Abstract

A snapshot imaging polarimeter utilizing Savart plates is integrated into a fundus camera for retinal imaging. Acquired retinal images can be processed to reconstruct Stokes vector images, giving insight into the polarization properties of the retina. Results for images from a normal healthy retina and retinas with pathology are examined and compared.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Luo, K. Oka, E. DeHoog, M. Kudenov, J. Schwiegerling, and E. L. Dereniak, “Compact and miniature imaging polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4413-4417 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Oka and N. Saito, “Snapshot complete imaging polarimeter using Savart plates,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 629508 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. L. Trick, F. Y. Calotti, and B. Skarf, “Advances in imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 26, 284-295 (2006).
  4. S. Kremmer, H. D. Ayertey, J. M. Selbach, and K. Steuhl, “Scanning laser polarimetry, retinal nerve fiber layer photography, and perimetry in the diagnosis of glaucomatous nerve fiber defects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 922-926 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), Chap. 9.
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).
  9. M. A. Murphy, E. M. Perlman, J. M. Rogg, D. J. Easton, and J. S. Schman, “Reversible carotid artery narrowing morning glory disc anomaly,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 25, 198-201 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Lim, Colour Atlas of Ophthalmology (World Scientific, 1995).

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

K. Oka and N. Saito, “Snapshot complete imaging polarimeter using Savart plates,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 629508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Trick, F. Y. Calotti, and B. Skarf, “Advances in imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 26, 284-295 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. A. Murphy, E. M. Perlman, J. M. Rogg, D. J. Easton, and J. S. Schman, “Reversible carotid artery narrowing morning glory disc anomaly,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 25, 198-201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Kremmer, H. D. Ayertey, J. M. Selbach, and K. Steuhl, “Scanning laser polarimetry, retinal nerve fiber layer photography, and perimetry in the diagnosis of glaucomatous nerve fiber defects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 922-926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

Awwal, A.

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), Chap. 9.
[CrossRef]

Ayertey, H. D.

S. Kremmer, H. D. Ayertey, J. M. Selbach, and K. Steuhl, “Scanning laser polarimetry, retinal nerve fiber layer photography, and perimetry in the diagnosis of glaucomatous nerve fiber defects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 922-926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Betts, R.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bienias, R.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowd, C.

K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calotti, F. Y.

G. L. Trick, F. Y. Calotti, and B. Skarf, “Advances in imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 26, 284-295 (2006).

DeHoog, E.

Dereniak, E. L.

Easton, D. J.

M. A. Murphy, E. M. Perlman, J. M. Rogg, D. J. Easton, and J. S. Schman, “Reversible carotid artery narrowing morning glory disc anomaly,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 25, 198-201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kremmer, S.

S. Kremmer, H. D. Ayertey, J. M. Selbach, and K. Steuhl, “Scanning laser polarimetry, retinal nerve fiber layer photography, and perimetry in the diagnosis of glaucomatous nerve fiber defects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 922-926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kudenov, M.

Li, G.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.

S. Lim, Colour Atlas of Ophthalmology (World Scientific, 1995).

Lin, J.

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), Chap. 9.
[CrossRef]

Lo, P.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

Medeiros, F. A.

K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohammadi, K.

K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M. A.

M. A. Murphy, E. M. Perlman, J. M. Rogg, D. J. Easton, and J. S. Schman, “Reversible carotid artery narrowing morning glory disc anomaly,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 25, 198-201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oka, K.

Papworth, W.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perlman, E. M.

M. A. Murphy, E. M. Perlman, J. M. Rogg, D. J. Easton, and J. S. Schman, “Reversible carotid artery narrowing morning glory disc anomaly,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 25, 198-201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Porter, J.

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), Chap. 9.
[CrossRef]

Queener, H.

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), Chap. 9.
[CrossRef]

Reed, J.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rogg, J. M.

M. A. Murphy, E. M. Perlman, J. M. Rogg, D. J. Easton, and J. S. Schman, “Reversible carotid artery narrowing morning glory disc anomaly,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 25, 198-201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saito, N.

K. Oka and N. Saito, “Snapshot complete imaging polarimeter using Savart plates,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 629508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sample, P. A.

K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schman, J. S.

M. A. Murphy, E. M. Perlman, J. M. Rogg, D. J. Easton, and J. S. Schman, “Reversible carotid artery narrowing morning glory disc anomaly,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 25, 198-201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

Selbach, J. M.

S. Kremmer, H. D. Ayertey, J. M. Selbach, and K. Steuhl, “Scanning laser polarimetry, retinal nerve fiber layer photography, and perimetry in the diagnosis of glaucomatous nerve fiber defects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 922-926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinai, M.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Skarf, B.

G. L. Trick, F. Y. Calotti, and B. Skarf, “Advances in imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 26, 284-295 (2006).

Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

Steuhl, K.

S. Kremmer, H. D. Ayertey, J. M. Selbach, and K. Steuhl, “Scanning laser polarimetry, retinal nerve fiber layer photography, and perimetry in the diagnosis of glaucomatous nerve fiber defects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 922-926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, K.

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), Chap. 9.
[CrossRef]

Trick, G. L.

G. L. Trick, F. Y. Calotti, and B. Skarf, “Advances in imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 26, 284-295 (2006).

Trost, P.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, C.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weinreb, R. N.

K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winnick, R.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zangwil, L. M.

K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Opthalmol. (1)

K. Mohammadi, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, P. A. Sample, and L. M. Zangwil, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss,” Am. J. Opthalmol. 138, 592-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Kremmer, H. D. Ayertey, J. M. Selbach, and K. Steuhl, “Scanning laser polarimetry, retinal nerve fiber layer photography, and perimetry in the diagnosis of glaucomatous nerve fiber defects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 922-926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. (2)

G. L. Trick, F. Y. Calotti, and B. Skarf, “Advances in imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 26, 284-295 (2006).

M. A. Murphy, E. M. Perlman, J. M. Rogg, D. J. Easton, and J. S. Schman, “Reversible carotid artery narrowing morning glory disc anomaly,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmol. 25, 198-201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Oka and N. Saito, “Snapshot complete imaging polarimeter using Savart plates,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 629508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE 4951, 32-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), Chap. 9.
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

S. Lim, Colour Atlas of Ophthalmology (World Scientific, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Savart plate polarimeter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fundus camera with an integrated SPP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spot diagrams of the SPFC showing the shear pattern of the input polarized beam focused at the CCD for fields 0, 7, and 10 ° corresponding to fields 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Each of the sheared beams is represented by a different color. The black circle shows the diffraction limited Airy disk size. The spot size at the focal plane is given by rms and geometric radius. (b) Image quality of the SPFC given by modulation transfer function for fields 0, 7, 10 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normal retina with no pathology and (b) associated Stokes vector images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Retina with Morning Glory Syndrome and (b) associated Stokes vector images.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Retina with advanced glaucoma and (b) associated Stokes vector images

Equations (2)

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I ( x , y ) = 1 2 S 0 + 1 2 cos ( 2 π Ω ( x + y ) ) S 1 + 1 4 | S 23 | cos ( 4 π Ω x arg ( S 23 ) ) j 1 4 | S 23 | cos ( 4 π Ω y + arg ( S 23 ) ) ,
S 23 = S 2 + j S 3 , Ω = Δ λ f 2 .

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