Abstract

We performed measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF) between 0.5° and 179° with an angular resolution of 0.3° in the northern Adriatic Sea onboard an oceanographic platform during three different seasons, using the multispectral volume scattering meter (MVSM) instrument. We observed important differences with respect to Petzold's commonly used functions, whereas the Fournier–Forand's analytical formulation provided a rather good description of the measured VSF. The comparison of the derived scattering, bp(λ) and backscattering, bbp(λ) coefficients for particles with the measurements performed with the classical AC-9 and Hydroscat-6 showed agreement to within 20%. The use of an empirical relationship for the derivation of bb(λ) from β(ψ,λ) at ψ=140° was validated for this coastal site although ψ=118° was confirmed to be the most appropriate angle. The low value of the factor used to convert β(ψ,λ) into bb(λ) within the Hydroscat-6 processing partially contributed to the underestimation of bb(λ) with respect to the MVSM. Finally, use of the Kopelevich model together with a measurement of bp(λ) at λ=555  nm allowed us to reconstruct the VSF with average rms percent differences between 8 and 15%.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters," Tech. Rep. 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).
  4. M. Jonasz, "Volume scattering function measurement error: effect of angular resolution on the nephelometer," Appl. Opt. 29, 64-70 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Maffione and D. R. Dana, "Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters," Appl. Opt. 36, 6057-6067 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Oishi, "Significant relationship between the backward scattering coefficient of sea water and the scatterance at 120°," Appl. Opt. 29, 4658-4665 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Jonasz and H. Prandke, "Comparison of measured and computed light scattering in the Baltic," Tellus B 38, 144-157 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, "Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure," Appl. Opt. 42, 5365-5381 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. C. Agrawal, "The optical volume scattering function: temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1787-1794 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "The ECO VSF--A multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XV Conference, October 16-20, Monaco (2000).
  13. W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, "Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy," J. Plank. Res. 26, 191-212 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. E. Lee and M. R. Lewis, "A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563-571 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, and O. V. Martynov, "Polar nephlometer for sea truth measurements," in Proceedings of the Second Internation Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), 444-450.
  17. O. V. Kopelevich, "Small-parameter model of optical properties of sea water," in Ocean Optics, vol. 1: Physical Ocean Optics, A.S.Monin, ed. (Nauka Pub., Moscow, 1983) (in Russian).
  18. G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).
  19. A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), 1-24.
  20. J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error coefficient of reflective absorption measurements," in Ocean Optics XII Conference, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-54 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).
  23. H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  25. C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Twardowski, Department of Research, WET Labs, Inc., 164 Dean Knauss Drive, Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882 (personal communication, 2006).
  28. H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C05013 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. V. I. Haltrin, "Two-term Heney-Greenstein light scattering phase function for seawater," in Proceedings of the International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1999), 1423-1425.
  31. V. I. Haltrin, "Chlorophyll-based model of seawater optical properties," Appl. Opt. 38, 6826-6832 + Erratum and Addendum (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C05013 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Twardowski, Department of Research, WET Labs, Inc., 164 Dean Knauss Drive, Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882 (personal communication, 2006).

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Y. C. Agrawal, "The optical volume scattering function: temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1787-1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, "Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy," J. Plank. Res. 26, 191-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. E. Lee and M. R. Lewis, "A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, "Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure," Appl. Opt. 42, 5365-5381 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

2001 (2)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "The ECO VSF--A multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XV Conference, October 16-20, Monaco (2000).

1999 (2)

V. I. Haltrin, "Chlorophyll-based model of seawater optical properties," Appl. Opt. 38, 6826-6832 + Erratum and Addendum (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Haltrin, "Two-term Heney-Greenstein light scattering phase function for seawater," in Proceedings of the International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1999), 1423-1425.

1998 (1)

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, and O. V. Martynov, "Polar nephlometer for sea truth measurements," in Proceedings of the Second Internation Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), 444-450.

1994 (2)

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error coefficient of reflective absorption measurements," in Ocean Optics XII Conference, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1986 (1)

M. Jonasz and H. Prandke, "Comparison of measured and computed light scattering in the Baltic," Tellus B 38, 144-157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

O. V. Kopelevich, "Small-parameter model of optical properties of sea water," in Ocean Optics, vol. 1: Physical Ocean Optics, A.S.Monin, ed. (Nauka Pub., Moscow, 1983) (in Russian).

