Abstract

Single-bounce ellipsoidal and paraboloidal glass capillary focusing optics have been fabricated for use as condenser lenses for both synchrotron and tabletop x-ray microscopes in the x-ray energy range of 2.518keV. The condenser numerical apertures (NAs) of these devices are designed to match the NA of x-ray zone plate objectives, which gives them a great advantage over zone plate condensers in laboratory microscopes. The fabricated condensers have slope errors as low as 20μrad rms. These capillaries provide a uniform hollow-cone illumination with almost full focusing efficiency, which is much higher than what is available with zone plate condensers. Sub-50nm resolution at 8keV x-ray energy was achieved by utilizing this high-efficiency condenser in a laboratory microscope based on a rotating anode generator.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160-163 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Medenwaldt and E. Uggerhøj, “Description of an x-ray microscope with 30 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2974-2977 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).
  6. M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstruction of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957-962 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Schneider and B. Niemann, “Cryo x-ray microscopy experiments with the x-ray microscope at BESSY,” in X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, and E. Umbach, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 25-34.
  10. K. Luening, P. Pianetta, W. Yun, E. Almeida, and M. van der Meulen, “A high resolution full field transmission x-ray microscope at SSRL,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 1333-1336 (2007).
  11. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).
  12. H. Stollberg, S. Yulin, P. A. C. Takman, and H. M. Hertz, “High-reflectivity Cr/S multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 123101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9, 974-986(1942).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. X. Balaic, K. A. Nugent, Z. Barnea, R. Garrett, and S. W. Wilkins, “Focusing of x-rays by total internal reflection from paraboloidally tapered glass capillary,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 296-299 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. H. Bilderback and E. Fontes, “Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter,” AIP Conf. Proc. 417, 147-155 (1997).
  18. D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201-203 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. H. Bilderback and R. Huang, “X-ray tests of microfocusing mono-capillary optic for protein crystallography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467-468, 970-973 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Kirkpatrick and V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by x-rays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 776-774 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Wolter, “Generalized Schwarzschild mirror systems with glancing incidence as optics for x-rays,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 10, 286-295 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. O. Anderson, G. H. O. Daalderop, and K. Bange, “X-ray reflectivity investigations of glass surfaces produced by float and draw techniques,” Mikrochim. Acta 125, 63-67 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Huang and D. H. Bilderback, “Single-bounce monocapillaries for focusing synchrotron radiation: modeling, measurements and theoretical limits,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 74-84 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Hirsch, “Metal capillary optics: novel fabrication methods and characterization,” X-Ray Spectrom. 32, 229-238 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

2007 (2)

K. Luening, P. Pianetta, W. Yun, E. Almeida, and M. van der Meulen, “A high resolution full field transmission x-ray microscope at SSRL,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 1333-1336 (2007).

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

H. Stollberg, S. Yulin, P. A. C. Takman, and H. M. Hertz, “High-reflectivity Cr/S multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Huang and D. H. Bilderback, “Single-bounce monocapillaries for focusing synchrotron radiation: modeling, measurements and theoretical limits,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 74-84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstruction of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957-962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Hirsch, “Metal capillary optics: novel fabrication methods and characterization,” X-Ray Spectrom. 32, 229-238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. H. Bilderback and R. Huang, “X-ray tests of microfocusing mono-capillary optic for protein crystallography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467-468, 970-973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Medenwaldt and E. Uggerhøj, “Description of an x-ray microscope with 30 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2974-2977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider and B. Niemann, “Cryo x-ray microscopy experiments with the x-ray microscope at BESSY,” in X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, and E. Umbach, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 25-34.

1997 (2)

O. Anderson, G. H. O. Daalderop, and K. Bange, “X-ray reflectivity investigations of glass surfaces produced by float and draw techniques,” Mikrochim. Acta 125, 63-67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Bilderback and E. Fontes, “Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter,” AIP Conf. Proc. 417, 147-155 (1997).

