Abstract

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with high-sensitivity performance is a very necessary detection technology. Here, we present a method for increasing the performance of SERS based on silver triangular nanoprism arrays (ATNAs) vertically excited via a focused azimuthal vector beam (AVB). The ATNA substrates with different structural parameters are prepared based on the traditional self-assembled and modified film lift-off technique. Based on a theoretical model established adopting the structural parameters of the ATNA substrates, theoretical simulation results show that AVB excitation can achieve greater electric-field enhancement than linearly polarized beam (LPB) excitation. Experimental result indicates that SERS sensitivity obtained via AVB excitation is 1013  M (1 M = 1 mol/L) using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the target analyte, which is 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of LPB excitation (1011  M). Meanwhile, the uniformity and reproducibility of the ATNA substrates are examined using Raman mapping and batch-to-batch measurement, respectively, and the Raman enhancement factor is calculated to be 3.3×107. This method of vector light field excitation may be used to improve the SERS performance of the substrates in fields of ultra-sensitive Raman detection.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

1. INTRODUCTION

Since surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was discovered in the 1970s [1], it has attracted a great deal of attention because it can perform non-destructive and high-sensitivity examination [2,3], and it can even provide the “fingerprint” information on a single-molecule level [4,5]. As an ultrasensitive and quantifiable analytical technique for examining unknown samples or distinguishing the target analytes from a mixture, SERS has been widely explored in fields of chemistry [6], biology [7], energy [8], materials [9], medicine [10], etc.

SERS mainly relies on the enhancement of the electric field near the metal nanostructures to increase Raman scattering intensity when the target analytes are attached to the nanostructures [11]. With the rapid development of nanofabrication technologies, such as E-beam/focused ion beam lithography [12,13], femtosecond processing [14], self-assembly [1517], nanoimprinting [18], and chemical reactions [19], many kinds of metallic nanostructures, including nanorods [20], nanoholes [21], nanoflowers [22], nanostars [23], nanoisland films [24,25], etc., have been prepared for SERS applications. Evaluating the performance of a SERS substrate takes into consideration not only their sensitivity, uniformity, and reproducibility, but also the economics, convenience, and throughput of the preparation process [26]. Among them, the self-assembly method provides an alternative choice for preparing SERS substrates in an economical and convenient way [27] and for being of high SERS performance. So far, based on the improved self-assembly techniques, various metal nanostructures have been fabricated and used for SERS examination with high performance [2832].

Sensitivity is a key criterion for evaluating the performance of SERS substrates, and it depends on the electric-field intensity of the “hot-spot” formatted near the nanostructures due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect [33]. Since the morphology of the nanostructures plays an essential role in the LSPR effect and determines the electric-field intensity of the “hot-spot,” much effort has been devoted to preparing the metal nanostructures with special morphology for optimal electric-field enhancement. A gap mode constructed using two adjacent nanostructures with a nanogap can achieve stronger electric-field enhancement than the surface local mode near the apex of a nanostructure [3438]. Nevertheless, the nanostructures with a gap mode are difficult to prepare with their characteristics of large scale and uniform and periodic arrangement. Instead, the fabrication of the nanostructures with surface local mode can meet these requirements with an economic and convenient method.

Generally, the linear polarization beam (LPB) with Gaussian modal distribution has been widely used to excite the metal nanostructure to achieve SERS examination [3941]. Due to the varied spatial symmetries of some metal nanostructures, the monotonic polarization distributions of LPB make it difficult to achieve optimal excitation of the surface plasmon modes. However, the azimuthal vector beam (AVB) used as the excitation source can obtain a better excitation effect than LPB excitation [4246] because the azimuthal polarization distribution of the AVB has a richer polarization component perpendicular to the surface of the metal nanostructures. Therefore, it is possible that the AVB can be used to achieve better surface plasmon mode excitation than LPB, and thus it can obtain better SERS performance.

In this paper, a method for enhancing SERS performance of a silver triangular nanoprism array (ATNA) substrate vertically excited via a focused AVB is presented. The ATNA substrate is prepared based on the traditional self-assembled and modified film lift-off method. Based on the model established adopting the structural parameters of the ATNA substrates, theoretical calculation indicates that the AVB used as excitation source of ATNA substrates can achieve greater electric-field enhancement than LPB excitation. SERS sensitivity experimentally obtained via AVB excitation of an ATNA substrate is 1013  M (1 M = 1 mol/L) using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the target analyte, and it is 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of LPB excitation of 1011  M. Furthermore, the uniformity and reproducibility of the ATNA substrates are also examined via Raman mapping and batch-to-batch measurement, respectively, and the Raman enhancement factor is estimated to be 3.3×107, revealing good SERS performance of the ATNA substrates.

