Abstract

We use pyroelectric detectors that are differential in nature to detect motion in humans by their heat emissions. Coded Fresnel lens arrays create boundaries that help to localize humans in space as well as to classify the nature of their motion. We design and implement a low-cost biometric tracking system by using off-the-shelf components. We demonstrate two classification methods by using data gathered from sensor clusters of dual-element pyroelectric detectors with coded Fresnel lens arrays. We propose two algorithms for person identification, a more generalized spectral clustering method and a more rigorous example that uses principal component regression to perform a blind classification.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. I. Bazin and M. S. Nixon, "Gait verification using probabilistic methods," in Proceedings of 7th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 50-55.
  2. R. Bodor, B. Jackson, and N. Papanikolopoulos, "Vision-based human tracking and activity recognition," in Proceedings of the 11th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (IEEE, 2003).
  3. H. Zhou and H. Hu, "A survey: human movement tracking and stroke rehabilitation," Tech. Rep. CSM-420 (University of Essex, 2004).
  4. G. D. Jones, M. A. Hodgetts, R. E. Allsop, N. Sumpter, and M. A. Vincencio-Silva, "A novel approach for surveillance using visual and thermal images," Proceedings of the DERA/IEE Workshop on Intelligent Sensor Processing (IEEE, 2001), pp. 911-919.
  5. S. de Vlaam, "Object tracking in a multi sensor network," Master's thesis (Delft University of Technology, The Hague, 2004).
  6. S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).
  7. A. Armitage, T. D. Binnie, J. Kerridge, and L. Lei, "Measuring pedestrian trajectories using a pyroelectric differential infrared detector," in 12 Sensors and their Applications (Limerick, 2003).
  8. V. Spitzer, M. Ackerman, A. Scherzinger, and D. Whitlock, "The visible human male: a technical report," J. Am. Med. Info. Assoc. 3, 118-130 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Kakuta, S. Yokoyama, and M. Nakamura, "Estimation of radiative heat transfer using a geometric human model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 324-331 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Laser Components (UK) Ltd., Pyroelectric Detectors in Theory and Practice. http://www.lasercomponents.co.uk/wwwuk/pdf/pyros-engl.pdf.
  11. S. B. Lang, "Pyroelectricity: from anchient curiosity to modern imaging tool," Phys. Today , 31-36 (August 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Shankar, J. Burchett, B. D. Guenther, and D. J. Brady, "Characterization of pyroelectric infrared detectors for human tracking," Opt. Eng. (to be published).
  13. P. M. Woodward, Probability and Information Theory with Applications to Radar (Artech, 1980).

2005

S. B. Lang, "Pyroelectricity: from anchient curiosity to modern imaging tool," Phys. Today , 31-36 (August 2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. Kakuta, S. Yokoyama, and M. Nakamura, "Estimation of radiative heat transfer using a geometric human model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 324-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

V. Spitzer, M. Ackerman, A. Scherzinger, and D. Whitlock, "The visible human male: a technical report," J. Am. Med. Info. Assoc. 3, 118-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, M.

V. Spitzer, M. Ackerman, A. Scherzinger, and D. Whitlock, "The visible human male: a technical report," J. Am. Med. Info. Assoc. 3, 118-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adleman, J.

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

Allsop, R. E.

G. D. Jones, M. A. Hodgetts, R. E. Allsop, N. Sumpter, and M. A. Vincencio-Silva, "A novel approach for surveillance using visual and thermal images," Proceedings of the DERA/IEE Workshop on Intelligent Sensor Processing (IEEE, 2001), pp. 911-919.

Armitage, A.

A. Armitage, T. D. Binnie, J. Kerridge, and L. Lei, "Measuring pedestrian trajectories using a pyroelectric differential infrared detector," in 12 Sensors and their Applications (Limerick, 2003).

Bazin, A. I.

A. I. Bazin and M. S. Nixon, "Gait verification using probabilistic methods," in Proceedings of 7th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 50-55.

Binnie, T. D.

