Abstract

We show theoretically that the axial resolution is improved when two centrosymmetric D-shaped apertures are combined in a confocal microscope with a finite-sized pinhole. The optimum width of a divider that separates the D-shaped apertures to give the maximum axial resolution for a given pinhole size is investigated, and the magnitude of the signal level is explored.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Goldman, “Spaltlampenphotographie und -photometrie,” Ophthalmologica 98, 257-270 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. M. Maurice, “A scanning slit optical microscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 13, 1033-1037 (1974).
  3. C. J. Koester, “Scanning mirror microscope with optical sectioning characteristics: applications in ophthalmology,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1749-1757 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. J. Koester, “Comparison of optical sectioning methods: the scanning slit confocal microscope,” in Handbook of Confocal Microscopy, J. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, 1990).
  5. P. Török, Z. Laczik, and J. N. Skepper, “Simple modification of a commercial scanning laser microscope to incorporate dark-field imaging,” J. Microsc. 181, 260-268 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Török, Z. Laczik, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effect of half-stop lateral misalignment on imaging of dark-field and stereoscopic confocal microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6732-6739 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, “Dark-field and differential phase contrast imaging modes in confocal microscopy using a half-aperture stop,” Optik (Jena) 103, 101-106 (1996).
  8. P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, J. M. Zavislan, W. J. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope for imaging human skin in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 31, 942-944 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Sandison and W. W. Webb, “Background rejection and signal-to-noise optimization in confocal and alternative fluorescence microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 603-615(1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. R. Sandison, D. W. Piston, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Quantitative comparison of background rejection, signal-to-noise ratio, and resolution in confocal and full-field laser scanning microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3576-3588 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984).
  18. C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, “Improvement of axial resolution in confocal microscopy using an annular pupil,” Opt. Commun. 84, 7-13 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Jena) 93, 87-90 (1993).

2009

2008

2007

2006

P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, J. M. Zavislan, W. J. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope for imaging human skin in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 31, 942-944 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tjokro and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Phase space analysis of photon scattering in multiplanes within a microscope system,” Proc. SPIE 616361630U (2006).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and J. N. Skepper, “Simple modification of a commercial scanning laser microscope to incorporate dark-field imaging,” J. Microsc. 181, 260-268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, “Dark-field and differential phase contrast imaging modes in confocal microscopy using a half-aperture stop,” Optik (Jena) 103, 101-106 (1996).

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effect of half-stop lateral misalignment on imaging of dark-field and stereoscopic confocal microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6732-6739 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

1994

1993

X. S. Gan and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Detectability: a new criterion for evaluation of the confocal microscope,” Scanning 15, 187-192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Jena) 93, 87-90 (1993).

1991

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, “Improvement of axial resolution in confocal microscopy using an annular pupil,” Opt. Commun. 84, 7-13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980

1974

D. M. Maurice, “A scanning slit optical microscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 13, 1033-1037 (1974).

1940

H. Goldman, “Spaltlampenphotographie und -photometrie,” Ophthalmologica 98, 257-270 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Dimarzio, C. A.

Dwyer, P. J.

Fox, W. J.

Gan, X. S.

X. S. Gan and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Detectability: a new criterion for evaluation of the confocal microscope,” Scanning 15, 187-192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, H.

H. Goldman, “Spaltlampenphotographie und -photometrie,” Ophthalmologica 98, 257-270 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Gong, W.

Gu, M.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Jena) 93, 87-90 (1993).

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, “Improvement of axial resolution in confocal microscopy using an annular pupil,” Opt. Commun. 84, 7-13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Koester, C. J.

C. J. Koester, “Scanning mirror microscope with optical sectioning characteristics: applications in ophthalmology,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1749-1757 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Koester, “Comparison of optical sectioning methods: the scanning slit confocal microscope,” in Handbook of Confocal Microscopy, J. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, 1990).

Laczik, Z.

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effect of half-stop lateral misalignment on imaging of dark-field and stereoscopic confocal microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6732-6739 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and J. N. Skepper, “Simple modification of a commercial scanning laser microscope to incorporate dark-field imaging,” J. Microsc. 181, 260-268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, “Dark-field and differential phase contrast imaging modes in confocal microscopy using a half-aperture stop,” Optik (Jena) 103, 101-106 (1996).

Mandella, M. J.

Maurice, D. M.

D. M. Maurice, “A scanning slit optical microscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 13, 1033-1037 (1974).

