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Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Improved third-order nonlinear effect in graphene based on bound states in the continuum

Tiecheng Wang and Xiangdong Zhang

Doc ID: 304824 Received 17 Aug 2017; Accepted 19 Sep 2017; Posted 22 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: The scattering matrix theory has been developed to calculate third-order nonlinear effect in sphere-graphene-slab structures. By designing structural parameters, we have demonstrated that the incident electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene in these structures due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, third-harmonic (TH) generation and four-wave mixing (FWM) have been studied. It is found that the efficiency of TH generation in monolayer graphene can be enhanced about 7 orders. It is interesting that we can design structure parameters to make all beams (the pump beam, probe beam and generated FWM signal) be BICs at the same time. In such a case, the efficiency of FWM in monolayer graphene can be enhanced about 9 orders. Both the TH and FWM signals are very sensitive to the wavelength, and possess high Q factors, which exhibit very good monochromaticity. By taking suitable BICs, the selective generation of TH and FWM signals for S and P polarized waves can also be realized, which is very beneficial for the design of optical devices.

A Spectral Efficient Multi-band Visible Light Communication System Based on Nyquist PAM-8 Modulation

Nan Chi, Mengjie Zhang, Jianyang Shi, and Yiheng Zhao

Doc ID: 298297 Received 26 Jun 2017; Accepted 18 Sep 2017; Posted 18 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: The multi-user access with high spectral efficiency is one of the key challenges for bandlimited visible light communication (VLC) systems. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for effective multiple access VLC system based on multi-band Nyquist filtered PAM-8 modulation. Within this scenario, the spectral efficiency can be improved as high as 2.73b/s/Hz by implementing an appropriate channel filter to suppress spectral bandwidth. We experimentally demonstrate a multiband VLC system at 1.2Gb/s after 1-m indoor free space transmission. The system performances utilizing a rectangular filter in the frequency domain and a square root raised cosine (SRRC) based Nyquist filter have also been thoroughly investigated for different sub-band numbers. The results show that SRRC filtered Nyquist PAM-8 signal can outperform a rectangular filtered signal. The maximum improvement of system capacity is up to 1.67 times for Nyquist filtered multi-band system. The results clearly show the advantage and feasibility of the multi-band Nyquist PAM modulation for the short range multiple access VLC systems.

Constructing the scattering matrix for optical microcavities as a nonlocal boundary value problem

Li Ge

Doc ID: 304065 Received 18 Aug 2017; Accepted 17 Sep 2017; Posted 18 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We develop a numerical scheme to construct the scattering (S) matrix for optical microcavities, including the special cases with parity-time and other non-Hermitian symmetries. This scheme incorporates the explicit form of a nonlocal boundary condition, with the incident light represented by an inhomogeneous term. This approach resolves the artifact of a discontinuous normal derivative typically found in the R-matrix method. In addition, we show that by excluding the aforementioned inhomogeneous term, the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian in our approach also determines the Periels-Kapur states, and it constitutes an alternative approach to derive the standard R-matrix result in this basis. Therefore, our scheme provides a convenient framework to explore the benefits of both approaches.We illustrate this boundary value problem using one-dimensional and two-dimensional scalar Helmholtz equations. The eigenvalues and poles of the S matrix calculated using our approach show good agreement with results obtained by other means.

High-peak-power large-angular-momentum beams generated from passively Q-switched geometric modes with astigmatic transformation

Yung-Fu Chen, C. C. Chang, C. Y. Lee, C. L. Sung, Jung-Chen Tung, Kuan-Wei Su, H. C. Liang, Weidong Chen, and Zhang Ge

Doc ID: 305524 Received 24 Aug 2017; Accepted 17 Sep 2017; Posted 18 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: The criterion of achieving a good passive Q-switching is analyzed to design an off-axis pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG laser with a degenerate cavity. Experimental results reveal that pure high-order HG0,m or HGm,0 eigenmodes with the order m between 0-14 can be generated, depending on the off-axis displacement to be along y-axis or x-axis. On the other hand, the lasing modes naturally turn into the planar geometric modes when the off-axis displacement is larger than the value for exciting the HG0,m or HGm,0 eigenmodes with m>14. The overall peak powers for high-order eigenmodes or geometric modes can exceed 140 W. Furthermore, the high-order eigenmodes and geometric modes are employed to generate the vortex beams with large orbital angular momentum by using an external cylindrical mode converter. Theoretical analyses are performed to confirm experimental results and to manifest the phase structures of the generated vortex beams.

Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators

Wei Wang, Fengping Yan, Siyu Tan, Yafei Hou, and Hong Zhuo

Doc ID: 301871 Received 07 Jul 2017; Accepted 15 Sep 2017; Posted 15 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: An ultrasensitive metamaterial sensor based on the double-slot vertical split ring resonators is designed and numerically calculated in the terahertz frequency. This DVSRR design produce a fundament LC resonance, with a quality factor of about 20, when the incidence magnetic field component normal to the DVSRR array. The resonant characteristics and sensing performance of the DVSRR array design are systematically analyzed employing a contrast method among three similar vertical split ring resonators structures. The research results show that the elimination of bianisotropy, induced by the structural symmetry of the DVSRR design, helps to achieve LC resonance of a high quality factor. And lifting the SRRs up from the substrate not just contributes to increase the contact areas between the analyte and highly confined field of the DVSRR, but also sharply reduces the dielectric loss introduced by the substrate. All these factors jointly result in the superior sensitivity of the DVSRR to the attributes of analytes. The maximum RI sensitivity is 788 GHz/RIU or 1.04 × 105 nm/RIU. Also, the DVSRR sensor maintains its superior sensing performance for fabrication tolerance ranging from - 4% to 4% and a wide range incidence angles up to 50° under both TE and TM illuminations.

Passively spatiotemporal gain modulation induced stable pulsing operation of random fiber laser

Xu Jiangming, Jun Ye, Wei Liu, Jian Wu, hanwei zhang, Jinyong Leng, and Pu Zhou

Doc ID: 302271 Received 12 Jul 2017; Accepted 14 Sep 2017; Posted 15 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Unlike traditional fiber laser with defined resonant cavity, random fiber laser (RFL), whose operation is based on distributed feedback and gain via Rayleigh scattering and stimulated Raman scattering in long passive fiber, has fundamental scientific challenges in pulsing operation for its remarkable cavity-free feature. For the time being, stable pulsed RFL utilizing passively method has not been reported. Here, we propose and experimentally realize the passively spatiotemporal gain modulation induced stable pulsing operation of counter-pumped RFL. Thanks to the good temporal stability of employed pumping amplified spontaneous emission source and the superiority of this pulse generation scheme, stable and regular pulse train can be obtained. Furthermore, the pump hysteresis and bistability phenomena with the generation of high order Stokes light is presented and the dynamics of pulsing operation is discussed after the theoretical investigation of the counter-pumped RFL. This work extends our comprehension of temporal property of RFL and paves an effective novel avenue for the exploration of pulsed RFL with structural simplicity, low cost and stable output.

Watt-level broadly wavelength tunable mode locked solid-state laser in 2µm water absorption region

Wei Zhou, Xiaodong Xu, rui xu, Xuliang Fan, Yongguang Zhao, Lei Li, Dingyuan Tang, and Deyuan SHEN

Doc ID: 303157 Received 24 Jul 2017; Accepted 14 Sep 2017; Posted 15 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We report on a broadly wavelength-tunable passive mode-locking with high power operating at 2µm water absorption band in Tm: CYA crystal laser. With a simple quartz plate, stable mode-locking wavelengths can be tuned from 1874 nm to 1973 nm, with tunable wavelength range up to ~100nm and maximum output power up to 1.35 W. The bandwidth is narrow as ~6 GHz, corresponding to a high coherence. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of wavelength-tunable mode-locking with watt-level in 2µm water absorption band. The high temporal coherent laser can be furtherly applied in spectroscopy, the efficient excitation of molecules, sensing and quantum optics.