A. Armitage, T. D. Binnie, J. Kerridge, and L. Lei, "Measuring pedestrian trajectories using a pyroelectric differential infrared detector," in 12 Sensors and their Applications (Limerick, 2003).

Bodor, R.

R. Bodor, B. Jackson, and N. Papanikolopoulos, "Vision-based human tracking and activity recognition," in Proceedings of the 11th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (IEEE, 2003).

Brady, D. J.

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

M. Shankar, J. Burchett, B. D. Guenther, and D. J. Brady, "Characterization of pyroelectric infrared detectors for human tracking," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Burchett, J.

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

M. Shankar, J. Burchett, B. D. Guenther, and D. J. Brady, "Characterization of pyroelectric infrared detectors for human tracking," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Cull, E.

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

de Vlaam, S.

S. de Vlaam, "Object tracking in a multi sensor network," Master's thesis (Delft University of Technology, The Hague, 2004).

Farlow, K.

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

Feller, S. D.

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

Guenther, B. D.

M. Shankar, J. Burchett, B. D. Guenther, and D. J. Brady, "Characterization of pyroelectric infrared detectors for human tracking," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Hodgetts, M. A.

G. D. Jones, M. A. Hodgetts, R. E. Allsop, N. Sumpter, and M. A. Vincencio-Silva, "A novel approach for surveillance using visual and thermal images," Proceedings of the DERA/IEE Workshop on Intelligent Sensor Processing (IEEE, 2001), pp. 911-919.

Hu, H.

H. Zhou and H. Hu, "A survey: human movement tracking and stroke rehabilitation," Tech. Rep. CSM-420 (University of Essex, 2004).

Jackson, B.

R. Bodor, B. Jackson, and N. Papanikolopoulos, "Vision-based human tracking and activity recognition," in Proceedings of the 11th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (IEEE, 2003).

Jones, G. D.

G. D. Jones, M. A. Hodgetts, R. E. Allsop, N. Sumpter, and M. A. Vincencio-Silva, "A novel approach for surveillance using visual and thermal images," Proceedings of the DERA/IEE Workshop on Intelligent Sensor Processing (IEEE, 2001), pp. 911-919.

Kakuta, N.

N. Kakuta, S. Yokoyama, and M. Nakamura, "Estimation of radiative heat transfer using a geometric human model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 324-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerridge, J.

A. Armitage, T. D. Binnie, J. Kerridge, and L. Lei, "Measuring pedestrian trajectories using a pyroelectric differential infrared detector," in 12 Sensors and their Applications (Limerick, 2003).

Kowalski, D.

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

Lang, S. B.

S. B. Lang, "Pyroelectricity: from anchient curiosity to modern imaging tool," Phys. Today , 31-36 (August 2005).
[CrossRef]

Lei, L.

A. Armitage, T. D. Binnie, J. Kerridge, and L. Lei, "Measuring pedestrian trajectories using a pyroelectric differential infrared detector," in 12 Sensors and their Applications (Limerick, 2003).

Lin, C.

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

Nakamura, M.

N. Kakuta, S. Yokoyama, and M. Nakamura, "Estimation of radiative heat transfer using a geometric human model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 324-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nixon, M. S.

A. I. Bazin and M. S. Nixon, "Gait verification using probabilistic methods," in Proceedings of 7th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 50-55.

Papanikolopoulos, N.

R. Bodor, B. Jackson, and N. Papanikolopoulos, "Vision-based human tracking and activity recognition," in Proceedings of the 11th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (IEEE, 2003).

Scherzinger, A.

V. Spitzer, M. Ackerman, A. Scherzinger, and D. Whitlock, "The visible human male: a technical report," J. Am. Med. Info. Assoc. 3, 118-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, M.

M. Shankar, J. Burchett, B. D. Guenther, and D. J. Brady, "Characterization of pyroelectric infrared detectors for human tracking," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Spitzer, V.

V. Spitzer, M. Ackerman, A. Scherzinger, and D. Whitlock, "The visible human male: a technical report," J. Am. Med. Info. Assoc. 3, 118-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sumpter, N.

