Abstract

Weak measurement has been shown to play important roles in the investigation of both fundamental and practical problems. Anomalous weak values are generally believed to be observed only when post-selection is performed, i.e., only a particular subset of the data is considered. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that an anomalous weak value can be obtained without discarding any data by performing a sequential weak measurement on a single-qubit system. By controlling the blazing density of the hologram on a spatial light modulator, the measurement strength can be conveniently controlled. Such an anomalous phenomenon disappears when the measurement strength of the first observable becomes strong. Moreover, we find that the anomalous weak value cannot be observed without post-selection when the sequential measurement is performed on each of the components of a two-qubit system, which confirms that the observed anomalous weak value is based on sequential weak measurement of two noncommutative operators.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

1. INTRODUCTION

The concept of weak measurement [14] was introduced by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988. Their theory is based on the von Neumann measurement with a very weak coupling between two quantum systems. Compared to the strong measurement, weak measurement theory is a very important nonperturbative theory of quantum measurements. Over several decades of development, there have been many notable investigations from both fundamental and practical perspectives. On the one hand, weak measurement provides novel insights into a number of fundamental quantum effects, including the role of the uncertainty principle in the Hardy’s paradox [57], the double-slit experiment [8,9], the three-box paradox [10], and Leggett-Garg inequalities [1114]. On the other hand, it is considered to be useful for the signal amplification while decreasing or retaining the technical noise [15,16] in parameter estimations, such as amplification measurements of small transverse [17,18] and longitudinal shifts [1921], optical nonlinearities [22], and the Poynting vector field [23].

In all these applications, the strange characteristic that the weak value obtained in the weak measurement can even exceed the eigenvalue range of a typical strong or projective measurement and is generally complex (also known as “anomalous weak value”), is usually considered to play a vital role. The standard weak value is defined with post-selection, and the anomalous weak value is usually observed by post-selecting a small subset of data. Therefore, the anomalous weak value is a result of post-selection, which is widely accepted in the community. However there are still great controversies on this point, especially for the validity of weak value technology in quantum metrology [2426]. With the in-depth research, it is shown that anomalous amplification [27] and unusual smoothed estimation [28] can be realized without the requirement of post-selection of weak measurement techniques in high precise metrology protocols. This result gives us some enlightenments, but it still does not answer the question: can anomalous weak values be attained without post-selection? In fact, it is correct that post-selection is necessary to observe the anomalous weak values in a single weak measurement case. But, it is not the case in general. Recently, a theoretical investigation pointed out that an anomalous weak value can be obtained without post-selection by sequential weak measurements [29,30], which provided a more general insight and was deemed as “yet another surprise” [31].

In this work, we experimentally obtain anomalous weak values in a sequential weak measurement without post-selection, i.e., without discarding any data, in an all-optical system. The photonic polarizations and transverse momenta are chosen to be the system states and pointers, respectively. A sequential weak measurement on the product of two single-qubit observables is realized for arbitrary measurement strength controlled by the phase patterns on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The counter-intuitive average value of joint pointer’s deflection is observed when the measurement strength of the first observable is weak, while the anomalous value disappears when the measurement strength of the first observable increases. Moreover, we further perform a sequential weak measurement on two observables each of which belongs to the components of a two-qubit system and find that an anomalous weak value can never be observed based on commutative sequential weak measurements without post-selection.

2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND PROTOCOL

The standard form of a weak value is given by

AψfW:=f|A^|ψf|ψ,
which is the mean value of observable A^ when weakly measured between a pre-selected state |ψ and a post-selected state |f [1]. As introduced in Refs. [30,32], in particular, a trivial, deterministic measurement of the identity operator I amounts to performing no post-selection. A weak value with no post-selection, can be defined as
AψIW:=ψ|A^|ψ.

Obviously, the weak value with no post-selection is equal to the expectation (average) value of A^. The result of these cases is restricted to lie in [ηmin(A^),ηmax(A^)] (ηmin(max) represents the minimum (maximum) eigenvalue), which means anomalous weak values cannot be observed. It is therefore generally considered that anomalous weak values can only be observed by post-selecting a small subset of data.

However, such an interpretation is invalid for sequential weak measurements [30]. The sequential weak value (A1A2)ψIW with no post-selection is defined (A^1 and A^2 are independent observables) as follows:

(A1A2)ψIW:=ψ|A^1A^2|ψ.

We should note that when A^1 and A^2 are not commute, and for good choices of A1, A2, and |ψ, (A1A2)ψIW will not be contained within the interval [ηmin(A^1,A^2),ηmax(A^1,A^2)], where ηmin(max)(A^1,A^2)=min(max)k,lηk(A^1)ηl(A^2) (k, l denote the indexes of eigenvalues). Due to the sequential nature of the weak measurements, an anomalous weak value for sequential weak measurements can occur without post-selection.

We consider two pointers interacting with a quantum system one after another as illustrated in Fig. 1. Suppose a qubit system initially prepared in the general state |ψ, while two-pointer states are prepared in |ϕ1 and |ϕ2, respectively. The evolution operator between the system and pointer is denoted as U^i=exp(iγiA^iF^i), where i{1,2} denotes the ith weak measurement, γi is the interaction coupling, and F^i is an operator of the pointer. The result of the sequential weak measurements can be linked to the anomalous weak value without post-selection (A1A2)ψIW.

 

Fig. 1. Theoretical protocol. The system initially in the state |ψ(0) is sequentially weak coupled with two pointers in the initial states of |ϕ1(0) and |ϕ2(0), respectively. The time sequence is denoted as t1, t2, and t3. The pointers are measured individually or jointly.

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Specifically, let us consider a qubit system initially prepared in the state |ψ=|0, assuming A^i to be the projection observable on the system with A^i=|aiai|, where |ai=12|0(1)i32|1, and to each measurement is associated a momentum operator F^i=p^i of the pointers. Considering a Gaussian pointer [33] with transverse wavefunction ϕi=exp(x2/σi2) (σi is a constant), the joint pointer average position is given by [30]

x^1x^2=116(13eγ128σ12)γ1γ2,
where x^i represents the ith position operator. Here we define the inferred values of M=x^1x^2/γ1γ2. Since each output pointer observable has an average shift in the range of [0,1], the average values are naturally expected within the range [0,1]. However, when the first measurement is sufficiently weak, γ10, x^1x^218γ1γ2 lied out of the interval, which shows the average product of the pointer displacements is proportionally linked to the anomalous weak value, where MRe[(A1A2)ψIW]=18. Interestingly, in the real weak limit, as γ10, then x^1x^20 also, unless γ2 is increased to compensate it. In contrast, when the first measurement is strong (γ1), x^1x^2116γ1γ2 is consistent with the product of the two observables’ expectation values, where Mψ|A1|ψ|a1|a2|2=116.

