline: fact or fiction?,” Acta Anaesth. Scand. 48, 667–678 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (1)

H. E. James, “The effect of intravenous fluid replacement on the response to mannitol in experimental cerebral edema: an analysis of intracranial pressure, serum osmolality, serum electrolytes, and brain water content,” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 96, 125–129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Nephrol. (1)

A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anaesthesia (1)

T. N. Wenham, A. P. Hormis, and J. C. Andrzejowski, “Hypertonic saline after traumatic brain injury in UK neuro-critical care practice,” Anaesthesia 63, 558–559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anesth. Analg. (1)

T. Donato, Y. Shapira, A. Artru, and K. Powers, “Effect of mannitol on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and brain tissue edema,” Anesth. Analg. 78, 58–66 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anesthesiology (1)

M. M. Todd, J. Cutkomp, and J. E. Brian, “Influence of mannitol and furosemide, alone and in combination, on brain water content after fluid percussion injury,” Anesthesiology 105, 1176–1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Intern. Med. (2)

T. V. Whelan, M. E. Bacon, M. Madden, T. G. Patel, and R. Handy, “Acute renal failure associated with mannitol intoxication: report of a case,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2053–2055(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Goldwasser and S. Fotino, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion. Appropriate response of tubuloglomerular feedback?,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2214–2216(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brain Res. (1)

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. J. Emer. Med. (1)

H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).

Chin. J. Med. Phys. (1)

Z. Qian, Y. Gu, and H. Liu, “In vivo and real time measurement of rat brain reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” Chin. J. Med. Phys. 22, 463–465 (2005).

Chin. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. (1)

G. Zhu, J. Yao, Z. Qin, and X. Sun, “The effect of mannitol on brain edema of cerebral vascular disease (CVD) patients: a study with MRI,” Chin. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 286–288 (1997).

Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. (1)

T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Care Med. (5)

J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Qureshi and J. Suarez, “Use of hypertonic saline solutions in treatment of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 3301–3313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Prough and M. H. Zornow, “Mannitol: an old friend in the skids?,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 997–998 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hirsh, L. Dyugovskaya, Y. Bashenko, and M. M. Krausz, “Reduced rate of bacterial translocation and improved variables of natural killer cell and T-cell activity in rats surviving controlled hemorrhagic shock and treated with hypertonic saline,” Crit. Care Med. 30, 861–865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Biol. Med. (1)

M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).

J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1)

P. Visweswaran, E. K. Massin, and T. D. Dubose, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8, 1028–1033 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Dai, Z. Qian, K. Li, T. Yang, and H. Wang, “In vivo detection of reduced scattering coefficient of C6 glioma in rat brain tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044003(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. (1)

W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).

J. Molec. Neurosci. (1)

H. Junger, D. B. Edelman, and W. G. Junger, “Hypertonicity promotes survival of corticospinal motoneurons via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling,” J. Molec. Neurosci. 21, 111–120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. (1)

Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).

J. Neurosurg. (1)

K. Okiyama, D. H. Smith, M. J. Thomas, and T. K. Mcintosh, “Evaluation of a novel calcium channel blocker, (S)-emopamil, on regional cerebral edema and neurobehavioral function after experimental brain injury,” J. Neurosurg. 77, 607–615(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurotrauma (2)

Brain Trauma Foundation, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. VI. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring,” J. Neurotrauma 24, S37–S44 (2007).
[PubMed]

F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medicine (Baltimore) (1)

H. R. Dorman, J. H. Sondheimer, and P. Cadnapaphornchai, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” Medicine (Baltimore) 69, 153–159 (1990).

Mt. Sinai J. Med. (1)

T. A. Ashman, W. A. Gordon, J. B. Cantor, and M. R. Hibbard, “Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury,” Mt. Sinai J. Med. 73, 999–1005 (2006).

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurologist (1)

A. A. Rabinstein, “Treatment of cerebral edema,” Neurologist 12, 59–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosurg. (1)

R. C. Hartwell and L. N. Sutton, “Mannitol intracranial pressure and vasogenic edema,” Neurosurg. 32, 440–450 (1993).

Neurosurg. Q. (1)

M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).

New Chin. Med. (1)

G. Wang, “Mannitol-induced renal injury and its prevention,” New Chin. Med. 31, 413–414 (2000).

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shock Waves (1)

E. A. Deitch, H. P. Shi, E. Feketeova, C. J. Hauser, and D. Xu, “Hypertonic saline resuscitation limits neutrophil activation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock,” Shock Waves 19, 328–333(2003).

Spectr. Spectr. Anal. (1)

J. Xie, Z. Qian, L. He, and T. Yang, “Study on assessment effects of mannitol on treatment TBE based on measurement mini-invasive optical parameter (μs′),” Spectr. Spectr. Anal. 29, 3254–3258 (2009).

Stroke (2)

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a near infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head,” Stroke 32, 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, “Effects of hypertonic (10%) saline in patients with raised intracranial pressure after stroke,” Stroke 33, 136–140 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surg, Neurol. (1)

H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental system. 1, halogen light source; 2, a bifurcated needle probe; 3, bone windows in rats’ head; 4, USB2000 spectrometer; 5, the computer and software; 6, 7, a stepper motor and driving system; 8, the section of the fNIR probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vivo and real-time μ s determined by fNIRs on the rats of Group 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo and real-time μ s determined by fNIRs on the rats of Group 5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo and real-time μ s determined by fNIRs on the rats of Group 3 and Group 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of μ s changes on Groups 1, 3, 4, and 5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

μ s versus time curves.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Regression curve of μ s and BWC. Diamonds, μ s versus BWC; solid curve, regression curve of μ s and BWC.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Protocol of Animal Model ( n = 100 )

Tables Icon

Table 2 Rat Brain Water Content at Different Times in Different Groups ( Mean ± S . D . , n = 5 ) a

Tables Icon

Table 3 μ s Values of Treatment Groups

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ s 690 = 4.5203 exp ( 0.3241 * slope ) .
μ s = 1.5323 × ( BWC × 100 ) 109.17 ;

Metrics