Single-mode lasing via loss engineering in fiber-taper coupled polymer bottle microresonators

Fuming Xie, Ni Yao, Wei Fang, Haifeng Wang, Fuxing Gu, and Songlin Zhuang

Doc ID: 297652 Received 09 Jun 2017; Accepted 13 Sep 2017; Posted 20 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Due to the lacking of mode selection capability, single whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasing is challenging to achieve. In bottle microresonators, the highly non-degenerated WGMs are spatially well-separated along the long-axis direction and provide mode selection according to their axial mode numbers. In this work, we use a loss-engineering approach to suppress the higher-order WGMs and demonstrate single-mode lasing emission in small polymer bottle microresonators. The fiber tapers are not only used to couple pump light into the bottle microresonators to excite the WGMs, but also bring optical losses that is induced from the diameter mismatch between fiber tapers and microresonators. By adjusting the coupling positions, the diameters of fiber tapers, and the coupling angles, single fundamental-mode lasing are efficiently generated with side-mode suppression factors over 15 dB. Our loss-engineering approach is convenient just by moving the fiber taper and may find promising applications in miniature tunable single-mode lasers and sensors.

Sum Frequency Generation in On-chip Lithium Niobate Microdisk Resonators

Zhenzhong Hao, Jie Wang, Shuqiong Ma, Mao Wenbo, Fang Bo, Feng Gao, Guoquan Zhang, and Jingjun Xu

Doc ID: 302366 Received 27 Jul 2017; Accepted 13 Sep 2017; Posted 22 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We report the first observation of sum frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators. The sum frequency signal in 780 nm band distinct in wavelength from second harmonic signals was obtained in lithium niobate microresonators under the pump of two individual 1550 nm band lasers. The sum frequency conversion efficiency was measured to be $8.3\times10^{-6}~\rm{W^{-1}}$. The dependence of the intensities of the nonlinear signals on the total pump power and the wavelength of one pump laser was investigated while fixing the wavelength of the other. This work paves the way for applications of on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators ranging from infrared single photon detection to non-reciprocal optical transmission.

Post-fabrication Phase Trimming of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers by Laser Annealing of Germanium Implanted Waveguides

Xia Chen, Milan Milosevic, David Thomson, Ali Khokhar, Yohann Franz, Antoine Runge, Sakellaris Mailis, Anna Peacock, and Graham Reed

Doc ID: 297655 Received 28 Jun 2017; Accepted 11 Sep 2017; Posted 13 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We demonstrate a novel high-accuracy post-fabrication trimming technique to fine-tune the phase of integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZIs), enabling permanent correction of typical fabrication based phase errors. The effective index change of the optical mode is 0.19 in our measurement, which is approximately an order of magnitude improvement compared to previous work with similar excess optical loss. Our measurement results suggest that a phase accuracy of 0.078 rad was achievable with active feedback control.

1.54 μm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped ZnO films containing Ge nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Ge nanocrystals to Er3+

Ranran Fan, Fei Lu, and kaikai li

Doc ID: 301875 Received 07 Jul 2017; Accepted 11 Sep 2017; Posted 15 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: ZnO films containing Er and Ge nanocrystals (nc-Ge) were synthesized and their photoluminescence properties were studied. The pholuminescence peaks at 0.58 and 1.54 μm correlate to each other as a function of Er concentration, which were assigned to the electron-hole recombination in nc-Ge and the intra-4f transition in Er3+ respectively. Er-related 1.54 μm emission has been investigated under several excitation conditions upon different kinds of Ge, Er co-doped ZnO thin films. The present results clearly demonstrated that effective excitation of Er3+ occurs through the recombination of photogenerated excitons spatially confined in nc-Ge and subsequent energy transfer to Er3+.

