Abstract

A theory is derived to describe the relationship between photonic crystal (PC) label-free imaging resolution and PC resonance spectral linewidth and location. PCs are fabricated and patterned with a res olution standard photomask in order to verify this relationship experimentally. Two distinct linear resolutions of <1μm and 3.5μm are demonstrated in orthogonal directions on a single device, where the former is limited by the imaging system optics and the latter is constrained by finite resonant mode propagation. In order to illustrate the utility of improved design control, the spectral response of a PC is optimized for label-free imaging of immobilized DNA capture spots on a microarray.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. Cunningham, Introduction to Bioanalytical Sensors (Wiley-Interscience, 1998).
  2. M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley-Liss, 2002).
  3. H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, “Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Zhu, J. P. Landry, Y.-S. Sun, J. P. Gregg, K. S. Lam, and X. Guo, “Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection of biochemical reactions in a microarray format,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1890-1895 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481-490 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors,” ACS Chem. Biol. 3, 437-448 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. F. Pineda, L. L. Chan, T. Kuhlenschmidt, M. Kuhlenschmidt, and B. T. Cunningham, “Rapid label-free selective detection of porcine rotavirus using photonic crystal biosensors for groundwater monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 470-477 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, “A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing method for microplate label-free photonic crystal biosensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1551-1556 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, “A 96-well microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis,” Lab Chip 7, 550-556(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, 1995).
  18. Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications,” Opt. Express 12, 5661-5674 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17, 13222-13235 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 274-280 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. C. Karl and H. H. Pien, “High-resolution biosensor spectral peak shift estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 4631-4639 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, “Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. F. Pineda, L. L. Chan, T. Kuhlenschmidt, M. Kuhlenschmidt, and B. T. Cunningham, “Rapid label-free selective detection of porcine rotavirus using photonic crystal biosensors for groundwater monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 470-477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17, 13222-13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors,” ACS Chem. Biol. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, “Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, “A 96-well microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis,” Lab Chip 7, 550-556(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, J. P. Landry, Y.-S. Sun, J. P. Gregg, K. S. Lam, and X. Guo, “Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection of biochemical reactions in a microarray format,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1890-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing method for microplate label-free photonic crystal biosensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1551-1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. C. Karl and H. H. Pien, “High-resolution biosensor spectral peak shift estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 4631-4639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, “A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, “Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications,” Opt. Express 12, 5661-5674 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auburn, R.

R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bangham, R.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

Bergstein, D. A.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertone, P.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bidlingmaier, S.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilgin, M.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, I. D.

Cabodi, M.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, C. T.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, “Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casamayor, A.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, L.

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, L. L.

M. F. Pineda, L. L. Chan, T. Kuhlenschmidt, M. Kuhlenschmidt, and B. T. Cunningham, “Rapid label-free selective detection of porcine rotavirus using photonic crystal biosensors for groundwater monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 470-477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors,” ACS Chem. Biol. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing method for microplate label-free photonic crystal biosensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1551-1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhery, V.

Choi, C. J.

C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, “A 96-well microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis,” Lab Chip 7, 550-556(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, A. J.

A. J. Cunningham, Introduction to Bioanalytical Sensors (Wiley-Interscience, 1998).

Cunningham, B. T.

M. F. Pineda, L. L. Chan, T. Kuhlenschmidt, M. Kuhlenschmidt, and B. T. Cunningham, “Rapid label-free selective detection of porcine rotavirus using photonic crystal biosensors for groundwater monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 470-477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17, 13222-13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors,” ACS Chem. Biol. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, “A 96-well microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis,” Lab Chip 7, 550-556(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing method for microplate label-free photonic crystal biosensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1551-1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, “A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dandy, D. S.

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, “Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dean, R. A.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

Dorvel, B. R.

Fan, S.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friesem, A. A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17, 13222-13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georgiadis, R. M.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gershoni, J. M.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstein, M.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstenmaier, J.

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, “A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, R.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosangari, S.

L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grainger, D. W.

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, “Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, J. P.

Guo, X.

Hall, D.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heaton, R. J.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heeres, J.

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors,” ACS Chem. Biol. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hergenrother, P.

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors,” ACS Chem. Biol. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houfek, T.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugh, B.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, R.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S.

Karl, W. C.

W. C. Karl and H. H. Pien, “High-resolution biosensor spectral peak shift estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 4631-4639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kreil, D. P.

R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhlenschmidt, M.