2. METHODS

A. Experimental System of SERS Examination

In this experiment, the SERS performance of the ATNA substrate is examined by using a home-built Raman setup integrated with single point Raman spectrum measurement and scanning imaging via a Raman characteristic peak as shown in Fig. 1. A 632.8 nm laser with power of 23 mW is used as the excitation light. The Gaussian mode output from the single-mode fiber (SMF) is collimated as a parallel light via the micro-objective (MO1). The power of the excitation light is adjusted via the attenuator (A), and the polarizer (P) is used to purify the LPB. The polarization direction of the LPB is rotated via the half-wave plate (HWP), and then it passes through the vortex plate (VP, WPV10L-633). When the polarization direction of the LPB is perpendicular to the fast axis of the VP, the LPB is converted to an AVB. The mode intensity distribution and polarization examination result of the AVB is shown in the inset in Fig. 1. The MO2 with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.8 is used to focus the AVB on the surface of the ATNA substrate and collect the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectrum is coupled into the spectrometer via the lens (L2) after filtering the Rayleigh scattering through the filter (F). A charge-coupled device (CCD) is used to observe the position of the focused spot on the surface of the ATNA substrate, under illumination of a white light source (WLS). A self-written LabVIEW program is used to simultaneously control the piezoelectric stage (PZS) and the spectrometer to enable point-by-point scanning imaging.

 

Fig. 1. Sketch map of the experimental setup for SERS examination of the ATNA substrate. Inset is (a1) the mode intensity distribution and (a2)−(a4) the polarization examination results of the AVB.

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B. Simulation Method

The wavelength of excitation light is set to λ=633  nm. The numerical aperture (NA) of the micro-objective (MO) used in the SERS examination configuration is NA=0.8. The focused characteristics of LPB and AVB are accordingly calculated in the case of NA=0.8, based on the Richards–Wolf vector theory [47,48].

The 3D finite-difference time-domain software (FDTD, Lumerical) is adopted to calculate the electric-field intensity enhancement of the ATNA substrate excited via the focused LPB and AVB. The permittivity of Ag is taken from the experimental measurements of Johnson and Christy [49], and the perfectly matched layers (PMLs) are used as absorption boundaries to simulate the structures placed in an infinitely large free space. The focused LPB with NA=0.8 calculated with FDTD software is used as the excitation source to calculate the electric-field enhancement characteristics of one nanoprism array unit. The MATLAB codes of the focused AVB with NA=0.8 are written based on the Richards–Wolf theory, and then integrated into the FDTD software to calculate the electric-field enhancement.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Fabrication and Characterization of the ATNA Substrates

The fabrication process of the ATNA substrate is shown schematically in Figs. 2(a)2(c). A monolayer ordered hexagonally close-packed polystyrene (PS) nanosphere (PSN-00600, PSN-00400, PSN-00300, Tjdaekj, China) on the silicon wafer is first formed using the traditional Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) self-assembled method [50,51]. A 100 nm thick silver (99.99%, SANTE MATERIAL, China) film is deposited on the prepared close-packed PS nanospheres mask, as shown in Fig. 2(a), using the vacuum thermal evaporation method. A slide glass is cleaned in a piranha solution for 30 min at 80°C and then rinsed in deionized water and dried by nitrogen for 1 min. A UV-epoxy (NOA81, Thorlabs, Inc.) film with a thickness of 200 nm is prepared on the surface of the slide using a spin coater with speed of 3000 r/min and time of 50 s. The side of the slide glass with epoxy is close to the Ag-coated close-packed PS nanosphere mask, and then it is irradiated for 1 min under ultraviolet light (UVQ-702, LIENHE Fiber Optic Supplies, China) to promote the curing of the epoxy as shown in Fig. 2(b). Due to the PS nanospheres tightly attached to the surface of the slide glass, when the slide glass is removed from the mask, the PS nanospheres will be stripped simultaneously. Thus, the ATNA substrate is formatted and located on the surface of the silicon wafer as shown in Fig. 2(c).