3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND RESULTS

We experimentally demonstrate sequential weak measurements [34] by using the SLM, in which a phase φ (φ=αrmod2π, αN) that changes linearly along the r direction is implemented to the input photons. The evolution can be described as

U^r=exp(iγexp|HH|p^r),
where p^r=ir (setting =1) represents the momentum operator, |H represents the horizontal polarization of the photon, and γexp=kα(kR) represents the coupling strength which can be conveniently tuned by changing the blazing density of the hologram on the SLM (see Appendices A and B for more details). We set γ1=γ2=γexp in the experiment.

In the experiment, the photon’s polarizations and transverse field momenta (p^x,p^y) are chosen to be the system A^i and pointers F^i, respectively. The experimental setup is illustrated in Fig. 2(a). Single photons (SPs) from an intrinsic defect in a GaN crystal are filtered by a single mode fiber [35] (see Appendices A and B for more details). The zero-delay time of the second-order correlation function g2(0) is measured to be 0.262 and fitted to be 0.025, which clearly demonstrates the single photon property.

 

Fig. 2. Experimental setup and deflection images. (a) Single photons from a single photon emitter (SPE) are sent to the sequential weak measurement setup. The single photon property is characterized by the second order autocorrelation function, in which the dip at the zero delay time is fitted to be g2(0)=0.025. The polarization of the single photons is set by a half-wave plate (HWP1). A lens (f=150mm) is used to focus the photon to the right screen of the spatial light modulator (SLM) for the horizontal weak coupling, where the hologram loaded is a vertical grating. The coupling strength is adjusted by changing the density of the grating. The photons are then refocused on the left screen of the SLM by a lens with f=75mm for the vertical coupling, where the hologram loaded is a horizontal grating with the same density. The HWP2 is used to rotate the polarization of the photon before the screen to adjust the direction of the pointer. The photons are then finally detected by an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) in the focus plane of a lens with f=150mm. (b) The images of photon distributions detected by the ICCD with different coupling strengths γexp. The inserts with blue background are the theoretical predictions of the corresponding experimental images when γexp>0.2366, and the Corr represents the correlation value between experimental and theoretical images.

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A half-wave plate (HWP1) with the optical axis set to be 30° is used to prepare the polarization state of the photon to be |a1=12|H+32|V, where |V represents the vertical polarization. Then the photons are focused on the right screen of SLM for the first weak coupling by a convex lens with a focal length of 150 mm. The hologram loaded on the right area of SLM is a vertical blazed grating, and satisfies φright(x,y)=αxmod2π(αN). In the experiment, γexp=0.0237α (see Appendices A and B for details). This progress can be defined as U^1=exp(iγexpA^1p^x).

Similarly, through a lens with a focal length of 75 mm, photons are re-focused on the left screen of SLM for the second weak coupling, and the evolution becomes U^2=exp(iγexpA^2p^y). The left hologram is a horizontal grating, which satisfies φleft(x,y)=αymod2π. Another HWP2 with the optical axis set to be 30° is placed before the screen to rotate |H(|V) to the state of |a2=12|H32|V(|a2=32|H12|V). The third Fourier lens is used to translate the photons back to the coordinate space, which are directly detected by an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) without post-selection of polarizations.

Figure 2(b) shows several spatial distributions of the photons with different coupling strengths. The scale of images is 1024×1024 and the pixel length is 13.5 μm. The coupling strength γexp varies from 0 to 0.37 mm. When γexp is less than 0.1 mm, the coupling strength is so small that the transverse coordinate deflection is much less than the Rayleigh distance. With the increase of coupling strength, the deflections of the transverse coordinates are clearly observed, including downward deflection ϕ(x+γexp,y), rightward deflection ϕ(x,y+γexp) and down-rightward deflection ϕ(x+γexp,y+γexp) after sequential weak measurements U^1 and U^2, respectively. The insets in Fig. 2(b) show the theoretical output patterns, of which the similarity is quantitatively determined by the correlation value (Corr) [36] compared with the experimental images. The Corr is larger than 0.96 when γexp>0.2366; the errors are mainly due to the aberrations in optical systems and the inaccuracy of wave plate rotation.

To quantitatively describe the anomalous weak values, we define the transverse coordinate pointer’s position K^ as the mean of the transverse field coordinate as follows:

K^=x,yK·|ϕ(x,y)|2/x,y|ϕ(x,y)|2,
where K^{x^,y^,x^y^}. ϕ(x,y) is the final photonic transverse wave function and x^y^ represents the joint pointer position operator [37]. The result of the sequential measurement is proportional to the product of the pointer positions.

Figure 3 shows the deflection of the pointer as a function of the coupling strength. The coupling strength γexp varies from 0 to 0.711 mm. The pointer positions of horizontal and vertical transverse coordinates (x^ and y^) are shown in Fig. 3(a) with the brown and blue dots representing the experimental results and the brown and blue lines representing the corresponding theoretical predictions, respectively. No matter what the coupling strength is, we can find that x^ and y^ is larger than 0. The joint pointer positions x^y^ are shown in Fig. 3(b). The green dots represent the experimental results with the green line representing the corresponding theoretical prediction. Anomalous phenomenon x^y^<0 can be observed when the coupling strength γexp is less than 0.331 mm, which is shown as the red dots. When γexp=0.189mm, the reversed deflection of the joint pointer reaches the maximum. The values are smaller than prediction, which may be due to the slight tilt of the ICCD camera and the optical aberrations. The error bars represent the corresponding standard deviation [Δ(x^y^)]. Figure 3(c) shows the inferred values of M=x^y^/γexp2. When γexp0, M equals the real part of the weak value Re[(A1A2)ψIW]=18. However, the experimental errors Δ(x^y^)/γexp2 also get amplified with γexp0, which makes the inferred weak values get unreliable. In spite of this, when 0.13mm<γexp<0.3mm, M still approximates to the anomalous weak value 18, and the experimental tendency here is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

 

Fig. 3. Deflections of the pointer’s position and the normalized result of sequential weak measurements in the one-qubit system. (a) The brown and blue dots represent the experimental results of the pointer positions x^ and y^, respectively. The brown and blue lines represent the corresponding theoretical predictions. (b) The green dots represent the experimental results of the joint pointer position x^y^ with the green solid line representing the corresponding theoretical prediction. The red data represents the anomalous joint pointer position. (c) The black dots represent the inferred values of M=x^y^/γexp2, while the theoretical prediction is shown as a black line.