Tunable and multi-channel terahertz perfect absorber due to Tamm surface plasmons with graphene

xi wang, Xing Jiang, Qi You, Jun Guo, Xiaoyu Dai, and Yuanjiang Xiang

Doc ID: 300550 Received 28 Jun 2017; Accepted 11 Sep 2017; Posted 11 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Abstract: In this paper, we have shown that the perfect absorption at THz frequencies can be achieved by using a composite structure where a graphene is coated on a one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (PCs) separated by TPX and SiO2. Due to the excitation of optical Tamm states (OTSs) at the interface between the graphene and 1D PC, a strong absorption phenomenon occurs induced by the coupling of the incident light and OTS. Although the perfect absorption produced by a metal-DBR structure has been researched extensively, it is generally at a fixed frequency and not tunable. Here, we show that the perfect absorption in THz frequency not only can be tuned to different frequencies, but also exhibited a high absorption in a wide angle range. In addition, the absorption of the proposed structure is insensitive to polarization, and multi-channel absorption can be realized by controlling the thickness of the top layer.

A nanoparticle mediated microcavity random laser

Z. J. Yang, Wei Li Zhang, Rui Ma, Xiang Dong, Sofie Lindskov Hansen, Xiaofeng Li, and Yun-Jiang Rao

Doc ID: 300640 Received 21 Jun 2017; Accepted 08 Sep 2017; Posted 11 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: This paper reports a coherent random microcavity laser that consists of a disordered cladding (scattering) layer and a light-amplification core filled with dye solution. Cold cavity analysis indicates that the random resonance modes supported by the proposed cavity can be excited effectively. With introducing the gain material, random lasing by specific modes are observed to show typical features of coherent random lasers, such as light localization and spatially incoherent emission. By inserting a metal nano-particle into the gain region, emission wavelength/intensity of the random lasers can be tuned considerably by changing position of the inserted nano-particle, opening up new avenues for controlling output of random lasers and sensing applications (e.g., small particle identification and location, etc.)

Genetically optimized on-chip wideband ultracompact reflectors and Fabry–Pérot cavities

Zejie Yu, Haoran Cui, and Xiankai Sun

Doc ID: 303747 Received 01 Aug 2017; Accepted 07 Sep 2017; Posted 11 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Reflectors are an essential component for on-chip integrated photonics. Here, we propose a new method for designing reflectors on the prevalent thin-film-on-insulator platform by using genetic algorithm optimization. In simulation, the designed reflector with a footprint of only 2.16 × 2.16 μm2 can achieve ~97% reflectivity and 1-dB bandwidth as wide as 220 nm. The structure is composed of randomly distributed pixels and is highly robust against the inevitable corner rounding effect in device fabrication. In experiment, we fabricated on-chip Fabry–Pérot (FP) cavities constructed from the optimized reflectors. Those FP cavities have intrinsic quality factors >2000 with the highest value beyond 4000 in a spectral width of 200 nm. The reflectivity fitted from the FP cavity resonances is >85% in the entire wavelength range of 1440–1640 nm and is beyond 95% at some wavelengths. The fabrication processes are CMOS compatible and require only one step of lithography and etch. The devices can be used as a standard module in integrated photonic circuitry for wide applications in on-chip semiconductor laser structures and optical signal processing.

The complex band structures of 1D anisotropic graphene photonic crystal

Limei Qi and Chang Liu

Doc ID: 296777 Received 05 Jun 2017; Accepted 05 Sep 2017; Posted 11 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: The complex band structures of anisotropic graphene photonic crystal are investigated, and the transmission properties are confirmed using the finite-difference time-domain method. Omni-gaps can exist as high as 80o for the two polarizations. Dispersion curve in the low frequency is consistent with the result using effective medium theory. Locations of the low edge of the gap are determined by the Fabry-perot resonance of the dielectric, and the large absorption in the high edge of the gap is caused by the graphene. The physical mechanism of the tunable properties versus chemical potential at normal incidence are given based on graphene permittivity and the effective permittivity of multilayer structure.