 

Fig. 2. Fabrication and characterization of the ATNA substrates. (a)–(c) Sketch map of the fabrication process of the ATNA substrates; (d) SEM image of the Ag-coated PS nanosphere array with the diameter of PS nanospheres of D=300  nm; (e) SEM image of the Ag-coated PS nanospheres stripped from the silicon wafer using the slide glass; SEM images of the ATNA substrates fabricated using PS nanospheres with (f) D=300  nm, (g) 400 nm, and (h) 600 nm. (i) Reflection spectra of the ATNA substrates with D=300  nm (red curve), 400 nm (green curve), and 600 nm (violet curve).

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Figure 2(d) is the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the Ag-coated monolayer ordered hexagonally close-packed PS nanospheres array with diameter of PS nanospheres of D=300  nm. Figure 2(e) is the SEM image of the Ag-coated PS nanospheres stripped from the silicon wafer using the slide glass; note that the ordered PS microspheres are successfully stripped off by using the UV-epoxy film. Figure 2(f) is the corresponding SEM image of the ATNA substrate located on the silicon wafer. Note that the 2D ordering feature is well preserved in the resultant ATNA substrate. Figures 2(g) and 2(h) are the SEM images of the ATNA substrates obtained using the PS nanospheres with diameter of D=400  nm and 600 nm, respectively. It can be known that the interval and size of the ATNA substrates can be prepared controllably by adjusting the diameter of PS nanospheres. Figure 2(i) shows the measured reflection spectra of the ATNA substrates fabricated using PS nanospheres with D=300, 400, and 600 nm, respectively. Note that the ATNA substrates fabricated with different sizes all have the LSPR effect in the visible band, and the resonance wavelength is blue-shifted with the increase of the diameter of the PS nanospheres.

B. Calculation of Electric-Field Enhancement

The focused characteristics of LPB and AVB are calculated with NA=0.8 and the laser wavelength of λ=633  nm. The transverse-electric-field intensity distributions of the focused LPB and AVB are shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), respectively. It can be known that the focused LPB and AVB maintain the intensity and polarization characteristics. In addition, based on the horizontal intensity distribution through the centers of the focused LPB and AVB, as the green curves shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), note that the transverse mode intensity size of the focused AVB is 560  nm, which is larger than that of the focused LPB of 450  nm.

 

Fig. 3. Calculation of the electric-field intensity enhancement factor of the ATNA substrates excited via the focused LPB and AVB. Transverse-electric-field intensity distributions of the focused (a) LPB and (b) AVB, under conditions of NA=0.8 and λ=633  nm. Sketch map of the ATNA substrates excited via (c) LPB and (d) AVB. Electric-field intensity distribution on the surface of ATNA substrates, with D=600  nm, excited via (e) LPB and (f) AVB. Electric-field intensity distribution on the surface of the ATNA substrates, with (g) D=300  nm and (h) 400 nm, excited via AVB.

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Due to the periodic arrangement of the ATNA substrate, to simplify calculations, only one ATNA unit is adopted to calculate the electric-field intensity enhancement of the ATNA substrate excited via the focused LPB and AVB based on the 3D FDTD method. The ATNA unit is vertically illuminated via the focused LPB and AVB, as respectively shown in Figs. 3(c) and 3(d), in which the arrows represent the polarization direction of the two excitation beams. Note that the ATNA unit has radial symmetry [45,46]. The azimuthal polarization component of AVB is perpendicular to the tips of the ATNA unit, but the polarization component of the LPB can only be perpendicular to the tips of a part of the ATNA unit. Therefore, AVB excitation can achieve better electric-field enhancement characteristics on the tips of the ATNA unit than LPB excitation [52].

Figures 3(e) and 3(f) are the calculated electric-field intensity enhancements of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm, illuminated via the focused LPB and AVB, respectively. The calculated results show that the ATNA substrate can achieve surface local mode generation at the apex of the triangular nanoprisms under excitation of two beams with different polarization and mode size. However, the electric-field intensity enhancement factor of EF=|ENanoprism/EIncident|2=260, under excitation of the focused AVB, is larger than that of LPB excitation with EF=90. The main reason is that the mode size of the focused AVB matches well the geometric size of the nanoprism array unit, and thus the doughnut-like intensity distribution can effectively focus the excitation energy on the nanoprism array unit. Furthermore, the azimuthal polarization component of AVB is perpendicular to the tips of the nanoprism array unit compared with LPB, whose linear polarization component can only be perpendicular to the tips of a part of the ATNA unit. Figures 3(e) and 3(f) are the calculated electric-field intensity enhancements of the ATNA substrates fabricated using PS nanospheres with D=300  nm and 400 nm, respectively, under excitation of the focused AVB. Note that the EFs of the two ATNA substrates are smaller than that of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm. The main reason is that the dimensions of the “unit cell” of the ATNA are mismatched with the dimensions and electric-field distribution of the AVB. In addition, it can also be seen that the EF of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm is higher than that of the ATNA substrate with D=300  nm, because the geometric size of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm is closer to the mode size of the excitation light compared with the ATNA substrate with D=300  nm.