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Moreover, as a comparison, considering the situation of a sequential weak measurement of two observables, which are measured on each of two qubits respectively, there is no such anomalous deflection at all. Supposing a sequential measurement of the commuting observables A^1I and IA^2 is performed on the bipartite system, the average weak value is equal to the expectation value of A^1A^2 in the absence of any post-selection, with (A^1A^2)ψIW=ψ|A^1A^2|ψ, which can never exceed the range of eigenvalues of the observable.

We experimentally investigate the case of weak measurement on two individual photons, which corresponds to the sequential weak measurement on different parts of a bipartite system. We first apply the U^1 to a photon and obtain the deflection of the pointer’s positions in the x direction (x^). We then implement the U^2 to the other photon and obtain the deflection of the pointer’s positions in the y direction (y^). The experimental results of x^ (brown dots) and y^ (blue dots) with the corresponding theoretical predictions represented as brown and blue lines, respectively, are shown in Fig. 4(a). The experimental results of the joint pointer deflection x^y^ (green dots) and the corresponding theoretical prediction (green line) are shown in Fig. 4(b), in which the values of x^y^ are all larger than zero. Error bars represent the corresponding standard deviations. All position deflections are larger than zero and satisfy x^=y^=x^y^. There is not any anomalous phenomenon for sequential weak measurement with any coupling strength for two qubit systems, since the two observables are commutative in the sequential case.

 

Fig. 4. Deflections of pointer positions via sequential weak measurements in the two-qubit system. (a) The brown and blue dots represent the experimental results with the brown and blue lines representing the corresponding theoretical predictions, respectively. (b) The green dots represent the joint average pointer positions x^y^ with the green line representing the corresponding theoretical prediction.

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4. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION

We have experimentally carried out a sequential measurement of two observables in a single-qubit system and a two-qubit system for arbitrary measurement strength with the SLM. The anomalous weak values are obtained without post-selection, in which the paradox of average pointer deflection is successfully observed in a single-qubit system. Such an anomalous phenomenon disappears when the measurement strength of the first observable becomes strong. On the other hand, when a sequential weak measurement is commutative, the anomalous weak value can never be observed without post-selection.

The experimental method of sequential weak measurement is implemented by taking the photon polarizations and transverse field momenta as the system and pointers, respectively. Compared with other methods [38,39], the advantage of this approach is that the coupling strength can be conveniently adjusted, so one can obtain weak values at different coupling strengths.

The tendencies of experimental data coincide with the theoretical predictions. Since the region to detect deflections of photon distributions associated with the anomalous weak value is less than 103mm2, the output results are easily disturbed. Moreover, the error of weak values will be rapidly increased as the coupling strength decreases. This effect can be mitigated by increasing γ2. This would give an idea of the tradeoff between the fact that, theoretically, one obtains a more anomalous weak value the further one goes to the weak regime, and the fact that the observable effect also becomes smaller in the weak limitation.

By controlling their measurement strengths from weak to strong, different results of a sequential measurement of two observables in weak and strong limits have been clearly shown. The anomalous weak values emerge in the sequential weak measurements. Recently, weak values and sequential weak measurements have played crucial roles in understanding fundamental problems such as the information paradox in black holes [4043], time [44], and geometric phase [45]. The sequential measurement technology demonstrated in this work may be useful for exploring a series of fundamental physical concepts.

APPENDIX A: WEAK MEASUREMENT BASED ON THE LIQUID CRYSTAL SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR

Figure 5(a) shows the process of weak measurement. The polarization of photons is treated as the system state and momenta (p^x,p^y) of the transverse field as the pointers. The initial state is prepared as

|Ψ=|ϕ(x,y)(a|H+b|V),
where |ϕ(x,y) represents the photon’s spatial wave function, |H(V) means the photonic horizontal (vertical) polarization, and (a, b) are dimensionless complex coefficients. Through the first lens, the input photons are transformed from the coordinate space into the momentum space, which is denoted as
F[|ϕ(x,y)](a|H+b|V)=|U(η,ξ)(a|H+b|V),
where |U(η,ξ) means the wave function in momentum representation. By using the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) to add phases φSLM=αxmod2π(αN) on the horizontal polarized photons, where grating density is determined by α, the state becomes
a|U(η,ξ)eiγexpη|H+b|U(η,ξ)|V),
where γexp=kα(kR) represents coupling strength. Figure 5(b) shows the relationship between the grating parameter α and the coupling strength γexp. The coefficient k can be deduced from the fitting line of (α,γexp), which reads as k=0.0237. Through another Fourier lens, photons are re-transformed to the coordinate space, which can be expressed as
aF1[|U(η,ξ)eiγexpη]|H+b|F1[U(η,ξ)]|V=a|ϕ(xγexp,y)|H+b|ϕ(x,y)|V.

 

Fig. 5. Weak measurement based on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). (a) The input photons are transformed from the coordinate space to the momentum space by a Fourier lens and focused on the screen of SLM. A phase that changes linearly along the x direction is applied on photons by the SLM, and then photons are re-transformed from the momentum space to the coordinate space by another Fourier lens. The photon wave packet will be transversely shifted slightly, which is known as weak measurement. (b) The relation between grating densities α on SLM and coupling strength γexp.

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In summary, this process simulates a weak interaction evolution U^, which satisfies

U^|ϕ(x,y)(a|H+b|V)=a|ϕ(xγexp,y)|H+b|ϕ(x,y)|V,
where U^x=exp(iγexp|HH|p^x), and p^x=ix (assuming =1) represents the horizontal momentum operator.

APPENDIX B: PREPARATION OF THE SINGLE PHOTON EMITTER

The experimental setup of the single photon emitter (SPE) is shown in Fig. 6. The intrinsic defect in the GaN sample is excited by a 532 nm continuous wave laser. The laser is focused by an objective with a high-NA of 0.9 after reflected by a dichroic mirror (DM). The fluorescence is collected by the same objective and is filtered by a bandpass filter with the central wavelength 808 nm. The single photons are then coupled into a single mode fiber (SMF), which are guided to the sequential weak measurements.

 

Fig. 6. Experimental setup of the single photon emitter (SPE).