Actively controllable optical switches

Linbao Luo, Kuiyuan Wang, Caiwang Ge, Kai Guo, Fei Shen, Zhiping Yin, and zhongyi guo

Doc ID: 301553 Received 03 Jul 2017; Accepted 03 Sep 2017; Posted 18 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We have systematically investigated the tunable dynamic characteristics of the broadband surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave on the silicon graded grating structure in the range of 10~40 THz with the aids of a single layer graphene. The theoretical and numerically simulated results demonstrate that the SPPs at different frequencies within a broadband range can be trapped at different positions on the graphene surface, which can be used as a broadband spectrometer and the optical switch. Meanwhile, the group velocity of the SPPs can be modulated to be several hundred times smaller than light velocity in vacuum. Based on the theoretical analyses, we have predicted the trapping positions and corresponding group velocities of the SPP waves with different frequencies. By appropriately tuning the gate voltages, the trapped SPP waves can be released to propagate along the surface of graphene or out of the graded grating zone. So we have also investigated the switching characteristics of the slow light system, where the optical switching can be controlled as "off" or "on" mode by adjusting the gate voltage actively. The slow light system offers advantages including broadband operation, ultra-compact footprint, and tunable ability simultaneously, which holds great promises for applications in optical switches.

Modulation of hot regions in waveguide-based evanescent field coupled localized surface plasmons for plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy

Hailong Wang, Yuyang Wang, Yi Wang, Weiqing Xu, and Shuping Xu

Doc ID: 301322 Received 04 Jul 2017; Accepted 01 Sep 2017; Posted 05 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Coupling efficiency between the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and the incident light dominates the sensitivities of plasmon-based sensing spectroscopies and imaging techniques, e.g. surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The endogenous features of metal NPs (e.g. size, morphology and the aggregation form, etc.) which have strongly impacts on the LSPs have been detailed discussed in a large number of studies. Here, the polarization-tuned electromagnetic (EM) field that facilitates the LSP coupling is fully concerned. A waveguide-based evanescent field (WEF) was adopted to couple the LSPs on scattered silver nanospheres or nano hemispheres. Compared with the direct excitation by a laser, the electric field intensity by this WEF excitation way can be amplified almost 1 order of magnitude (that is 2 to 4 order of magnitude in SERS), which is similar to the SERS “hot spot” effect, but more easier to implement. Importantly, the strongest EM distributions around silver nanospheres on the side surface or the gap region can be modulated simply by the polarization of incident light, which widely extends the SERS applications in surface analysis of monolayer of molecules and macromolecules detections. This technique provide us a unique way to further improve SERS intensity on the substrates, such as metal nanoparticles, shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and even tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

On-chip silicon photonic 2 × 2 mode- and polarization- selective switch with low inter-modal crosstalk

Yong Zhang, Yu He, Qingming Zhu, Ciyuan Qiu, and Yikai Su

Doc ID: 298197 Received 16 Jun 2017; Accepted 31 Aug 2017; Posted 05 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Mode- and polarization- division multiplexing offer new dimensions to increase the transmission capacity of optical communications. Selective switches are key components in reconfigurable optical networks nodes. An on-chip silicon 2 × 2 mode- and polarization- selective switch is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time, which can route 4 data channels on 2 modes and 2 polarizations simultaneously. The overall insertion losses are lower than 8.6 dB. To reduce the inter-modal crosstalk, polarization beam splitters are added to filter the undesired polarizations or modes. The measured inter-modal and intra-modal crosstalk values are below - .2 dB and -22.8 dB for all the channels, respectively.

Theoretical aspects and sensing demonstrations of cone-shaped inwall capillary based microsphere resonators

Xiaobei Zhang, Yong Yang, Huawen Bai, Jiawei Wang, Ming Yan, Hai Xiao, and Tingyun Wang

Doc ID: 303294 Received 25 Jul 2017; Accepted 27 Aug 2017; Posted 30 Aug 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: In this paper, a detailed theoretical study on the characteristics of cone-shaped inwall capillary based microsphere resonators is described and demonstrated for sensing applications. The maximum, minimum, slope, contrast and width of the Fano resonance are analyzed. As the transmission coefficient of the capillary-resonator increases, the absolute value of the slope of Fano resonances increases to reach its maximum that is useful for sensors with an ultra-high sensitivity. And there occurs another phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) when the reflectivity at the capillary-environment interface is close to 100%. Moreover, we also experimentally demonstrated its capability for the temperature and refractive index sensing, with a sensitivity of 10.9 pm/℃ and 431 dB/RIU based on the Fano resonance and the Lorentzian line shape, respectively.