G. D. Jones, M. A. Hodgetts, R. E. Allsop, N. Sumpter, and M. A. Vincencio-Silva, "A novel approach for surveillance using visual and thermal images," Proceedings of the DERA/IEE Workshop on Intelligent Sensor Processing (IEEE, 2001), pp. 911-919.

Vincencio-Silva, M. A.

G. D. Jones, M. A. Hodgetts, R. E. Allsop, N. Sumpter, and M. A. Vincencio-Silva, "A novel approach for surveillance using visual and thermal images," Proceedings of the DERA/IEE Workshop on Intelligent Sensor Processing (IEEE, 2001), pp. 911-919.

Whitlock, D.

V. Spitzer, M. Ackerman, A. Scherzinger, and D. Whitlock, "The visible human male: a technical report," J. Am. Med. Info. Assoc. 3, 118-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, P. M.

P. M. Woodward, Probability and Information Theory with Applications to Radar (Artech, 1980).

Yokoyama, S.

N. Kakuta, S. Yokoyama, and M. Nakamura, "Estimation of radiative heat transfer using a geometric human model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 324-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou and H. Hu, "A survey: human movement tracking and stroke rehabilitation," Tech. Rep. CSM-420 (University of Essex, 2004).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

N. Kakuta, S. Yokoyama, and M. Nakamura, "Estimation of radiative heat transfer using a geometric human model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 324-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Med. Info. Assoc.

V. Spitzer, M. Ackerman, A. Scherzinger, and D. Whitlock, "The visible human male: a technical report," J. Am. Med. Info. Assoc. 3, 118-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Shankar, J. Burchett, B. D. Guenther, and D. J. Brady, "Characterization of pyroelectric infrared detectors for human tracking," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Phys. Today

S. B. Lang, "Pyroelectricity: from anchient curiosity to modern imaging tool," Phys. Today , 31-36 (August 2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

Laser Components (UK) Ltd., Pyroelectric Detectors in Theory and Practice. http://www.lasercomponents.co.uk/wwwuk/pdf/pyros-engl.pdf.

A. I. Bazin and M. S. Nixon, "Gait verification using probabilistic methods," in Proceedings of 7th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 50-55.

R. Bodor, B. Jackson, and N. Papanikolopoulos, "Vision-based human tracking and activity recognition," in Proceedings of the 11th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (IEEE, 2003).

H. Zhou and H. Hu, "A survey: human movement tracking and stroke rehabilitation," Tech. Rep. CSM-420 (University of Essex, 2004).

G. D. Jones, M. A. Hodgetts, R. E. Allsop, N. Sumpter, and M. A. Vincencio-Silva, "A novel approach for surveillance using visual and thermal images," Proceedings of the DERA/IEE Workshop on Intelligent Sensor Processing (IEEE, 2001), pp. 911-919.

S. de Vlaam, "Object tracking in a multi sensor network," Master's thesis (Delft University of Technology, The Hague, 2004).

S. D. Feller, E. Cull, D. Kowalski, K. Farlow, J. Burchett, J. Adleman, C. Lin, and D. J. Brady, "Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor array for tactical applications," in Unattended Ground Sensor Technology and Applications IV, E. M. Carapezza, ed., Proc. SPIE 4743, 168-175 (2002).

A. Armitage, T. D. Binnie, J. Kerridge, and L. Lei, "Measuring pedestrian trajectories using a pyroelectric differential infrared detector," in 12 Sensors and their Applications (Limerick, 2003).

P. M. Woodward, Probability and Information Theory with Applications to Radar (Artech, 1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sensor response of a Fresnel-equipped detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensor placement and a resulting data stream generated by a single person.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three unknown walks (boxes) are mapped by using a calibrated training set.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Discrimination results for four different states.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Multidimensional Scaling Method

Tables Icon

Table 2 Normalized Cut Partitioning Method

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Table 3 Breakdown of 65 Walks by Activity

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

w = arg min w A T w c 2 .
A = k = 1 n σ k u k v k       T = V T ,
A r = k = 1 r σ k u k v k       T = U r Σ r V r     T

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