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Funding

National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0305200, 2016YFA0302700, 2017YFA0304100); National Natural Science Foundation of China (11774335, 61327901, 61490711, 61725504, 11821404, U19A2075, 11605205); Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015317); Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (QYZDY-SSW-SLH003); Science Foundation of the CAS (ZDRW-XH-2019-1); Anhui Initiative in Quantum Information Technologies (AHY060300, AHY020100); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WK2030380017, WK2470000026); Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing (cstc2015jcyjA00021, cstc2018jcyjAX0656); Entrepreneurship and Innovation Support Program for Chongqing Overseas Returnees (cx2017134, cx2018040); Fund of CAS Key Laboratory of Microscale Magnetic Resonance; Fund of CAS Key Laboratory of Quantum Information.

Acknowledgment

This work was partially carried out at the USTC Center for Micro and Nanoscale Research and Fabrication.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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38. S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011). [CrossRef]  

39. M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020). [CrossRef]  

40. G. Horowitz and J. Maldacena, “The black hole final state,” J. High Energy Phys. 2004, 008 (2004). [CrossRef]  

41. Y. Aharonov and E. Cohen, “Weak values and quantum nonlocality,” arXiv:1504.03797 (2015).

42. E. Cohen and M. Nowakowski, “Comment on ‘Measurements without probabilities in the final state proposal’,” Phys. Rev. D 97, 088501 (2018). [CrossRef]  

43. R. Bousso and D. Stanford, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Measurements without probabilities in the final state proposal’”,” Phys. Rev. D 97, 088502 (2018). [CrossRef]  

44. Y. Aharonov, S. Popescu, and J. Tollaksen, “Each instant of time a new universe,” in Quantum Theory: A Two-Time Success Story (Springer, 2014), pp. 21–36.

45. Y.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, S.-Y. Lee, S. Moon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Emergence of the geometric phase from quantum measurement back-action,” Nat. Phys. 15, 665–670 (2019). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. Y. Aharonov, D. Z. Albert, and L. Vaidman, “How the result of a measurement of a component of the spin of a spin-1/2 particle can turn out to be 100,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1351–1354 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  2. I. M. Duck, P. M. Stevenson, and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “The sense in which a “weak measurement” of a spin-1/2 particle’s spin component yields a value 100,” Phys. Rev. D 40, 2112–2117 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. G. Kofman, S. Ashkab, and F. Nori, “Nonperturbative theory of weak pre-and post-selected measurements,” Phys. Rep. 520, 43–133 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Dressel, M. Malik, F. M. Miatto, A. N. Jordan, and R. W. Boyd, “Colloquium: understanding quantum weak values: basics and applications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 307–316 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, “Revisiting Hardy’s paradox: counterfactual statements, real measurements, entanglement and weak values,” Phys. Lett. A 301, 130–138 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. S. Lundeen and A. M. Steinberg, “Experimental joint weak measurement on a photon pair as a probe of Hardy’s paradox,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020404 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Yokota, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Direct observation of Hardy’s paradox by joint weak measurement with an entangled photon pair,” New J. Phys. 11, 033011 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. M. Wiseman, “Grounding Bohmian mechanics in weak values and bayesianism,” New J. Phys. 9, 165–175 (2007).
  9. R. Mir, J. S. Lundeen, M. W. Mitchell, A. M. Steinberg, J. L. Garretson, and H. M. Wiseman, “A double-slit which-way experiment on the complementarity uncertainty debate,” New J. Phys. 9, 287 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. J. Resch, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Experimental realization of the quantum box problem,” Phys. Lett. A 324, 125–131 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Palacios-Laloy, F. Mallet, F. Nguyen, P. Bertet, D. Vion, D. Esteve, and A. N. Korotkov, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality in time with weak measurement,” Nat. Phys. 6, 442–447 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Dressel, C. J. Broadbent, J. C. Howell, and A. N. Jordan, “Experimental violation of two-party Leggett-Garg inequalities with semiweak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 040402 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Suzuki, M. Iinuma, and H. F. Hofmann, “Violation of Leggett–Garg inequalities in quantum measurements with variable resolution and back-action,” New J. Phys. 14, 103022 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Emary, N. Lambert, and F. Nori, “Leggett-Garg inequalities,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 016001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. N. Jordan, J. Martinez-Rincon, and J. C. Howell, “Technical advantages for weak-value amplification: when less is more,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011031 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. I. Viza, J. Martinez-Rincon, G. B. Alves, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032127 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. B. Dixon, D. J. Starling, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Ultrasensitive beam deflection measurement via interferometric weak value amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173601 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. O. Hosten and P. Kwiat, “Observation of the spin Hall effect of light via weak measurements,” Science 319, 787–790 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Brunner and C. Simon, “Measuring small longitudinal phase shifts: weak measurements or standard interferometry?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 010405 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. X.-Y. Xu, Y. Kedem, K. Sun, L. Vaidman, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Phase estimation with weak measurement using a white light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033604 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. Strubi and C. Bruder, “Measuring ultrasmall time delays of light by joint weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083605 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Feizpour, X. Xing, and A. M. Steinberg, “Amplifying single-photon nonlinearity using weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133603 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Dressel, K. Y. Bliokh, and F. Nori, “Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110407 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. Ferrie and J. Combes, “Weak value amplification is suboptimal for estimation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 040406 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Combes, C. Ferrie, Z. Jiang, and C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on postselected, probabilistic quantum metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 052117 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. L. Vaidman, “Weak value controversy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 375, 20160395 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. Martínez-Rincón, W.-T. Liu, G. I. Viza, and J. C. Howell, “Can anomalous amplification be attained without postselection?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 100803 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. P. García-Pintos and J. Dressel, “Past observable dynamics of a continuously monitored qubit,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 062110 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. Mitchison, R. Jozsa, and S. Popescu, “Sequential weak measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 062105 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. A. A. Abbott, R. Silva, J. Wechs, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard, “Anomalous weak values without post-selection,” Quantum 3, 194–208 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. E. Cohen, “Quantum measurements-yet another surprise,” Quantum Views 3, 27 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  32. H. M. Wiseman, “Weak values, quantum trajectories, and the cavity-QED experiment on wave-particle correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032111 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Turek, H. Kobayashi, T. Akutsu, C. P. Sun, and Y. Shikano, “Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite–Gaussian and Laguerre–Gaussian pointer states,” New J. Phys. 17, 083029 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. S. Chen, M. J. Hu, X. M. Hu, B. H. Liu, Y. F. Huang, C. F. Li, C. G. Guo, and Y. S. Zhang, “Experimental realization of sequential weak measurements of non-commuting Pauli observables,” Opt. Express 27, 6089–6097 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  35. Q. Li, C.-J. Zhang, Z.-D. Cheng, W.-Z. Liu, J.-F. Wang, F.-F. Yan, Z.-H. Lin, Y. Xiao, K. Sun, Y.-T. Wang, J.-S. Tang, J.-S. Xu, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Experimental simulation of anti-parity-time symmetric Lorentz dynamics,” Optica 6, 67–71 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  36. Corr(A,B)=∑i,j(Ai,j−A¯)(Bi,j−B¯)∑i,j(Ai,j−A¯)2∑i,j(Bi,j−B¯)2, where Ai,j(Bi,j) represents the gray level of image A(B) at pixel (i,j), and A¯(B¯) means the average value.
  37. H. Kobayashi, G. Puentes, and Y. Shikano, “Extracting joint weak values from two-dimensional spatial displacements,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053805 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  40. G. Horowitz and J. Maldacena, “The black hole final state,” J. High Energy Phys. 2004, 008 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  41. Y. Aharonov and E. Cohen, “Weak values and quantum nonlocality,” arXiv:1504.03797 (2015).
  42. E. Cohen and M. Nowakowski, “Comment on ‘Measurements without probabilities in the final state proposal’,” Phys. Rev. D 97, 088501 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  43. R. Bousso and D. Stanford, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Measurements without probabilities in the final state proposal’”,” Phys. Rev. D 97, 088502 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  44. Y. Aharonov, S. Popescu, and J. Tollaksen, “Each instant of time a new universe,” in Quantum Theory: A Two-Time Success Story (Springer, 2014), pp. 21–36.
  45. Y.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, S.-Y. Lee, S. Moon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Emergence of the geometric phase from quantum measurement back-action,” Nat. Phys. 15, 665–670 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

