Abstract

An optical probe used to localize human brain tissues in vivo has been reported previously. It was able to sense the underlying tissue structure with an optical interrogation field, termed as “look ahead distance” (LAD). A new side-firing probe has been designed with its optical window along its side. We have defined the optical interrogation field of the new side probe as “look aside distance” (LASD). The purpose of this study is to understand the dependence of the LAD and LASD on the optical properties of tissue, the light source intensity, and the integration time of the detector, using experimental and computational methods. The results show that a decrease in light intensity does decrease the LAD and LASD and that an increase in integration time of detection may not necessarily improve the depths of LAD and LASD. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that the LAD∕LASD decreases with an increase in reduced scattering coefficient to a point, after which the LAD∕LASD remains constant. We expect that an optical interrogation field of a tip or side probe is approximately 1–2 mm in white matter and 2–3.5 mm in gray matter. These conclusions will help us optimally manipulate the parameter settings during surgery and determine the spatial resolution of the probe.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Krause, W. Fogel, P. Mayer, M. Kloss, and V. Tronnier, "Chronic inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinsons disease," J. Neurol. Sci. 219, 119-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. A. Giller, H. Liu, P. Gurnani, S. Victor, U. Yazdani, and D. C. German, "Validation of a near-infrared probe for detection of thin intracranial white matter structures," J. Neurosurg. 98, 1299-1306 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Qian, S. Victor, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, "Look-ahead distance of a fiber probe used to assist neurosurgery: phantom and Monte Carlo study," Opt. Express 11, 92-103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. S. Palur, C. Berk, M. Schulzer, and C. R. Honey, "A metaanalysis comparing the results of pallidotomy performed using microelectrode recording or macroelectrode stimulation," J. Neurosurg. 96, 1058-1062 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Lozano and F. Carella, "Physiologic studies in the human brain in movement disorders," Parkinsonism and related disorders 8, 455-458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Krause, W. Fogel, and A. Heck, "Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus internus," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 70, 464-470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alkhani and A. M. Lozano, "Pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease: a review of contemporary literature," J. Neurosurg. 94, 43-49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. A. Giller, M. Johns, and H. Liu, "Use of an intracranial near-infrared probe for localization during stereotactic surgery for movement disorders," J. Neurosurg. 93, 498-505 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. J. Burchiel, V. C. Anderson, J. Favre, and J. P. Hammerstad, "Comparison of pallidal and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease: results of a randomized, blinded pilot study," Neurosurgery 45, 1375-1384 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

M. Johns, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, "Computational and in-vivo investigation of optical reflectance from human brain to assist neurosurgery," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 437-445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Weiss, "Statistical properties of the penetration of photons into a semi-infinite turbid medium: a random-walk analsyis," Appl. Opt. 37, 3558-3563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "CONV-Convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 142-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Franceschini, S. Fantini, A. Cerrusi, B. Barbieri, B. Chance, and E. Gratton, "Quantitative spectroscopic determination of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a turbid medium: analysis of the effect of water absorption," J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 147-153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Richards-Kortum, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delphy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Van Swol, E. te Slaa, R. M. Verdaasdonk, J. J. de la Rosette, and T. A. Boon, "Variation output power of laser prostatectomy fibers: a need for power measurements," Urology 47, 672-677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, "Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin," Appl. Opt. 34, 7410-7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. Maier, S. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (3)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell and M. S. Patterson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 880-888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Piallat, A. Benazzouz, and A. L. Benabid, "Neuroprotective effect of choronic inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus in a rat model of Parkinson's disease," J. Neural Transm. , Suppl. 55, 2-13 (1992).

1989 (1)

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, "The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of intralipid, a fat emulsion," Phy. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (2)

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "CONV-Convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 142-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. Johns, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, "Computational and in-vivo investigation of optical reflectance from human brain to assist neurosurgery," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 437-445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Franceschini, S. Fantini, A. Cerrusi, B. Barbieri, B. Chance, and E. Gratton, "Quantitative spectroscopic determination of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a turbid medium: analysis of the effect of water absorption," J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 147-153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Neural Transm. (1)

B. Piallat, A. Benazzouz, and A. L. Benabid, "Neuroprotective effect of choronic inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus in a rat model of Parkinson's disease," J. Neural Transm. , Suppl. 55, 2-13 (1992).