M. F. Pineda, L. L. Chan, T. Kuhlenschmidt, M. Kuhlenschmidt, and B. T. Cunningham, “Rapid label-free selective detection of porcine rotavirus using photonic crystal biosensors for groundwater monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 470-477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlenschmidt, T.

M. F. Pineda, L. L. Chan, T. Kuhlenschmidt, M. Kuhlenschmidt, and B. T. Cunningham, “Rapid label-free selective detection of porcine rotavirus using photonic crystal biosensors for groundwater monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 470-477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lam, K. S.

Lan, N.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landry, J. P.

Li, P.

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, “A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. Y.

L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing method for microplate label-free photonic crystal biosensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1551-1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, “A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

Mathias, P. C.

Matilla, S. S.

R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meadows, L. A.

R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, P.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, T.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Needham, J. W.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozkumur, E.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, J.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, A. W.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pien, H. H.

W. C. Karl and H. H. Pien, “High-resolution biosensor spectral peak shift estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 4631-4639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pineda, M. F.

M. F. Pineda, L. L. Chan, T. Kuhlenschmidt, M. Kuhlenschmidt, and B. T. Cunningham, “Rapid label-free selective detection of porcine rotavirus using photonic crystal biosensors for groundwater monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 470-477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors,” ACS Chem. Biol. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puff, D.

L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing method for microplate label-free photonic crystal biosensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1551-1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, D.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, S.

R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley-Liss, 2002).

Sharon, A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shumaker-Parry, J. S.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, “Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, M.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.-S.

Unlu, M. S.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verdeyen, J.

J. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

Vodkin, L.

Watkin, K.

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watkin, K. L.

L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, “Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

ACS Chem. Biol. (1)

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors,” ACS Chem. Biol. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, “Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apoptosis (1)

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (3)

L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing method for microplate label-free photonic crystal biosensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1551-1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Pineda, L. L. Chan, T. Kuhlenschmidt, M. Kuhlenschmidt, and B. T. Cunningham, “Rapid label-free selective detection of porcine rotavirus using photonic crystal biosensors for groundwater monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 470-477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

W. C. Karl and H. H. Pien, “High-resolution biosensor spectral peak shift estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 4631-4639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomol. Screen. (1)

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, “A 96-well microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis,” Lab Chip 7, 550-556(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucleic Acids Res. (1)

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, “Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. Zhu, M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R. A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder, “Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips,” Science 293, 2101-2105 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, “A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

R. Auburn, D. P. Kreil, L. A. Meadows, B. Fischer, S. S. Matilla, and S. Russell, “Robotic spotting of cDNA arrays and oligonucleotide microarrays,” Trends Biotechnol. 23, 374-379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

A. J. Cunningham, Introduction to Bioanalytical Sensors (Wiley-Interscience, 1998).

M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley-Liss, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Label-free imaging instrument schematic, reprinted from [19], and (b) sample measured inverted transmission versus angle resonance profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of photonic crystal structure designed for label-free and enhanced-fluorescence imaging. Adapted from [19].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Bright field and (b) label-free images of USAF 1951 resolution standard patterned into a photoresist by photolithography on a photonic crystal. Numbers define line pair cycles/mm, and the images are taken at 32 × magnification. (c) Cross-section profile of line pairs and bulk feature to illustrate method for determining resolution, defined as the line spacing where the line pair label-free response is down by 1 / e from that of the bulk.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission versus wavelength resonance spectra for two photonic crystals. Label-free images of USAF 1951 resolution standard patterned etched into the photonic crystals with (b) broad and (c) narrow spectral linewidths. Numbers define line pair cycles/mm, and images were captured at 12.5 × magnification.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(b) Feature edge for resolution standard etched to a depth of 15 nm into the surface of the 4.5 nm linewidth PC. (a), (c)–(f) Inverted transmission versus angle responses and fitted peaks for pixels across the feature boundary and parallel to the direction of leaky mode propagation (right to left).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Inverted transmission versus angle response for a PC with 300 nm Si O 2 and 150 nm and (b), (c) label-free images of this PC with DNA capture probes printed onto the device in a microarray format. (d) Inverted transmission versus angle response for a PC with 300 nm Si O 2 and 170 nm Ti O 2 and (e), (f) label-free images of this PC with DNA capture probes printed onto the device in a microarray format.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k 0 sin ( θ 0 ) ± m 2 π Λ = 2 π λ n eff ,
λ = Λ n eff .
τ p = Q ω 0 = λ 2 n eff 2 π · Δ λ · c ,
L p = τ p · c n eff = λ 2 2 π · Δ λ .

Metrics