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), 1-24.

1972 (1)

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters," Tech. Rep. 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal, "The optical volume scattering function: temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1787-1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alberotanza, L.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Ashe, A.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, "Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy," J. Plank. Res. 26, 191-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, "Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure," Appl. Opt. 42, 5365-5381 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Booth, E. S.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowler, B. C.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. W.

R. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, "Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy," J. Plank. Res. 26, 191-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bulgarelli, B.

Chami, M.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C05013 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Churilova, T. Y.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dana, D. R.

Doyle, J.-P.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Drapeau, D. T.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frye, J. M.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goes, J. I.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grossi, S.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Guillard, R. R. L.

R. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, "Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy," J. Plank. Res. 26, 191-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haltrin, V. I.

V. I. Haltrin, "Chlorophyll-based model of seawater optical properties," Appl. Opt. 38, 6826-6832 + Erratum and Addendum (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Haltrin, "Two-term Heney-Greenstein light scattering phase function for seawater," in Proceedings of the International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1999), 1423-1425.

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, and O. V. Martynov, "Polar nephlometer for sea truth measurements," in Proceedings of the Second Internation Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), 444-450.

Jonasz, M.

M. Jonasz, "Volume scattering function measurement error: effect of angular resolution on the nephelometer," Appl. Opt. 29, 64-70 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jonasz and H. Prandke, "Comparison of measured and computed light scattering in the Baltic," Tellus B 38, 144-157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Khomenko, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C05013 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khomenko, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error coefficient of reflective absorption measurements," in Ocean Optics XII Conference, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kopelevich, O. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, "Small-parameter model of optical properties of sea water," in Ocean Optics, vol. 1: Physical Ocean Optics, A.S.Monin, ed. (Nauka Pub., Moscow, 1983) (in Russian).

Korotaev, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C05013 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G. K.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. E.

M. E. Lee and M. R. Lewis, "A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, and O. V. Martynov, "Polar nephlometer for sea truth measurements," in Proceedings of the Second Internation Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), 444-450.

Lee, M. E.-G.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

M. E. Lee and M. R. Lewis, "A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R. A.

Marken, E.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C05013 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martynov, O. V.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, and O. V. Martynov, "Polar nephlometer for sea truth measurements," in Proceedings of the Second Internation Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), 444-450.

Meriaux, X.

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, C.

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "The ECO VSF--A multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XV Conference, October 16-20, Monaco (2000).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error coefficient of reflective absorption measurements," in Ocean Optics XII Conference, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), 1-24.

Oishi, T.

Pegau, W. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters," Tech. Rep. 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prandke, H.

M. Jonasz and H. Prandke, "Comparison of measured and computed light scattering in the Baltic," Tellus B 38, 144-157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shybanov, E. B.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C05013 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Targa, C.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Twardowski, M.

M. Twardowski, Department of Research, WET Labs, Inc., 164 Dean Knauss Drive, Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882 (personal communication, 2006).

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "The ECO VSF--A multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XV Conference, October 16-20, Monaco (2000).

Vaillancourt, R.

R. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, "Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy," J. Plank. Res. 26, 191-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van der Linde, D.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "The ECO VSF--A multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XV Conference, October 16-20, Monaco (2000).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error coefficient of reflective absorption measurements," in Ocean Optics XII Conference, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, "Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure," Appl. Opt. 42, 5365-5381 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

M. E. Lee and M. R. Lewis, "A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating the bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C05013 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Plank. Res. (1)

R. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, "Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy," J. Plank. Res. 26, 191-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Agrawal, "The optical volume scattering function: temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1787-1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error coefficient of reflective absorption measurements," in Ocean Optics XII Conference, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (2)

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, B. C. Bowler, E. S. Booth, J. I. Goes, A. Ashe, and J. M. Frye, "A multiyear record of hydrographic and bio-optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I. Spatial and temporal variability," Prog. Oceanogr. 63, 57-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tellus B (1)

M. Jonasz and H. Prandke, "Comparison of measured and computed light scattering in the Baltic," Tellus B 38, 144-157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

V. I. Haltrin, "Two-term Heney-Greenstein light scattering phase function for seawater," in Proceedings of the International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1999), 1423-1425.