C. SERS Performance of ATNA Substrates

1. Examination of SERS Sensitivity

Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is used as the probe molecule to characterize the SERS performance of the ATNA substrates. R6G is diluted to a specific concentration with anhydrous ethanol, and then the R6G solution (10 μL) is transferred to the ATNA substrate using a pipette. The anhydrous ethanol quickly evaporates, and then R6G molecules are left on the surface of the ATNA substrate. The power of the excitation light is set to 3.5 mW, and the integration time is 10 s. Figure 4(a) shows the Raman spectra of R6G, with concentrations of 108,109,1010,1011, and 1012  M, absorbed on the surface of the ATNA substrates with D=600  nm and excited via the focused LPB. It can be seen that the SERS sensitivity of the ATNA substrate is 1011  M with R6G molecules, because all the characteristic peaks of R6G can be distinguished clearly with a concentration of 1011  M, yet they are unable to be excited with concentration down to 1012  M. Figure 4(b) shows the Raman spectra of R6G with concentration of 1011  M excited via the focused LPB and AVB, respectively. The examination result shows that the intensity of the Raman characteristic peaks excited via AVB (blue curve) is 3 times stronger than that of LPB excitation, revealing that the EF of the ATNA substrate excited via AVB is higher than that of LPB excitation. Figure 4(c) is the Raman spectra of R6G, with concentrations of 1012  M and 1013  M, excited via AVB. Note that all the characteristic peaks of R6G can be distinguished clearly with the concentration down to 1013  M, in case of excitation via AVB, revealing that the SERS sensitivity is increased by 2 orders of magnitude compared to LPB excitation. It provides a possibility that the SERS sensitivity can still be increased by adjusting the polarization characteristics of the excitation light, even if the structure of the SERS substrate remains unchanged.

 

Fig. 4. SERS sensitivity examination of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm. (a) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentration from 108  M down to 1012  M, absorbed on the surface of the ATNA substrates and excited via LPB. (b) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentration of 1011  M, excited via AVB (blue curve) and LPB (red curve). (c) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentrations of 1012  M and 1013  M, excited via the focused AVB.

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Keeping the power of excitation light and integration time unchanged, the SERS performance of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm is also examined with R6G, under excitation of LPB and AVB. Figure 5(a) shows the Raman spectra of R6G, with concentrations of 109, 1010, and 1011  M, absorbed on the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm and excited using the LPB. Note that the SERS sensitivity of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm is 1010  M under excitation of the LPB. By changing the excitation source to AVB, the SERS sensitivity of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm can be increased to 1012  M as shown in Fig. 5(b). The SERS sensitivity is enhanced by selecting the AVB as the excitation source, but it is smaller than the SERS sensitivity (1013  M) of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm. In addition, this examination result also coincides with the theoretical calculation that the EF of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm is smaller than that of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm, due to the mode size of the focused AVB not matching well the structure size of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm.

 

Fig. 5. SERS sensitivity examination of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm. (a) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentration from 109  M down to 1011  M, absorbed on ATNA substrate and excited via LPB. (b) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentrations of 1011,1012, and 1013  M, excited via AVB.

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2. Examination of SERS Uniformity and Raman Enhancement Factor

To investigate the SERS uniformity of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm under excitation of the focused AVB, Raman mapping is performed by using a home-built Raman mapping system as schematically shown in Fig. 1. A region with a size of 15  μm×15  μm, as shown in Fig. 6(a), is scanned with step value of 270 nm. To ensure the accuracy of Raman mapping, R6G solution of 108  M is absorbed on the surface of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm, and the integration time for each point is set to 1 s. Figure 6(b) is the Raman mapping result reconstituted with the Raman characteristic peak of 1511  cm1 as shown in Fig. 6(b) inset. Furthermore, a line scan of Raman mapping is taken along the white curve in Fig. 6(b), as denoted by the histogram result in Fig. 6(c), with a deviation of less than 3.1% from the average Raman signal intensity. The result exhibits that the ANTA substrate with D=600  nm retains high SERS uniformity under excitation of the focused AVB.