Robust generation of frequency combs in a microresonator with strong and narrowband loss

Jing Wang, Zhaohong Han, Yuhao Guo, Lionel Kimerling, Jurgen Michel, Anuradha Agarwal, Guifang Li, and Lin Zhang

Doc ID: 302256 Received 17 Jul 2017; Accepted 25 Aug 2017; Posted 30 Aug 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Frequency combs have recently been generated in microresonators, exhibiting great potential in metrology, precision spectroscopy and telecommunications. However, strong localized spectral losses caused by such as material absorption, mode coupling between different polarization states and mode family crossings can be detrimental to Kerr frequency comb generation, especially in octave-spanning comb generation. Here we examine its impact in details. We also propose an effective way for robust comb generation with a spectral loss of even 300 dB/cm. Furthermore, intracavity nonlinear dynamics are shown with different loss locations. It is found that with certain loss conditions, localized spectral losses can facilitate phase-matching and Kerr frequency comb generation.

Tunable narrowband antireflection optical filter with a metasurface

Luigi Bibbo', Karim Khan, Qiang Liu, Mi Lin, Qiong Wang, and Zhengbiao Ouyang

Doc ID: 297784 Received 09 Jun 2017; Accepted 22 Aug 2017; Posted 06 Sep 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: A narrowband tunable antireflection optical filter is proposed and studied numerically. The structure is a metasurface based on plasmonic nanoparticles on electro-optic substrate in three-layer configuration of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) in the visible-near infrared range. The antireflection band of the reflectance spectra for the structure is obtained considering the variation of refractive index of LiNbO3 inserted above the bottom layer of gold with a tuning voltage. By tuning the voltage and thus tuning the refractive index of the dielectric LiNbO3, one can get the shift of minimum reflection at the operating frequency desired. The parameters of gold nanoparticles and other elements used for the filter design and refractive index of dielectric were obtained by COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS. Theoretical spectra obtained by FEM simulation showed that the structure has extensive potential for design of tunable narrow pass-band filters as that for modulators, displayers, and color extraction for imaging.

Few-mode VCSEL chip for sub-Tbit/s transmission over 100-m multi-mode fiber

Hsuan-Yun Kao, Yu-Chieh Chi, Cheng-Ting Tsai, Shan-Fong Leong, Chun-Yen Peng, Huai-Yung Wang, JianJang Huang, Jau-Ji Jou, Tien-Tsorng Shih, Hao-chung Kuo, Wood-Hi Cheng, Chao-Hsin Wu, and Gong-Ru Lin

Doc ID: 297142 Received 31 May 2017; Accepted 14 Aug 2017; Posted 15 Aug 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: A few-transverse-mode (FM) vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) chip with heavily zinc-diffused contact layer and oxide-confined cross-section is demonstrated for carrying the pre-leveled 16-QAM OFDM data in OM4 multi-mode-fiber (MMF) over 100 m for intra-datacenter application. The FM VCSEL chip with an oxide-confined emission aperture of 5 μm demonstrates high external quantum efficiency to provide an optical power of 2.2 mW at 38 times threshold condition, which exhibits 3-dB direct modulation bandwidth beyond 22 GHz at a cost of slightly accumulated heat. At a DC bias point of 5 mA (22.6Ith), the FM VCSEL chip with the sufficiently normalized modulation output supports Baud and data rates of 25 and 100 Gbit/s, respectively, with forward error correction (FEC) certified receiving quality after back-to-back transmission. After passing through 100-m OM4 MMF with a receiving power penalty of 4 dB, the FM VCSEL chip demonstrates the FEC certificated transmission of the pre-leveled 16-QAM OFDM data at 92 Gbit/s.

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