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "The ECO VSF--A multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XV Conference, October 16-20, Monaco (2000).

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, and O. V. Martynov, "Polar nephlometer for sea truth measurements," in Proceedings of the Second Internation Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), 444-450.

O. V. Kopelevich, "Small-parameter model of optical properties of sea water," in Ocean Optics, vol. 1: Physical Ocean Optics, A.S.Monin, ed. (Nauka Pub., Moscow, 1983) (in Russian).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS): a long-term measurement program," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 19 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), 1-24.

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters," Tech. Rep. 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).

M. Twardowski, Department of Research, WET Labs, Inc., 164 Dean Knauss Drive, Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882 (personal communication, 2006).

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): Data analysis," SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Map of the northern Adriatic Sea showing the position of the AAOT site and of the transects sampled during the CoASTS campaigns of October 2004, July 2005, and April 2006.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

VSFs β p ( λ , ψ ) for λ = 620   nm measured for monodispersed (0.8 μm diameter) polystyrene microspheres (black curve) and computed using the Mie theory (gray line) (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the backscattering ratio b b p / b p at 510   nm versus the slope of the Junge size distribution of particles for samples taken at the AAOT site in October 2004 (open circles), July 2005 (stars), and April 2006 (filled circles). The average (avg) and standard deviation (std) values for both variables are inserted in the panel. The isolines correspond to the bulk refractive index as computed according to Twardowski et al. [21] (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

VSF β p ( λ , ψ ) for particles measured in the northern Adriatic Sea at 510   nm (light gray curves) together with Petzold's VSF at 514   nm (thick black curves; solid = open ocean, short-dashed = coastal, long-dashed = harbor) and the two extreme VSFs computed by applying the FF (dark gray lines) and the Kopelevich (thick dotted curves with filled circles) models. (a) October 2004, (b) July 2005, and (c) April 2006.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

As in Fig. 4, for the backward angles only.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PF β ˜ ( λ , ψ ) for particles measured in the northern Adriatic Sea at 510   nm (light gray curves) together with Petzold's PH at 514   nm (thick curves; solid = open ocean, short-dashed = coastal, long-dashed white line = harbor) and the two extreme PH obtained by applying the Fournier-Forand formulation (dark gray lines). (a) October 2004, (b) July 2005, and (c) April 2006.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

As in Fig. 6, for the backward angles only.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Average spectrum of β ( λ , ψ ) for angles ψ = 1 , 20, 45, 90, 120, 140, and 177° for October. (b) Minimum (empty circle) and maximum (filled circle) values of γ as a function of the scattering angle in October (solid curve), July (dotted curve), and April (dashed curve).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Comparison of the scattering coefficient for particles b p ( 510 ) as determined by the VSF meter (MVSM) and by the AC-9 for the samples taken at the AAOT site at three depths (empty circles = October 2004, stars = July 2005, filled circles = April 2006). The solid curve and the two dashed curves are the ratios 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2, respectively. |PD| and PD are the uncertainty parameters (see text). (b) as in (a) for the back-scattering coefficient for particles b b p ( 510 ) as determined by the MVSM and by the HYD-6. (c) as in (a) and (b) for the backscattering ratio b b p / b p ( 510 ) as determined by the MVSM and by the HYD-6∕AC-9 ensemble. n = 72 samples.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relationships, as determined from the MVSM measurements, between the total (including water) back-scattering coefficient b b ( λ ) and the scattering β ( λ , ψ ) at the angles ψ = 100 , 120, 140, and 160° and for λ = 510   nm (empty circles = October 2004, stars = July 2005, filled circles = April 2006). The solid curve represents the linear regression that parameters are presented on the plot, the dashed curve represents Oishi's model, whereas the dotted curve at ψ = 140 represents the relationship used for the HYD-6 processing (see text). n = 102 samples.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Angular distribution of χ ( ψ ) for particles (thin curves) and for seawater (thick dashed curve). Solid curves = October 2004, dotted curves = July 2005, thin dashed curves = April 2006.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Relationships, as determined from the MVSM measurements, between the particulate scattering coefficient β p ( λ , ψ ) at the angles ψ = 1 ° and 45° and the total particulate scattering coefficient b p ( λ ) for λ = 555   nm (empty circles = October 2004, stars = July 2005, filled circles = April 2006). The solid line represents the linear regression that parameters are presented inside the plot. n = 102 samples.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