 

Fig. 6. Examination of SERS uniformity and Raman enhancement factor of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm. (a) Schematic diagram of Raman mapping excited via AVB; (b) Raman imaging within a square of 15  μm×15  μm using the characteristic peak of 1511  cm1 [inset in (d)] of R6G with a concentration of 108  M; (c) histogram of the intensities of the 1511  cm1 characteristic peak obtained along the white curve in (b); (d) Raman spectra of R6G with concentrations of 108  M (red curve) and 101  M (black curve) on the ATNA substrate and a glass slide, respectively.

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Under excitation of the focused AVB, the Raman enhancement factor of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm is further estimated with the Raman spectrum of 108  M and 101  M of R6G solution absorbed on the ATNA substrate and a glass slide, respectively, as shown in Fig. 6(d). The intensity of the Raman characteristic peak of 1511  cm1 is selected to estimate the Raman enhancement factor, and the result is 3.3×107. Since the R6G molecules have random orientation over the surface of the ATNA substrate, the Raman enhancement factor is not affected by the Raman tensor of the molecules [53,54].

3. Examination of Reproducibility

To examine the reproducibility of the ATNA substrate, five ATNA substrates are prepared, and then R6G solutions with concentration of 109  M are absorbed on the five ATNA substrates. Under excitation of the focused AVB, the batch-to-batch Raman spectra examination result is shown in Fig. 7(a). The intensity variation of the 1511  cm1 characteristic peak of the five ATNA substrates is shown in Fig. 7(b), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) from the five ATNA substrates is calculated to be RSD=4.5% [13], revealing excellent reproducibility of the fabricated ATNA substrates.

 

Fig. 7. Examination of reproducibility of ATNA substrates excited via AVB. (a) Raman spectra of R6G with a concentration of 109  M obtained from five ANTA substrates with D=600  nm. (b) Histogram of intensities of the 1511  cm1 characteristic peak shown in (a).

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4. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, a method for enhancing SERS performance of the ATNA substrate excited via the focused AVB has been presented. ATNA substrates with different structure sizes have been prepared based on the self-assembled and modified film lift-off method. Theoretical simulation shows that AVB excitation can achieve greater electric-field enhancement than LPB excitation. Furthermore, the experimental result proves that the SERS sensitivity obtained via the AVB excitation is 1013  M using R6G, and it is 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the LPB excitation of 1011  M. The uniformity and reproducibility of the ATNA substrates are also respectively examined using Raman mapping and batch-to-batch measurement, and the Raman enhancement factor is estimated to be 3.3×107. This vector light field excitation method may provide a way to improve the SERS performance of the substrate in fields of highly sensitive Raman detection.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61675169, 61675171, 11634010); National Key RD Program of China (2017YFA0303800); Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (2018JM6036); Shaanxi Provincial Key RD Program (2018KW-009); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (310201911cx026, 3102019JC008).

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29. Z. Fusco, R. Bo, Y. Wang, N. Motta, H. Chen, and A. Tricoli, “Self-assembly of Au nano-islands with tuneable organized disorder for highly sensitive SERS,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 6308–6316 (2019). [CrossRef]  

30. C. Hanske, E. H. Hill, D. Vila-Liarte, G. González-Rubio, C. Matricardi, A. Mihi, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Solvent-assisted self-assembly of gold nanorods into hierarchically organized plasmonic mesostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 11, 11763–11771 (2019). [CrossRef]  

31. C. Heck, Y. Kanehira, J. Kneipp, and I. Bald, “Placement of single proteins within the SERS hot spots of self-assembled silver nanolenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57, 7444–7447 (2018). [CrossRef]  

32. L. Zhang, L. Dai, Y. Rong, Z. Liu, D. Tong, Y. Huang, and T. Chen, “Light-triggered reversible self-assembly of gold nanoparticle oligomers for tunable SERS,” Langmuir 31, 1164–1171 (2015). [CrossRef]  

33. J. M. Luther, P. K. Jain, T. Ewers, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Localized surface plasmon resonances arising from free carriers in doped quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 10, 361–366 (2011). [CrossRef]  

34. Y. Huang, Q. Zhou, M. Hou, L. Ma, and Z. Zhang, “Nanogap effects on near- and far-field plasmonic behaviors of metallic nanoparticle dimers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 29293–29298 (2015). [CrossRef]  

