Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) intensity distributions generated by light passing through conformal phase masks can be modulated by the absorption property of photosensitive materials. The intensity distributions have extremely long depth of focus, which is proportional to the size of the phase masks, and this enables one to pattern thick (100μm), nanoporous structures with precise control of grade density. Various density-graded 3D structures that result from computational modeling are demonstrated. Results of x-ray radiograph and the controlled absorption coefficient prove the dominant mechanism of the generated graded density is absorption of the photosensitive materials. The graded-density structures can be applied to a chemical reservoir for controlled release of chemicals and laser target reservoirs useful to shape shockless wave compression.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Niino and S. Maeda, "Recent development status of functionally gradient materials," ISIJ Int. 30, 699-703 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L.-S. Liu, Q.-J. Zhang, and P.-C. Zhai, "The optimization of propagation characteristic of elastic wave in FGM," Mater. Sci. Forum 492-493, 453-458 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Uemura, "The activities of FGM on new application," Mater. Sci. Forum 423-4, 1-9 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. Frey and J. W. Halloran, "Compaction behavior of spray-dried alumina," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 199-203 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Jedamzik, A. Neubrand, and J. Rodel, "Production of functionally graded materials from electrochemically modified carbon preforms," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 983-985 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Jeon, Y. S. Nam, D. Shir, and J. A. Rogers, "Three dimensional nanoporous density graded materials formed by optical exposures through conformable phase masks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Fabricating three-dimensional nanostructures using two photon lithography in a single exposure step," Opt. Express 14, 2300-2308 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. O. White, and J. A. Rogers, "Optically fabricated three-dimensional nanofluidic mixers for microfluidic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 1351-1356 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).
  12. Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Fabricating three-dimensional nanostructures using two photon lithography in a single exposure step," Opt. Express 14, 2300-2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).

S. Jeon, Y. S. Nam, D. Shir, and J. A. Rogers, "Three dimensional nanoporous density graded materials formed by optical exposures through conformable phase masks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. O. White, and J. A. Rogers, "Optically fabricated three-dimensional nanofluidic mixers for microfluidic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 1351-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-S. Liu, Q.-J. Zhang, and P.-C. Zhai, "The optimization of propagation characteristic of elastic wave in FGM," Mater. Sci. Forum 492-493, 453-458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. Uemura, "The activities of FGM on new application," Mater. Sci. Forum 423-4, 1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Jedamzik, A. Neubrand, and J. Rodel, "Production of functionally graded materials from electrochemically modified carbon preforms," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 983-985 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Niino and S. Maeda, "Recent development status of functionally gradient materials," ISIJ Int. 30, 699-703 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

R. G. Frey and J. W. Halloran, "Compaction behavior of spray-dried alumina," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 199-203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alleyne, A. G.

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirelli, R.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeSimone, J. M.

K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).

Frey, R. G.

R. G. Frey and J. W. Halloran, "Compaction behavior of spray-dried alumina," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 199-203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gaur, A.

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halloran, J. W.

R. G. Frey and J. W. Halloran, "Compaction behavior of spray-dried alumina," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 199-203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hamza, A.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heitzman, C. E.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herlihy, K. P.

K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).

Ho, D.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsia, K. J.

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, F.

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jedamzik, R.

R. Jedamzik, A. Neubrand, and J. Rodel, "Production of functionally graded materials from electrochemically modified carbon preforms," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 983-985 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Fabricating three-dimensional nanostructures using two photon lithography in a single exposure step," Opt. Express 14, 2300-2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, Y. S. Nam, D. Shir, and J. A. Rogers, "Three dimensional nanoporous density graded materials formed by optical exposures through conformable phase masks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. O. White, and J. A. Rogers, "Optically fabricated three-dimensional nanofluidic mixers for microfluidic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 1351-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenis, P. J. A.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilkenny, J.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. H.

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, R.

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.-S.

L.-S. Liu, Q.-J. Zhang, and P.-C. Zhai, "The optimization of propagation characteristic of elastic wave in FGM," Mater. Sci. Forum 492-493, 453-458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, K. T.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, S.

M. Niino and S. Maeda, "Recent development status of functionally gradient materials," ISIJ Int. 30, 699-703 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Fabricating three-dimensional nanostructures using two photon lithography in a single exposure step," Opt. Express 14, 2300-2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. O. White, and J. A. Rogers, "Optically fabricated three-dimensional nanofluidic mixers for microfluidic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 1351-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maria, J.

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maynor, B. W.

K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).

Meinel, I.

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menard, E.

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, Y. S.

S. Jeon, Y. S. Nam, D. Shir, and J. A. Rogers, "Three dimensional nanoporous density graded materials formed by optical exposures through conformable phase masks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nam, Y.-S.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neubrand, A.

R. Jedamzik, A. Neubrand, and J. Rodel, "Production of functionally graded materials from electrochemically modified carbon preforms," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 983-985 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niino, M.

M. Niino and S. Maeda, "Recent development status of functionally gradient materials," ISIJ Int. 30, 699-703 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-U.

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollaine, S.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Remington, B. A.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodel, J.

R. Jedamzik, A. Neubrand, and J. Rodel, "Production of functionally graded materials from electrochemically modified carbon preforms," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 983-985 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Fabricating three-dimensional nanostructures using two photon lithography in a single exposure step," Opt. Express 14, 2300-2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, Y. S. Nam, D. Shir, and J. A. Rogers, "Three dimensional nanoporous density graded materials formed by optical exposures through conformable phase masks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. O. White, and J. A. Rogers, "Optically fabricated three-dimensional nanofluidic mixers for microfluidic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 1351-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).