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry (1)

M. Krause, W. Fogel, and A. Heck, "Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus internus," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 70, 464-470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurol. Sci. (1)

M. Krause, W. Fogel, P. Mayer, M. Kloss, and V. Tronnier, "Chronic inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinsons disease," J. Neurol. Sci. 219, 119-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosurg. (4)

C. A. Giller, M. Johns, and H. Liu, "Use of an intracranial near-infrared probe for localization during stereotactic surgery for movement disorders," J. Neurosurg. 93, 498-505 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Giller, H. Liu, P. Gurnani, S. Victor, U. Yazdani, and D. C. German, "Validation of a near-infrared probe for detection of thin intracranial white matter structures," J. Neurosurg. 98, 1299-1306 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alkhani and A. M. Lozano, "Pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease: a review of contemporary literature," J. Neurosurg. 94, 43-49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Palur, C. Berk, M. Schulzer, and C. R. Honey, "A metaanalysis comparing the results of pallidotomy performed using microelectrode recording or macroelectrode stimulation," J. Neurosurg. 96, 1058-1062 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell and M. S. Patterson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 880-888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neurosurgery (1)

K. J. Burchiel, V. C. Anderson, J. Favre, and J. P. Hammerstad, "Comparison of pallidal and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease: results of a randomized, blinded pilot study," Neurosurgery 45, 1375-1384 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. Maier, S. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Z. Qian, S. Victor, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, "Look-ahead distance of a fiber probe used to assist neurosurgery: phantom and Monte Carlo study," Opt. Express 11, 92-103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Johns, C. A. Giller, D. C. German, and H. Liu, "Determination of reduced scattering coefficient of biological tissue from a needle-like probe," Opt. Express 13, 4828-4842 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkinsonism and related disorders (1)

A. M. Lozano and F. Carella, "Physiologic studies in the human brain in movement disorders," Parkinsonism and related disorders 8, 455-458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phy. Med. Biol. (1)

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, "The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of intralipid, a fat emulsion," Phy. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delphy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical properties of brain tissue," Proc. SPIE 1888, 454-465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Urology (1)

C. F. Van Swol, E. te Slaa, R. M. Verdaasdonk, J. J. de la Rosette, and T. A. Boon, "Variation output power of laser prostatectomy fibers: a need for power measurements," Urology 47, 672-677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

U. Utzinger and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fundamentals of spectroscopy: fiber optic probes," in Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry, John Lindon, George Tranter, and John Holmes, eds. (Academic, 1999).

URL:http://oilab.tamu.edu/mc.html.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of a tip probe showing the source-detector assembly with outer diameter, D′, of 1.3   mm , each fiber diameter, d, of 400   μm , and the distance between the two fibers, ρ of 400   μm . (b) Optical interrogation volume of the tip probe, showing LAD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams showing (a) side view of the source-detector assembly of a side probe with D′ of 1.3   mm , d of 100   μm and ρ of 530   μm . (b) Optical interrogation volume of the side probe, showing LASD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the NIR two-layer tissue phantom measurements: 1 stands for holding the actuator and probe; 2 stands for the NIR probe; 3 stands for the two-layer phantom; 4 stands for the linear actuator; 5 stands for the stepper motor controlling the actuator; 6 stands for one branch of fibers connecting to the light source; 7 stands for another branch of fibers connecting to the detector; 8 stands for the tungsten-halogen light source; 9 stands for a CCD array; 10 stands for a USB spectrometer; 11 stands for an analog-to-digital converter; 12 stands for a computer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Overall spectra and (b) normalized spectra detected by the fiber-optic tip probe at full, half, and one-third optical power. The dashed curves are obtained from the full power, thick gray lines from the half power, and thin black curves from the one-third power. Note that the three curves in (b) largely overlap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of slope versus depth measured by the tip probe with top layer μ s of 31.33   cm 1 and bottom layer μ s of 15.1 cm 1 at (a) full light power I F , (b) reduced light power I R , and (c) reduced light power with double integration time I RD .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of LAD on reduced scattering coefficient, μ s , of the surrounding Intralipid (IL) on the top layer with (a) full light intensity I F , and together with (b) reduced light intensities, I R and I RD . The error bars are plotted based on the standard error of mean (SEM) of the values. Note that for different top layers, the μ s values of the bottom layers were varied, and they were either larger or smaller than those of the top layers (see Table 2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Slope profiles versus the depth for the side probe with top Intralipid layer μ s of 35.65 c m 1 and bottom phantom layer of μ s of 17.8 cm 1 with (a) I F , (b) I R , and (c) I RD .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of LASD on the reduced scattering coefficient, μ s , of the surrounding Intralipid (IL) for the side medium with full light intensity I F , and reduced light intensities, I R and I RD , without and with double integration time. Note that for different top layers, the μ s values of the bottom layers were varied, and they were either larger or smaller than those of the top layers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of (a) LAD and (b) LASD values between experimental and Monte Carlo simulation. Note that for different top layers, the μ s values of the bottom layers were varied, and they were either larger or smaller than those of the top layers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

LAD∕LASD values for (a) four different source-detector separations and (b) four different reduced scattering coefficients. Note that for different top layers, the μ s values of the bottom layers were varied, and they were either larger or smaller than those of the top layers.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measurement for Optical Probes

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of Observed LADs with Full Intensity for the Tip Probe

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Re flectance = Intensity sample Intensity dark ,
LAD IF = 0.45 ln ( μ s ) + 3.0 ,
LAD IR = 0.25 ln ( μ s ) + 1.68 ,
LAD IRD = 0.39 ln ( μ s ) + 1.82 ,
LASD I F = 1.55 ln ( μ s ) + 3.30 .

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