Piston, D. W.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Sandison, D. R.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

K. Si, W. Gong, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Three-dimensional coherent transfer function for a confocal microscope with two D-shaped pupils,” Appl. Opt. 48, 810-817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, W. Gong, and K. Si, “The divided aperture technique for microscopy through scattering media,” Opt. Express 16, 17031-17038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tjokro and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Phase space analysis of photon scattering in multiplanes within a microscope system,” Proc. SPIE 616361630U (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, “Dark-field and differential phase contrast imaging modes in confocal microscopy using a half-aperture stop,” Optik (Jena) 103, 101-106 (1996).

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effect of half-stop lateral misalignment on imaging of dark-field and stereoscopic confocal microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6732-6739 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Jena) 93, 87-90 (1993).

X. S. Gan and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Detectability: a new criterion for evaluation of the confocal microscope,” Scanning 15, 187-192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, “Improvement of axial resolution in confocal microscopy using an annular pupil,” Opt. Commun. 84, 7-13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Si, K.

Skepper, J. N.

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and J. N. Skepper, “Simple modification of a commercial scanning laser microscope to incorporate dark-field imaging,” J. Microsc. 181, 260-268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjokro, C.

C. Tjokro and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Phase space analysis of photon scattering in multiplanes within a microscope system,” Proc. SPIE 616361630U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Török, P.

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and J. N. Skepper, “Simple modification of a commercial scanning laser microscope to incorporate dark-field imaging,” J. Microsc. 181, 260-268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, “Dark-field and differential phase contrast imaging modes in confocal microscopy using a half-aperture stop,” Optik (Jena) 103, 101-106 (1996).

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effect of half-stop lateral misalignment on imaging of dark-field and stereoscopic confocal microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6732-6739 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

Webb, W. W.

Williams, R. M.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Wong, L. K.

Zavislan, J. M.

Zhou, H.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Jena) 93, 87-90 (1993).

Appl. Opt.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

D. M. Maurice, “A scanning slit optical microscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 13, 1033-1037 (1974).

J. Microsc.

P. Török, Z. Laczik, and J. N. Skepper, “Simple modification of a commercial scanning laser microscope to incorporate dark-field imaging,” J. Microsc. 181, 260-268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmologica

H. Goldman, “Spaltlampenphotographie und -photometrie,” Ophthalmologica 98, 257-270 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, “Improvement of axial resolution in confocal microscopy using an annular pupil,” Opt. Commun. 84, 7-13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optik (Jena)

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, “Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils,” Optik (Jena) 93, 87-90 (1993).

P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, “Dark-field and differential phase contrast imaging modes in confocal microscopy using a half-aperture stop,” Optik (Jena) 103, 101-106 (1996).

Proc. SPIE

C. Tjokro and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Phase space analysis of photon scattering in multiplanes within a microscope system,” Proc. SPIE 616361630U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scanning

X. S. Gan and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Detectability: a new criterion for evaluation of the confocal microscope,” Scanning 15, 187-192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

C. J. Koester, “Comparison of optical sectioning methods: the scanning slit confocal microscope,” in Handbook of Confocal Microscopy, J. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Axial response of the intensity with different distance parameters d when (a)  ν d = 1 and (b)  ν d = 6 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Half-width u 1 / 2 of the axial response as a function of (a) detector radius ν d and (b) distance parameter d.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations of the detector radius at optimum and critical points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal level as a function of (a) detector radius ν d and (b) half-width u 1 / 2 .

Equations (8)

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P ( ρ , θ , u ) = { exp [ i ( u / 2 ) ρ 2 ] 0             d ρ 1 & cos 1 ( ρ / d ) θ cos - 1 ( ρ / d ) otherwise
u = ( 8 π / λ ) z sin 2 ( α / 2 ) .
I ( u ) = D ( ν x , ν y ) | h 1 ( ν x , ν y , u ) h 2 ( ν x , ν y , u ) | 2 d ν x d ν y ,
h 1 ( ν x , ν y , u ) = h 2 ( ν x , ν y , u ) = P ( ρ , θ , u ) exp [ i ( ν x ρ cos θ + ν y ρ sin θ ) ] ρ d ρ d θ .
I ( u ) = D ( ν x , ν y ) | P ( ρ , θ , 2 u ) exp [ i ( ν x ρ cos θ + ν y ρ sin θ ) ] ρ d ρ d θ | 2 d ν x d ν y ,
I ( u ) = d 2 1 arccos ( d ρ ) exp ( i u ρ ) d ρ .
I u = 0 = D ( ν x , ν y ) | P ( ρ , θ , 0 ) exp [ i ( ν x ρ cos θ + ν y ρ sin θ ) ] ρ d ρ d θ | 2 d ν x d ν y .
η = I u = 0 4 π 2 ( arccos d d 1 d 2 ) ,

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