Q. Li, C.-J. Zhang, Z.-D. Cheng, W.-Z. Liu, J.-F. Wang, F.-F. Yan, Z.-H. Lin, Y. Xiao, K. Sun, Y.-T. Wang, J.-S. Tang, J.-S. Xu, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Experimental simulation of anti-parity-time symmetric Lorentz dynamics,” Optica 6, 67–71 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Cohen, “Quantum measurements-yet another surprise,” Quantum Views 3, 27 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, S.-Y. Lee, S. Moon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Emergence of the geometric phase from quantum measurement back-action,” Nat. Phys. 15, 665–670 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. A. Abbott, R. Silva, J. Wechs, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard, “Anomalous weak values without post-selection,” Quantum 3, 194–208 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. S. Chen, M. J. Hu, X. M. Hu, B. H. Liu, Y. F. Huang, C. F. Li, C. G. Guo, and Y. S. Zhang, “Experimental realization of sequential weak measurements of non-commuting Pauli observables,” Opt. Express 27, 6089–6097 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

E. Cohen and M. Nowakowski, “Comment on ‘Measurements without probabilities in the final state proposal’,” Phys. Rev. D 97, 088501 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Bousso and D. Stanford, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Measurements without probabilities in the final state proposal’”,” Phys. Rev. D 97, 088502 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

L. Vaidman, “Weak value controversy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 375, 20160395 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. P. García-Pintos and J. Dressel, “Past observable dynamics of a continuously monitored qubit,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 062110 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. Martínez-Rincón, W.-T. Liu, G. I. Viza, and J. C. Howell, “Can anomalous amplification be attained without postselection?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 100803 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Y. Turek, H. Kobayashi, T. Akutsu, C. P. Sun, and Y. Shikano, “Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite–Gaussian and Laguerre–Gaussian pointer states,” New J. Phys. 17, 083029 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. I. Viza, J. Martinez-Rincon, G. B. Alves, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032127 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

C. Emary, N. Lambert, and F. Nori, “Leggett-Garg inequalities,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 016001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dressel, M. Malik, F. M. Miatto, A. N. Jordan, and R. W. Boyd, “Colloquium: understanding quantum weak values: basics and applications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 307–316 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. N. Jordan, J. Martinez-Rincon, and J. C. Howell, “Technical advantages for weak-value amplification: when less is more,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011031 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Combes, C. Ferrie, Z. Jiang, and C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on postselected, probabilistic quantum metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 052117 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ferrie and J. Combes, “Weak value amplification is suboptimal for estimation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 040406 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dressel, K. Y. Bliokh, and F. Nori, “Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110407 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

G. Strubi and C. Bruder, “Measuring ultrasmall time delays of light by joint weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083605 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-Y. Xu, Y. Kedem, K. Sun, L. Vaidman, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Phase estimation with weak measurement using a white light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033604 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. Kobayashi, G. Puentes, and Y. Shikano, “Extracting joint weak values from two-dimensional spatial displacements,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053805 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. G. Kofman, S. Ashkab, and F. Nori, “Nonperturbative theory of weak pre-and post-selected measurements,” Phys. Rep. 520, 43–133 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Suzuki, M. Iinuma, and H. F. Hofmann, “Violation of Leggett–Garg inequalities in quantum measurements with variable resolution and back-action,” New J. Phys. 14, 103022 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Dressel, C. J. Broadbent, J. C. Howell, and A. N. Jordan, “Experimental violation of two-party Leggett-Garg inequalities with semiweak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 040402 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Feizpour, X. Xing, and A. M. Steinberg, “Amplifying single-photon nonlinearity using weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133603 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Palacios-Laloy, F. Mallet, F. Nguyen, P. Bertet, D. Vion, D. Esteve, and A. N. Korotkov, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality in time with weak measurement,” Nat. Phys. 6, 442–447 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Brunner and C. Simon, “Measuring small longitudinal phase shifts: weak measurements or standard interferometry?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 010405 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

P. B. Dixon, D. J. Starling, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Ultrasensitive beam deflection measurement via interferometric weak value amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173601 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Lundeen and A. M. Steinberg, “Experimental joint weak measurement on a photon pair as a probe of Hardy’s paradox,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020404 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Yokota, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Direct observation of Hardy’s paradox by joint weak measurement with an entangled photon pair,” New J. Phys. 11, 033011 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

O. Hosten and P. Kwiat, “Observation of the spin Hall effect of light via weak measurements,” Science 319, 787–790 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H. M. Wiseman, “Grounding Bohmian mechanics in weak values and bayesianism,” New J. Phys. 9, 165–175 (2007).