VSF measured with the MVSM (solid curve) and retrieved from the Kopelevich model used in conjunction with b p ( λ ) from the AC-9 (gray filled circles and dashed curve) for representative situations of OCT04, JUL05 and APR06 campaigns. rms (%) = value of the rms percentage difference between the two VSF as in Ref. 25 (see text).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average (Avg) and Standard Deviation (Std) of TSM, Chl a and c t-w (660) during the Three Experiments at the AAOT Site and Along the Transects

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average (Avg), Standard Deviation (Std), Minimum (Min), and Maximum (Max) Values for b p , b bp , and b bp b p at 510 nm Derived from the Integration of β p (ψ, 510) n = Number of Samples

Tables Icon

Table 3 Average (Avg) and Standard Deviation (Std) Values of the Exponent γ for Different Angles ψ. Number of Samples n = 45, 36, and 21 for OCT04, JUL05, and APR06, Respectively

Tables Icon

Table 4 Average |PD| and PD (See Text) Between b p , b bp , and b bp b p Estimated by the MVSM and the AC9∕HYD-6 Set at Wavelengths λ. Number of Samples n = 72

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b b = 2 π π / 2 π β ( ψ ) sin   ψ d ψ .
β ( ψ ) = I ( ψ ) / F / V ( ψ ) 1 + 0.75 b [ l ( ψ ) + r ( ψ ) ] sin ( ψ ) exp { 0 .48 b [ l ( ψ ) + r ( ψ ) ] } ,
I ( ψ , λ ) F ( λ ) = f [ v 0 ( λ ) , λ ] ϕ ( v / v max ) a ( λ ) S ( ψ , λ ) S 0 ( λ ) ,
d ( ψ ) = 1 V ( ψ ) ( v / v max ) a ( λ ) × S ( ψ , λ ) / S 0 ( λ ) 1 + 0.75 b [ l ( ψ ) + r ( ψ ) ] sin ( ψ ) exp { 0 .48 b [ l ( ψ ) + r ( ψ ) ] } ,
K ( λ ) = α 1 α 2 β ( ψ ) sin ( ψ ) d ψ α 1 α 2 d ( ψ ) sin ( ψ ) d ψ = b 2 π 0 α 1 β t h ( ψ ) sin ( ψ ) d ψ 2 π α 2 π β th ( ψ ) sin ( ψ ) d ψ 2 π α 1 α 2 d ( ψ ) sin ( ψ ) d ψ ,
b b = σ × b b   uncorrected , σ = k 1 × exp [ k exp ( a + 0.4 b ) ] ,
β p ( ψ , λ ) = β p ( ψ , 555 ) ( λ / 555 ) γ ,
χ p ( ψ ) = χ w ( ψ ) , w h e r e χ i ( ψ ) = b b i / 2 π β i ( ψ ) w i t h i = w ( w a t e r ) o r p ( p a r t i c l e s ) .
β p ( ψ , λ ) = β ( ψ , λ ) β w ( ψ , 550 ) = v s β s * ( ψ ) ( 550 / λ ) 1.7 + v l β l * ( ψ ) ( 550 / λ ) 0.3 ,
v s = 1.4 10 4 β ( 1 ° , 550 ) + 10.2 β ( 45 ° , 550 ) 0.02 ,
v l = 2.2 10 2 β ( 1 ° , 550 ) 1.2 β ( 45 ° , 550 ) .
Δ β = 100 ( 1 ψ 2 ψ 1 ψ 1 ψ 2 { β 1 ( ψ ) β 2 ( ψ ) 1 2 [ β 1 ( ψ ) + β 2 ( ψ ) ]   sin   ψ } 2 d ψ ) .

Metrics