1996 (1)

D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

D. X. Balaic, K. A. Nugent, Z. Barnea, R. Garrett, and S. W. Wilkins, “Focusing of x-rays by total internal reflection from paraboloidally tapered glass capillary,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 296-299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201-203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

1974 (1)

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160-163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

H. Wolter, “Generalized Schwarzschild mirror systems with glancing incidence as optics for x-rays,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 10, 286-295 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

P. Kirkpatrick and V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by x-rays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 776-774 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9, 974-986(1942).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, E.

K. Luening, P. Pianetta, W. Yun, E. Almeida, and M. van der Meulen, “A high resolution full field transmission x-ray microscope at SSRL,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 1333-1336 (2007).

Anderson, E.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, O.

O. Anderson, G. H. O. Daalderop, and K. Bange, “X-ray reflectivity investigations of glass surfaces produced by float and draw techniques,” Mikrochim. Acta 125, 63-67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ando, M.

A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, S.

A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baez, V.

P. Kirkpatrick and V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by x-rays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 776-774 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Balaic, D. X.

D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Balaic, K. A. Nugent, Z. Barnea, R. Garrett, and S. W. Wilkins, “Focusing of x-rays by total internal reflection from paraboloidally tapered glass capillary,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 296-299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bange, K.

O. Anderson, G. H. O. Daalderop, and K. Bange, “X-ray reflectivity investigations of glass surfaces produced by float and draw techniques,” Mikrochim. Acta 125, 63-67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barnea, Z.

D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Balaic, K. A. Nugent, Z. Barnea, R. Garrett, and S. W. Wilkins, “Focusing of x-rays by total internal reflection from paraboloidally tapered glass capillary,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 296-299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, C.

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bilderback, D. H.

R. Huang and D. H. Bilderback, “Single-bounce monocapillaries for focusing synchrotron radiation: modeling, measurements and theoretical limits,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 74-84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Bilderback and R. Huang, “X-ray tests of microfocusing mono-capillary optic for protein crystallography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467-468, 970-973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Bilderback and E. Fontes, “Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter,” AIP Conf. Proc. 417, 147-155 (1997).

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201-203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birch, J.

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Braun, P. V.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

Chao, W.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. R.

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T.-C.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crecea, V.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

Daalderop, G. H. O.

O. Anderson, G. H. O. Daalderop, and K. Bange, “X-ray reflectivity investigations of glass surfaces produced by float and draw techniques,” Mikrochim. Acta 125, 63-67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

de Groot, J.

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Denbeaux, G.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, M.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

Duewer, F.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duewer, F. W.

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, F.

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Feser, M.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fontes, E.

D. H. Bilderback and E. Fontes, “Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter,” AIP Conf. Proc. 417, 147-155 (1997).

Garrett, R.

D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Balaic, K. A. Nugent, Z. Barnea, R. Garrett, and S. W. Wilkins, “Focusing of x-rays by total internal reflection from paraboloidally tapered glass capillary,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 296-299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guttmann, P.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

Hemberg, O.

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Hertz, H. M.

H. Stollberg, S. Yulin, P. A. C. Takman, and H. M. Hertz, “High-reflectivity Cr/S multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Hirsch, G.

G. Hirsch, “Metal capillary optics: novel fabrication methods and characterization,” X-Ray Spectrom. 32, 229-238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, S. A.

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201-203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holt, M.

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hotmberg, A.

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Huang, R.

R. Huang and D. H. Bilderback, “Single-bounce monocapillaries for focusing synchrotron radiation: modeling, measurements and theoretical limits,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 74-84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Bilderback and R. Huang, “X-ray tests of microfocusing mono-capillary optic for protein crystallography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467-468, 970-973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jamian, P. R.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jansson, P.

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Johansson, G. A.

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Kirkpatrick, P.

P. Kirkpatrick and V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by x-rays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 776-774 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C. H.

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larabell, C.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larabell, C. A.

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstruction of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957-962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Gros, M.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Gros, M. A.

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstruction of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957-962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, K. S.

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luening, K.

K. Luening, P. Pianetta, W. Yun, E. Almeida, and M. van der Meulen, “A high resolution full field transmission x-ray microscope at SSRL,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 1333-1336 (2007).