35. S. L. Kleinman, B. Sharma, M. G. Blaber, A. Henry, N. Valley, R. G. Freeman, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Structure enhancement factor relationships in single gold nanoantennas by surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 301–308 (2013). [CrossRef]  

36. F. Lu, L. Huang, L. Han, H. Sun, H. Wang, M. Liu, W. Zhang, X. Wang, and T. Mei, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with high-order fiber vector beam excitation,” Sensors 18, 3841 (2018). [CrossRef]  

37. Y. Yokota, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Essential nanogap effects on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals from closely spaced gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3505–3507 (2011). [CrossRef]  

38. J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “SERS—a single-molecule and nanoscale tool for bioanalytics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1052–1060 (2008). [CrossRef]  

39. C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, and M. V. Garland, “DNA detection using nanostructured SERS substrates with rhodamine B as Raman label,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216–221 (2008). [CrossRef]  

40. Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christlansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9, 2384–2389 (2009). [CrossRef]  

41. Y. Jin, Y. Wang, M. Chen, X. Xiao, T. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Jiang, S. Fan, and Q. Li, “Highly sensitive, uniform, and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate with nanometer-scale quasi-periodic nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 9, 32369–32376 (2017). [CrossRef]  

42. M. Liu, W. Zhang, F. Lu, L. Huang, S. Liang, D. Mao, F. Gao, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “Plasmonic tip internally excited via an azimuthal vector beam for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Photon. Res. 7, 526–531 (2019). [CrossRef]  

43. A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8, 4969–4974 (2014). [CrossRef]  

44. L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, R. D. R. Bhat, and R. M. O. Osgood Jr, “Surface second-harmonic generation from scattering of surface plasmon polaritons from radially symmetric nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 235416 (2009). [CrossRef]  

45. G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective effects in second-harmonic generation from plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18, 2571–2580 (2018). [CrossRef]  

46. J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6, 8415–8423 (2012). [CrossRef]  

47. K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7, 77–87 (2000). [CrossRef]  

48. B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959). [CrossRef]  

49. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]  

50. P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15, 4591–4598 (2015). [CrossRef]  

51. C. Hsu, S. T. Connor, X. M. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133109 (2008). [CrossRef]  

52. N. Kazemi-Zanjani, S. Vedraine, and F. Lagugné-Labarthet, “Localized enhancement of electric field in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using radially and linearly polarized light,” Opt. Express 21, 25271–25276 (2013). [CrossRef]  

53. E. C. L. Ru, S. A. Meyer, C. Artur, P. G. Etchegoin, J. Grand, P. Lang, and F. Maurel, “Experimental demonstration of surface selection rules for SERS on flat metallic surfaces,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3903–3905 (2011). [CrossRef]  

54. M. Muniz-Miranda, E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, T. D. Rosso, S. Sottini, A. Giusti, and M. Alloisio, “SERS investigation on the polymerization of carbazolyl-diacetylene monolayers on gold surfaces,” Macromol. Symp. 230, 67–70 (2005). [CrossRef]  

References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  45. G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective effects in second-harmonic generation from plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18, 2571–2580 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  46. J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6, 8415–8423 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  49. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  50. P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15, 4591–4598 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  51. C. Hsu, S. T. Connor, X. M. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133109 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  52. N. Kazemi-Zanjani, S. Vedraine, and F. Lagugné-Labarthet, “Localized enhancement of electric field in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using radially and linearly polarized light,” Opt. Express 21, 25271–25276 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  53. E. C. L. Ru, S. A. Meyer, C. Artur, P. G. Etchegoin, J. Grand, P. Lang, and F. Maurel, “Experimental demonstration of surface selection rules for SERS on flat metallic surfaces,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3903–3905 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  54. M. Muniz-Miranda, E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, T. D. Rosso, S. Sottini, A. Giusti, and M. Alloisio, “SERS investigation on the polymerization of carbazolyl-diacetylene monolayers on gold surfaces,” Macromol. Symp. 230, 67–70 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

Z. Fusco, R. Bo, Y. Wang, N. Motta, H. Chen, and A. Tricoli, “Self-assembly of Au nano-islands with tuneable organized disorder for highly sensitive SERS,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 6308–6316 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Hanske, E. H. Hill, D. Vila-Liarte, G. González-Rubio, C. Matricardi, A. Mihi, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Solvent-assisted self-assembly of gold nanorods into hierarchically organized plasmonic mesostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 11, 11763–11771 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, W. Zhang, F. Lu, L. Huang, S. Liang, D. Mao, F. Gao, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “Plasmonic tip internally excited via an azimuthal vector beam for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Photon. Res. 7, 526–531 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