G. Mitchison, R. Jozsa, and S. Popescu, “Sequential weak measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 062105 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Mir, J. S. Lundeen, M. W. Mitchell, A. M. Steinberg, J. L. Garretson, and H. M. Wiseman, “A double-slit which-way experiment on the complementarity uncertainty debate,” New J. Phys. 9, 287 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

K. J. Resch, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Experimental realization of the quantum box problem,” Phys. Lett. A 324, 125–131 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Horowitz and J. Maldacena, “The black hole final state,” J. High Energy Phys. 2004, 008 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, “Revisiting Hardy’s paradox: counterfactual statements, real measurements, entanglement and weak values,” Phys. Lett. A 301, 130–138 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. M. Wiseman, “Weak values, quantum trajectories, and the cavity-QED experiment on wave-particle correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032111 (2002).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

I. M. Duck, P. M. Stevenson, and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “The sense in which a “weak measurement” of a spin-1/2 particle’s spin component yields a value 100,” Phys. Rev. D 40, 2112–2117 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Y. Aharonov, D. Z. Albert, and L. Vaidman, “How the result of a measurement of a component of the spin of a spin-1/2 particle can turn out to be 100,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1351–1354 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abbott, A. A.

A. A. Abbott, R. Silva, J. Wechs, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard, “Anomalous weak values without post-selection,” Quantum 3, 194–208 (2019).
[Crossref]

Aharonov, Y.

Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, “Revisiting Hardy’s paradox: counterfactual statements, real measurements, entanglement and weak values,” Phys. Lett. A 301, 130–138 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Aharonov, D. Z. Albert, and L. Vaidman, “How the result of a measurement of a component of the spin of a spin-1/2 particle can turn out to be 100,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1351–1354 (1988).
[Crossref]

Y. Aharonov and E. Cohen, “Weak values and quantum nonlocality,” arXiv:1504.03797 (2015).

Y. Aharonov, S. Popescu, and J. Tollaksen, “Each instant of time a new universe,” in Quantum Theory: A Two-Time Success Story (Springer, 2014), pp. 21–36.

Akutsu, T.

Y. Turek, H. Kobayashi, T. Akutsu, C. P. Sun, and Y. Shikano, “Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite–Gaussian and Laguerre–Gaussian pointer states,” New J. Phys. 17, 083029 (2015).
[Crossref]

Albert, D. Z.

Y. Aharonov, D. Z. Albert, and L. Vaidman, “How the result of a measurement of a component of the spin of a spin-1/2 particle can turn out to be 100,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1351–1354 (1988).
[Crossref]

Alves, G. B.

G. I. Viza, J. Martinez-Rincon, G. B. Alves, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032127 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashkab, S.

A. G. Kofman, S. Ashkab, and F. Nori, “Nonperturbative theory of weak pre-and post-selected measurements,” Phys. Rep. 520, 43–133 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bertet, P.

A. Palacios-Laloy, F. Mallet, F. Nguyen, P. Bertet, D. Vion, D. Esteve, and A. N. Korotkov, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality in time with weak measurement,” Nat. Phys. 6, 442–447 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bliokh, K. Y.

J. Dressel, K. Y. Bliokh, and F. Nori, “Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Botero, A.

Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, “Revisiting Hardy’s paradox: counterfactual statements, real measurements, entanglement and weak values,” Phys. Lett. A 301, 130–138 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bousso, R.

R. Bousso and D. Stanford, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Measurements without probabilities in the final state proposal’”,” Phys. Rev. D 97, 088502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

J. Dressel, M. Malik, F. M. Miatto, A. N. Jordan, and R. W. Boyd, “Colloquium: understanding quantum weak values: basics and applications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 307–316 (2014).
[Crossref]

Branciard, C.

A. A. Abbott, R. Silva, J. Wechs, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard, “Anomalous weak values without post-selection,” Quantum 3, 194–208 (2019).
[Crossref]

Braverman, B.

S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Broadbent, C. J.

J. Dressel, C. J. Broadbent, J. C. Howell, and A. N. Jordan, “Experimental violation of two-party Leggett-Garg inequalities with semiweak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 040402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bruder, C.

G. Strubi and C. Bruder, “Measuring ultrasmall time delays of light by joint weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083605 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brunner, N.

A. A. Abbott, R. Silva, J. Wechs, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard, “Anomalous weak values without post-selection,” Quantum 3, 194–208 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Brunner and C. Simon, “Measuring small longitudinal phase shifts: weak measurements or standard interferometry?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 010405 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caves, C. M.

J. Combes, C. Ferrie, Z. Jiang, and C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on postselected, probabilistic quantum metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 052117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. S.

Cheng, Z.-D.

Cho, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, S.-Y. Lee, S. Moon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Emergence of the geometric phase from quantum measurement back-action,” Nat. Phys. 15, 665–670 (2019).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.-H.

Y.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, S.-Y. Lee, S. Moon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Emergence of the geometric phase from quantum measurement back-action,” Nat. Phys. 15, 665–670 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E.

E. Cohen, “Quantum measurements-yet another surprise,” Quantum Views 3, 27 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Cohen and M. Nowakowski, “Comment on ‘Measurements without probabilities in the final state proposal’,” Phys. Rev. D 97, 088501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Aharonov and E. Cohen, “Weak values and quantum nonlocality,” arXiv:1504.03797 (2015).

Combes, J.

C. Ferrie and J. Combes, “Weak value amplification is suboptimal for estimation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 040406 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Combes, C. Ferrie, Z. Jiang, and C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on postselected, probabilistic quantum metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 052117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dixon, P. B.

P. B. Dixon, D. J. Starling, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Ultrasensitive beam deflection measurement via interferometric weak value amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dressel, J.

L. P. García-Pintos and J. Dressel, “Past observable dynamics of a continuously monitored qubit,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 062110 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Dressel, K. Y. Bliokh, and F. Nori, “Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110407 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dressel, M. Malik, F. M. Miatto, A. N. Jordan, and R. W. Boyd, “Colloquium: understanding quantum weak values: basics and applications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 307–316 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dressel, C. J. Broadbent, J. C. Howell, and A. N. Jordan, “Experimental violation of two-party Leggett-Garg inequalities with semiweak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 040402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duck, I. M.

I. M. Duck, P. M. Stevenson, and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “The sense in which a “weak measurement” of a spin-1/2 particle’s spin component yields a value 100,” Phys. Rev. D 40, 2112–2117 (1989).
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C. Emary, N. Lambert, and F. Nori, “Leggett-Garg inequalities,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 016001 (2014).
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A. Palacios-Laloy, F. Mallet, F. Nguyen, P. Bertet, D. Vion, D. Esteve, and A. N. Korotkov, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality in time with weak measurement,” Nat. Phys. 6, 442–447 (2010).
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A. Feizpour, X. Xing, and A. M. Steinberg, “Amplifying single-photon nonlinearity using weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133603 (2011).
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Guo, G. C.