Lyon, A.

M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maser, J.

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Medenwaldt, R.

R. Medenwaldt and E. Uggerhøj, “Description of an x-ray microscope with 30 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2974-2977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neuhausler, U.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

G. Schneider and B. Niemann, “Cryo x-ray microscopy experiments with the x-ray microscope at BESSY,” in X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, and E. Umbach, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 25-34.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160-163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Balaic, K. A. Nugent, Z. Barnea, R. Garrett, and S. W. Wilkins, “Focusing of x-rays by total internal reflection from paraboloidally tapered glass capillary,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 296-299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, A.

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, K. M.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pianetta, P.

K. Luening, P. Pianetta, W. Yun, E. Almeida, and M. van der Meulen, “A high resolution full field transmission x-ray microscope at SSRL,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 1333-1336 (2007).

Rau, C.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Richter, C.-P.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. K.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160-163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160-163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider and B. Niemann, “Cryo x-ray microscopy experiments with the x-ray microscope at BESSY,” in X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, and E. Umbach, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 25-34.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

Scott, D.

M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H. P.

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shu, D.

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. F.

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, B.

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stollberg, H.

H. Stollberg, S. Yulin, P. A. C. Takman, and H. M. Hertz, “High-reflectivity Cr/S multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

Takano, H.

A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, A.

A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takman, P. A. C.

H. Stollberg, S. Yulin, P. A. C. Takman, and H. M. Hertz, “High-reflectivity Cr/S multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M. T.

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, D. J.

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201-203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thieme, J.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

Tkachuk, A.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

Uggerhøj, E.

R. Medenwaldt and E. Uggerhøj, “Description of an x-ray microscope with 30 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2974-2977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Meulen, M.

K. Luening, P. Pianetta, W. Yun, E. Almeida, and M. van der Meulen, “A high resolution full field transmission x-ray microscope at SSRL,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 1333-1336 (2007).

Varghese, R. F.

D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, S.

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, N.

A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

Wilkins, S. W.

D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Balaic, K. A. Nugent, Z. Barnea, R. Garrett, and S. W. Wilkins, “Focusing of x-rays by total internal reflection from paraboloidally tapered glass capillary,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 296-299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winarski, R.

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, “Generalized Schwarzschild mirror systems with glancing incidence as optics for x-rays,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 10, 286-295 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. C.

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S.

H. Stollberg, S. Yulin, P. A. C. Takman, and H. M. Hertz, “High-reflectivity Cr/S multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W.

K. Luening, P. Pianetta, W. Yun, E. Almeida, and M. van der Meulen, “A high resolution full field transmission x-ray microscope at SSRL,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 1333-1336 (2007).

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9, 974-986(1942).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

H. Wolter, “Generalized Schwarzschild mirror systems with glancing incidence as optics for x-rays,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 10, 286-295 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. C. Yin, M. T. Tang, Y. F. Song, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, W. Yun, C. H. Ko, and H. P. Shieh, “Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

P. Kirkpatrick and V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by x-rays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 776-774 (1948).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV (1)

H. M. Hertz, G. A. Johansson, H. Stollberg, J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Hotmberg, S. Rehbein, P. Jansson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Table-top x-ray microscopy: sources, optics and applications,” J. Phys. IV 104, 115-120 (2003).

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (3)

D. X. Balaic, K. A. Nugent, Z. Barnea, R. Garrett, and S. W. Wilkins, “Focusing of x-rays by total internal reflection from paraboloidally tapered glass capillary,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 296-299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Balaic, Z. Barnea, K. A. Nugent, R. Garrett, R. F. Varghese, and S. W. Wilkins, “Protein crystal diffraction patterns using a capillary-focused synchrotron x-ray beam,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 3, 289-295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huang and D. H. Bilderback, “Single-bounce monocapillaries for focusing synchrotron radiation: modeling, measurements and theoretical limits,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 74-84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Micro & Nano Lett. (1)