H. M. Jin, J. Y. Kim, M. Heo, S. Jeong, B. Kim, S. K. Cha, K. H. Han, J. H. Kim, G. G. Yang, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Ultralarge area sub-10 nm plasmonic nanogap array by block copolymer self-assembly for reliable high-sensitivity SERS,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 10, 44660–44667 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective effects in second-harmonic generation from plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18, 2571–2580 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Heck, Y. Kanehira, J. Kneipp, and I. Bald, “Placement of single proteins within the SERS hot spots of self-assembled silver nanolenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57, 7444–7447 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Lu, L. Huang, L. Han, H. Sun, H. Wang, M. Liu, W. Zhang, X. Wang, and T. Mei, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with high-order fiber vector beam excitation,” Sensors 18, 3841 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Gjergjizi, F. Çoğun, E. Yıldırım, M. Eryilmaz, Y. Selbes, N. Sağlam, and U. Tamer, “SERS-based ultrafast and sensitive detection of luteinizing hormone in human serum using a passive microchip,” Sens. Actuators B 269, 314–321 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Z. Zhang, H. Wang, and Q. Yang, “SERS: social-aware energy-efficient relay selection in D2D communication,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 67, 5331–5345 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. Li, K. Gao, F. Lu, M. Liu, X. Li, L. Zhang, D. Mao, F. Gao, L. Huang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with Au-nanoparticle substrate fabricated by using femtosecond pulse,” Nanotechnology 29, 205301 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Mitsai, A. Kuchmizhak, E. Pustovalov, A. Sergeev, A. Mironenko, S. Bratskaya, D. P. Linklater, A. Balčytis, E. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Chemically non-perturbing SERS detection of a catalytic reaction with black silicon,” Nanoscale 10, 9780–9787 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Yuan, J. Zheng, D. T. Yang, B. J. Sánchez, X. Liu, X. Guo, C. Liu, N. E. Dina, J. Jian, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Z. Liang, H. Zhou, and Z. Jiang, “Self-assembly of Au@Ag nanoparticles on mussel shell to form large-scale 3D supercrystals as natural SERS substrates for the detection of pathogenic bacteria,” ACS Omega 3, 2855–2864 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

Y. Jin, Y. Wang, M. Chen, X. Xiao, T. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Jiang, S. Fan, and Q. Li, “Highly sensitive, uniform, and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate with nanometer-scale quasi-periodic nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 9, 32369–32376 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15, 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Q. Zhou, M. Hou, L. Ma, and Z. Zhang, “Nanogap effects on near- and far-field plasmonic behaviors of metallic nanoparticle dimers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 29293–29298 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. A. Lane, X. Qian, and S. Nie, “SERS nanoparticles in medicine: from label-free detection to spectroscopic tagging,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10489–10529 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Parisi, Q. Dong, and Y. Lei, “In situ microfluidic fabrication of SERS nanostructures for highly sensitive fingerprint microfluidic-SERS sensing,” RSC Adv. 5, 14081–14809 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. Dai, Y. Rong, Z. Liu, D. Tong, Y. Huang, and T. Chen, “Light-triggered reversible self-assembly of gold nanoparticle oligomers for tunable SERS,” Langmuir 31, 1164–1171 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Serrano-Montes, D. J. D. Aberasturi, J. Langer, J. J. Giner-Casares, L. Scarabelli, A. Herrero, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “A general method for solvent exchange of plasmonic nanoparticles and self-assembly into SERS-active monolayers,” Langmuir 31, 9205–9213 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8, 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

N. Kazemi-Zanjani, S. Vedraine, and F. Lagugné-Labarthet, “Localized enhancement of electric field in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using radially and linearly polarized light,” Opt. Express 21, 25271–25276 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. Kleinman, B. Sharma, M. G. Blaber, A. Henry, N. Valley, R. G. Freeman, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Structure enhancement factor relationships in single gold nanoantennas by surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 301–308 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. Kleinman, R. R. Frontiera, A. Henry, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Creating, characterizing, and controlling chemistry with SERS hot spots,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 21–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. L. Yap, P. Thoniyot, S. Krishnan, and S. Krishnamoorthy, “Nanoparticle cluster arrays for high-performance SERS through directed self-assembly on flat substrates and on optical fibers,” ACS Nano 6, 2056–2070 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6, 8415–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