M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
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Han, S.-W.

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J. Martínez-Rincón, W.-T. Liu, G. I. Viza, and J. C. Howell, “Can anomalous amplification be attained without postselection?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 100803 (2016).
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G. I. Viza, J. Martinez-Rincon, G. B. Alves, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032127 (2015).
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A. N. Jordan, J. Martinez-Rincon, and J. C. Howell, “Technical advantages for weak-value amplification: when less is more,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011031 (2014).
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J. Dressel, C. J. Broadbent, J. C. Howell, and A. N. Jordan, “Experimental violation of two-party Leggett-Garg inequalities with semiweak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 040402 (2011).
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G. Mitchison, R. Jozsa, and S. Popescu, “Sequential weak measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 062105 (2007).
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X.-Y. Xu, Y. Kedem, K. Sun, L. Vaidman, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Phase estimation with weak measurement using a white light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033604 (2013).
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O. Hosten and P. Kwiat, “Observation of the spin Hall effect of light via weak measurements,” Science 319, 787–790 (2008).
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M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
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Liu, B. H.

Liu, W.-T.

J. Martínez-Rincón, W.-T. Liu, G. I. Viza, and J. C. Howell, “Can anomalous amplification be attained without postselection?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 100803 (2016).
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Liu, W.-Z.

Liu, Z. H.

M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
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J. S. Lundeen and A. M. Steinberg, “Experimental joint weak measurement on a photon pair as a probe of Hardy’s paradox,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020404 (2009).
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G. Horowitz and J. Maldacena, “The black hole final state,” J. High Energy Phys. 2004, 008 (2004).
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J. Dressel, M. Malik, F. M. Miatto, A. N. Jordan, and R. W. Boyd, “Colloquium: understanding quantum weak values: basics and applications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 307–316 (2014).
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A. Palacios-Laloy, F. Mallet, F. Nguyen, P. Bertet, D. Vion, D. Esteve, and A. N. Korotkov, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality in time with weak measurement,” Nat. Phys. 6, 442–447 (2010).
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G. I. Viza, J. Martinez-Rincon, G. B. Alves, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032127 (2015).
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A. N. Jordan, J. Martinez-Rincon, and J. C. Howell, “Technical advantages for weak-value amplification: when less is more,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011031 (2014).
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J. Martínez-Rincón, W.-T. Liu, G. I. Viza, and J. C. Howell, “Can anomalous amplification be attained without postselection?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 100803 (2016).
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J. Dressel, M. Malik, F. M. Miatto, A. N. Jordan, and R. W. Boyd, “Colloquium: understanding quantum weak values: basics and applications,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 307–316 (2014).
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R. Mir, J. S. Lundeen, M. W. Mitchell, A. M. Steinberg, J. L. Garretson, and H. M. Wiseman, “A double-slit which-way experiment on the complementarity uncertainty debate,” New J. Phys. 9, 287 (2007).
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S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011).
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R. Mir, J. S. Lundeen, M. W. Mitchell, A. M. Steinberg, J. L. Garretson, and H. M. Wiseman, “A double-slit which-way experiment on the complementarity uncertainty debate,” New J. Phys. 9, 287 (2007).
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G. Mitchison, R. Jozsa, and S. Popescu, “Sequential weak measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 062105 (2007).
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Y.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, S.-Y. Lee, S. Moon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Emergence of the geometric phase from quantum measurement back-action,” Nat. Phys. 15, 665–670 (2019).
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A. Palacios-Laloy, F. Mallet, F. Nguyen, P. Bertet, D. Vion, D. Esteve, and A. N. Korotkov, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality in time with weak measurement,” Nat. Phys. 6, 442–447 (2010).
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C. Emary, N. Lambert, and F. Nori, “Leggett-Garg inequalities,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 016001 (2014).
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J. Dressel, K. Y. Bliokh, and F. Nori, “Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110407 (2014).
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A. G. Kofman, S. Ashkab, and F. Nori, “Nonperturbative theory of weak pre-and post-selected measurements,” Phys. Rep. 520, 43–133 (2012).
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G. Mitchison, R. Jozsa, and S. Popescu, “Sequential weak measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 062105 (2007).
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Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, “Revisiting Hardy’s paradox: counterfactual statements, real measurements, entanglement and weak values,” Phys. Lett. A 301, 130–138 (2002).
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Y. Aharonov, S. Popescu, and J. Tollaksen, “Each instant of time a new universe,” in Quantum Theory: A Two-Time Success Story (Springer, 2014), pp. 21–36.

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H. Kobayashi, G. Puentes, and Y. Shikano, “Extracting joint weak values from two-dimensional spatial displacements,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053805 (2012).
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S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011).
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K. J. Resch, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Experimental realization of the quantum box problem,” Phys. Lett. A 324, 125–131 (2004).
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Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, “Revisiting Hardy’s paradox: counterfactual statements, real measurements, entanglement and weak values,” Phys. Lett. A 301, 130–138 (2002).
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Shalm, L. K.

S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011).
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Y. Turek, H. Kobayashi, T. Akutsu, C. P. Sun, and Y. Shikano, “Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite–Gaussian and Laguerre–Gaussian pointer states,” New J. Phys. 17, 083029 (2015).
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H. Kobayashi, G. Puentes, and Y. Shikano, “Extracting joint weak values from two-dimensional spatial displacements,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053805 (2012).
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A. A. Abbott, R. Silva, J. Wechs, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard, “Anomalous weak values without post-selection,” Quantum 3, 194–208 (2019).
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P. B. Dixon, D. J. Starling, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Ultrasensitive beam deflection measurement via interferometric weak value amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173601 (2009).
[Crossref]

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A. Feizpour, X. Xing, and A. M. Steinberg, “Amplifying single-photon nonlinearity using weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133603 (2011).
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S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011).
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J. S. Lundeen and A. M. Steinberg, “Experimental joint weak measurement on a photon pair as a probe of Hardy’s paradox,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020404 (2009).
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R. Mir, J. S. Lundeen, M. W. Mitchell, A. M. Steinberg, J. L. Garretson, and H. M. Wiseman, “A double-slit which-way experiment on the complementarity uncertainty debate,” New J. Phys. 9, 287 (2007).
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S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, “Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer,” Science 332, 1170–1173 (2011).
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I. M. Duck, P. M. Stevenson, and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “The sense in which a “weak measurement” of a spin-1/2 particle’s spin component yields a value 100,” Phys. Rev. D 40, 2112–2117 (1989).
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Y. Turek, H. Kobayashi, T. Akutsu, C. P. Sun, and Y. Shikano, “Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite–Gaussian and Laguerre–Gaussian pointer states,” New J. Phys. 17, 083029 (2015).
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Sun, K.