C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K. M. Peterson, P. R. Jamian, U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, X. Yu, P. V. Braun, T.-C. Chiang, and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard x-rays,” Micro & Nano Lett. 2, 1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Microanal. (2)

M. Feser, F. Duewer, S. Wang, D. Scott, A. Lyon, and W. Yun, “3-D x-ray microscopy using laboratory sources,” Microsc. Microanal. 10, 1036-1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Maser, B. Stephenson, R. Winarski, C. Benson, D. Shu, B. Lai, S. Vogt, and M. Holt, “Development of a hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the advanced photon source,” Microsc. Microanal. 11, 680-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikrochim. Acta (1)

O. Anderson, G. H. O. Daalderop, and K. Bange, “X-ray reflectivity investigations of glass surfaces produced by float and draw techniques,” Mikrochim. Acta 125, 63-67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Biol. Cell (1)

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstruction of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957-962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

D. H. Bilderback and R. Huang, “X-ray tests of microfocusing mono-capillary optic for protein crystallography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467-468, 970-973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160-163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Jena) (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, “X-ray microscopy studies,” Optik (Jena) 93, 95-102 (1993).

Physica (1)

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9, 974-986(1942).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63181D-1 (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

A. Takeuchi, S. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, H. Takano, N. Watanabe, and M. Ando, “Full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Stollberg, S. Yulin, P. A. C. Takman, and H. M. Hertz, “High-reflectivity Cr/S multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Medenwaldt and E. Uggerhøj, “Description of an x-ray microscope with 30 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2974-2977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201-203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synchrotron Radiat. News (1)

G. Denbeaux, P. Fischer, G. Schneider, J. A. Liddle, E. Anderson, A. Pearson, W. Chao, C. Larabell, M. Le Gros, and D. Attwood, “Full-field soft x-ray microscopy at the advanced light source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 16, 16-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X-Ray Spectrom. (1)

G. Hirsch, “Metal capillary optics: novel fabrication methods and characterization,” X-Ray Spectrom. 32, 229-238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Schneider and B. Niemann, “Cryo x-ray microscopy experiments with the x-ray microscope at BESSY,” in X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, and E. Umbach, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 25-34.

K. Luening, P. Pianetta, W. Yun, E. Almeida, and M. van der Meulen, “A high resolution full field transmission x-ray microscope at SSRL,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 1333-1336 (2007).

D. H. Bilderback and E. Fontes, “Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter,” AIP Conf. Proc. 417, 147-155 (1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Zone plate used as a condenser in a 1 1 configuration for the laboratory x-ray source. The NA of the condenser zone plate is twice the NA of the objective zone plate since the angular deviation at the condenser is twice the angular deviation at the objective. f 1 is the focal length of the condenser zone plate, f 2 and θ are the focal length and the NA of the objective zone plate, and S is the x-ray source. For large magnification the image is far away from the objective zone plate. (b) Capillary ellipsoid [semimajor axis (a) and semiminor axis (b)] used as a condenser for the laboratory x-ray source. The sample to be imaged is placed at the image of the source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Condenser local slope errors leading to blurring of the focal spot. The angular error of the reflected beam is twice the condenser local slope error α. The focal spot size δ = 2 L α , where L is the distance from spot P to the focal point, S is the x-ray source, and F is the image of the source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical test results for an ellipsoidal condenser: (a) design diameter (solid line) and measured data (dotted curve), (b) absolute diameter deviation from design, (c) straightness of the condenser, (d) histogram of the total slope error of the condenser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Condenser reflected pattern on a CCD camera that is 22 cm away from the exit end of the condenser. In this test no central stop was used. (b) Intensity profile along the diameter of (a) shows a uniform intensity across the ring. (c) Focal spot of one condenser measured with a microfocus laboratory source ( 7 μm ). (d) Intensity profile of (c) where the FWHM is 9 μm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image of a resolution test pattern taken with an x-ray microscope using a microfocus laboratory x-ray source producing 2.7 keV x rays and an elliptically shaped capillary as the x-ray condenser.

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