Shir, D.

S. Jeon, Y. S. Nam, D. Shir, and J. A. Rogers, "Three dimensional nanoporous density graded materials formed by optical exposures through conformable phase masks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. F.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Truong, T. T.

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uemura, S.

S. Uemura, "The activities of FGM on new application," Mater. Sci. Forum 423-4, 1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, J. O.

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. O. White, and J. A. Rogers, "Optically fabricated three-dimensional nanofluidic mixers for microfluidic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 1351-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

Wiles, K. B.

K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).

Wiles, N. S.

K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).

Yang, S.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhai, P.-C.

L.-S. Liu, Q.-J. Zhang, and P.-C. Zhai, "The optimization of propagation characteristic of elastic wave in FGM," Mater. Sci. Forum 492-493, 453-458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.-J.

L.-S. Liu, Q.-J. Zhang, and P.-C. Zhai, "The optimization of propagation characteristic of elastic wave in FGM," Mater. Sci. Forum 492-493, 453-458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Jeon, Y. S. Nam, D. Shir, and J. A. Rogers, "Three dimensional nanoporous density graded materials formed by optical exposures through conformable phase masks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Space Sci.

R. F. Smith, K. T. Lorenz, D. Ho, B. A. Remington, A. Hamza, J. A. Rogers, S. Pollaine, S. Jeon, Y.-S. Nam, and J. Kilkenny, "Graded-density reservoirs for accessing high stress low temperature material states," Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 269-272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ISIJ Int.

M. Niino and S. Maeda, "Recent development status of functionally gradient materials," ISIJ Int. 30, 699-703 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

R. G. Frey and J. W. Halloran, "Compaction behavior of spray-dried alumina," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 199-203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Jedamzik, A. Neubrand, and J. Rodel, "Production of functionally graded materials from electrochemically modified carbon preforms," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 983-985 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

T. T. Truong, R. Lin, S. Jeon, H. H. Lee, J. Maria, A. Gaur, F. Hua, I. Meinel, and J. A. Rogers, "Soft lithography using acryloxy perfluoropolyether composite stamps," Langmuir 23, 2898-2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Huang, W. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Forum

L.-S. Liu, Q.-J. Zhang, and P.-C. Zhai, "The optimization of propagation characteristic of elastic wave in FGM," Mater. Sci. Forum 492-493, 453-458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Uemura, "The activities of FGM on new application," Mater. Sci. Forum 423-4, 1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. O. White, and J. A. Rogers, "Optically fabricated three-dimensional nanofluidic mixers for microfluidic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 1351-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

K. B. Wiles, N. S. Wiles, K. P. Herlihy, B. W. Maynor, J. P. Rolland, and J. M. DeSimone, "Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3D arrays on glass substrates," Proc. SPIE 6151, 61513F1-61513F9 (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of an optical phase mask approach to fabricating density graded 3D nanoporous polymer structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Finite element modeling of intensity distributions (blue, left) and structures in SU-8 with proper cutoff filters (yellow, right) associated with optical exposures (wavelength = 355   nm ) through phase masks gratings with wavelengths, D = 600   nm , and depths of relief, R D = 420   nm . The index of the mask material and the surroundings is 1.4 and 1, respectively. Intensity distributions for the cases of optical absorption in the surrounding are a, 0%; b, 20%; and c, 35%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) DGS generated from a PFPE phase mask with a hexagonal array of cylindrical posts of relief, with relief depth, R D = 420   nm ; diameters, D = 460   nm ; and period, P = 600   nm . a, Optical image of a DGS film on a cover glass. b, c, Scanning electron micrographs of these structures. The effective density varies by nearly a factor of ten from the bottom to the top.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a, b, Scanning electron micrographs of the nanoscale porosity associated with optically fabricated DGSs formed with a PFPE phase mask with a hexagonal array of cylindrical features of relief (relief depth, R D = 420   nm ; diameters, D = 460   nm ; and period, P = 600   nm ). c, d, DGS formed with a PDMS phase mask with square array of cylindrical features of relief ( R D = 420   nm ; D = 375   nm , and P = 566   nm ). e, X-ray radiograph of the cross section of a DGS structure. The gray levels reflect different effective densities. f, Plot of measured density and calculated transmission as a function of distance through the thickness of the film. A relative density of 1 corresponds to the fully cured, nonporous structure of SU-8. A relative density of 0 corresponds to a vacuum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a, Absorbance (arb. units) of layers of SU-8 with different concentrations of an absorbing dye. Density gradient structures fabricated from layers of SU-8 with dye concentrations of b, 0; c, 0.1; d, 0.65; and e, 2.6 wt. %.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Time variation of absorbance (arb. units) measured through a fluid cell that contains a density-graded structure loaded with riboflavin (curve labeled i) and a flat surface coated with riboflavin (curve labeled ii).

Equations (35)

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( 100 μ m )
( 5 10 μ m )
100 μ m
0.13   mm
100 μ m
5 μ m
λ = 355   nm
ϕ = 0.25
0.7   mW
6   mm
n = 1
420   nm
300   nm
n = 1.4
355   nm
60 μ m
6   mm
10 ×
370   nm
28 μ m
60 μ m
2.3 × 10 3
0.5 × 10 3 s 1
= 355   nm
D = 600   nm
R D = 420   nm
R D = 420   nm
D = 460   nm
P = 600   nm
R D = 420   nm
D = 460   nm
P = 600   nm
R D = 420   nm
D = 375   nm
P = 566   nm

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