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Suzuki, M. Iinuma, and H. F. Hofmann, “Violation of Leggett–Garg inequalities in quantum measurements with variable resolution and back-action,” New J. Phys. 14, 103022 (2012).
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Tollaksen, J.

Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, “Revisiting Hardy’s paradox: counterfactual statements, real measurements, entanglement and weak values,” Phys. Lett. A 301, 130–138 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Aharonov, S. Popescu, and J. Tollaksen, “Each instant of time a new universe,” in Quantum Theory: A Two-Time Success Story (Springer, 2014), pp. 21–36.

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Y. Turek, H. Kobayashi, T. Akutsu, C. P. Sun, and Y. Shikano, “Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite–Gaussian and Laguerre–Gaussian pointer states,” New J. Phys. 17, 083029 (2015).
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Viza, G. I.

J. Martínez-Rincón, W.-T. Liu, G. I. Viza, and J. C. Howell, “Can anomalous amplification be attained without postselection?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 100803 (2016).
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G. I. Viza, J. Martinez-Rincon, G. B. Alves, A. N. Jordan, and J. C. Howell, “Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032127 (2015).
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Wang, J.-F.

Wang, Y.-T.

Wechs, J.

A. A. Abbott, R. Silva, J. Wechs, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard, “Anomalous weak values without post-selection,” Quantum 3, 194–208 (2019).
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R. Mir, J. S. Lundeen, M. W. Mitchell, A. M. Steinberg, J. L. Garretson, and H. M. Wiseman, “A double-slit which-way experiment on the complementarity uncertainty debate,” New J. Phys. 9, 287 (2007).
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M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
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A. Feizpour, X. Xing, and A. M. Steinberg, “Amplifying single-photon nonlinearity using weak measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133603 (2011).
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M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
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Xu, J.-S.

Xu, X. Y.

M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
[Crossref]

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X.-Y. Xu, Y. Kedem, K. Sun, L. Vaidman, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Phase estimation with weak measurement using a white light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033604 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

K. Yokota, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Direct observation of Hardy’s paradox by joint weak measurement with an entangled photon pair,” New J. Phys. 11, 033011 (2009).
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Yan, F.-F.

Yang, M.

M. Yang, Y. Xiao, Y. W. Liao, Z. H. Liu, X. Y. Xu, J. S. Xu, C. F. Li, and G. C. Guo, “Zonal reconstruction of photonic wavefunction via momentum weak measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 1900251 (2020).
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Corr(A,B)=∑i,j(Ai,j−A¯)(Bi,j−B¯)∑i,j(Ai,j−A¯)2∑i,j(Bi,j−B¯)2, where Ai,j(Bi,j) represents the gray level of image A(B) at pixel (i,j), and A¯(B¯) means the average value.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Theoretical protocol. The system initially in the state |ψ(0) is sequentially weak coupled with two pointers in the initial states of |ϕ1(0) and |ϕ2(0), respectively. The time sequence is denoted as t1, t2, and t3. The pointers are measured individually or jointly.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup and deflection images. (a) Single photons from a single photon emitter (SPE) are sent to the sequential weak measurement setup. The single photon property is characterized by the second order autocorrelation function, in which the dip at the zero delay time is fitted to be g2(0)=0.025. The polarization of the single photons is set by a half-wave plate (HWP1). A lens (f=150mm) is used to focus the photon to the right screen of the spatial light modulator (SLM) for the horizontal weak coupling, where the hologram loaded is a vertical grating. The coupling strength is adjusted by changing the density of the grating. The photons are then refocused on the left screen of the SLM by a lens with f=75mm for the vertical coupling, where the hologram loaded is a horizontal grating with the same density. The HWP2 is used to rotate the polarization of the photon before the screen to adjust the direction of the pointer. The photons are then finally detected by an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) in the focus plane of a lens with f=150mm. (b) The images of photon distributions detected by the ICCD with different coupling strengths γexp. The inserts with blue background are the theoretical predictions of the corresponding experimental images when γexp>0.2366, and the Corr represents the correlation value between experimental and theoretical images.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Deflections of the pointer’s position and the normalized result of sequential weak measurements in the one-qubit system. (a) The brown and blue dots represent the experimental results of the pointer positions x^ and y^, respectively. The brown and blue lines represent the corresponding theoretical predictions. (b) The green dots represent the experimental results of the joint pointer position x^y^ with the green solid line representing the corresponding theoretical prediction. The red data represents the anomalous joint pointer position. (c) The black dots represent the inferred values of M=x^y^/γexp2, while the theoretical prediction is shown as a black line.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Deflections of pointer positions via sequential weak measurements in the two-qubit system. (a) The brown and blue dots represent the experimental results with the brown and blue lines representing the corresponding theoretical predictions, respectively. (b) The green dots represent the joint average pointer positions x^y^ with the green line representing the corresponding theoretical prediction.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Weak measurement based on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). (a) The input photons are transformed from the coordinate space to the momentum space by a Fourier lens and focused on the screen of SLM. A phase that changes linearly along the x direction is applied on photons by the SLM, and then photons are re-transformed from the momentum space to the coordinate space by another Fourier lens. The photon wave packet will be transversely shifted slightly, which is known as weak measurement. (b) The relation between grating densities α on SLM and coupling strength γexp.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental setup of the single photon emitter (SPE).

Equations (11)

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AψfW:=f|A^|ψf|ψ,
AψIW:=ψ|A^|ψ.
(A1A2)ψIW:=ψ|A^1A^2|ψ.
x^1x^2=116(13eγ128σ12)γ1γ2,
U^r=exp(iγexp|HH|p^r),
K^=x,yK·|ϕ(x,y)|2/x,y|ϕ(x,y)|2,
|Ψ=|ϕ(x,y)(a|H+b|V),
F[|ϕ(x,y)](a|H+b|V)=|U(η,ξ)(a|H+b|V),
a|U(η,ξ)eiγexpη|H+b|U(η,ξ)|V),
aF1[|U(η,ξ)eiγexpη]|H+b|F1[U(η,ξ)]|V=a|ϕ(xγexp,y)|H+b|ϕ(x,y)|V.
U^|ϕ(x,y)(a|H+b|V)=a|ϕ(xγexp,y)|H+b|ϕ(x,y)|V,

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