E. C. L. Ru, S. A. Meyer, C. Artur, P. G. Etchegoin, J. Grand, P. Lang, and F. Maurel, “Experimental demonstration of surface selection rules for SERS on flat metallic surfaces,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3903–3905 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Muniz-Miranda, T. D. Rosso, E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, G. Ghini, and S. Cicchi, “Surface-enhanced fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of push–pull molecules: sulfur-functionalized 4-amino-7-nitrobenzofurazan adsorbed on Ag and Au nanostructured substrates,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 361–367 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Guerrero-Martínez, S. Barbosa, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Nanostars shine bright for you: colloidal synthesis, properties and applications of branched metallic nanoparticles,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 118–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. M. Luther, P. K. Jain, T. Ewers, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Localized surface plasmon resonances arising from free carriers in doped quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 10, 361–366 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Yokota, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Essential nanogap effects on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals from closely spaced gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3505–3507 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. A. Alvarez-Puebla and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “SERS-based diagnosis and biodetection,” Small 6, 604–610 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

C. M. Galloway, P. G. Etchegoin, and E. C. Le Ru, “Ultrafast nonradiative decay rates on metallic surfaces by comparing surface-enhanced Raman and fluorescence signals of single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063003 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Fan and A. G. Brolo, “Silver nanoparticles self assembly as SERS substrates with near single molecule detection limit,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 7381–7389 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Das, F. Mecarini, F. Gentile, F. D. Angelis, M. Kumar, P. Candeloro, C. Liberale, G. Cuda, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Nano-patterned SERS substrate: application for protein analysis vs. temperature,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1693–1699 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Giorgetti, S. Cicchi, M. Muniz-Miranda, G. Margheri, T. D. Rosso, A. Giusti, A. Rindi, G. Ghini, S. Sottini, A. Marcellif, and P. Foggi, “Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a donor–acceptor system adsorbed on silver or gold nanoisland films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 9798–9803 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, R. D. R. Bhat, and R. M. O. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from scattering of surface plasmon polaritons from radially symmetric nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 235416 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christlansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9, 2384–2389 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

C. Hsu, S. T. Connor, X. M. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133109 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Xie, Q. Zhang, J. Lee, I. C. Daniel, and D. I. C. Wang, “The synthesis of SERS-active gold nanoflower tags for in vivo applications,” ACS Nano 2, 2473–2480 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “SERS—a single-molecule and nanoscale tool for bioanalytics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1052–1060 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, and M. V. Garland, “DNA detection using nanostructured SERS substrates with rhodamine B as Raman label,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216–221 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Ko, S. Singamaneni, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Nanostructured surfaces and assemblies as SERS media,” Small 4, 1576–1599 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. Alvarez-Puebla, B. Cui, J. Bravo-Vasquez, T. Veres, and H. Fenniri, “Nanoimprinted SERS-active substrates with tunable surface plasmon resonances,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 6720–6723 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. Zijlstra, C. Bullen, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “High-temperature seedless synthesis of gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19315–19318 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Muniz-Miranda, E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, T. D. Rosso, S. Sottini, A. Giusti, and M. Alloisio, “SERS investigation on the polymerization of carbazolyl-diacetylene monolayers on gold surfaces,” Macromol. Symp. 230, 67–70 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 4, 2015–2018 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99, 2957–2976 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, “Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates,” Science 267, 1629–1632 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

G. Xue, Q. Dai, and S. Jiang, “Chemical reactions of imidazole with metallic silver studied by the use of SERS and XPS techniques,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2393–2395 (1988).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. Mcquillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Aberasturi, D. J. D.

A. B. Serrano-Montes, D. J. D. Aberasturi, J. Langer, J. J. Giner-Casares, L. Scarabelli, A. Herrero, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “A general method for solvent exchange of plasmonic nanoparticles and self-assembly into SERS-active monolayers,” Langmuir 31, 9205–9213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, and M. V. Garland, “DNA detection using nanostructured SERS substrates with rhodamine B as Raman label,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216–221 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

J. M. Luther, P. K. Jain, T. Ewers, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Localized surface plasmon resonances arising from free carriers in doped quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 10, 361–366 (2011).
[Crossref]

Allison, K. J.

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, “Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates,” Science 267, 1629–1632 (1995).
[Crossref]

Alloisio, M.

M. Muniz-Miranda, E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, T. D. Rosso, S. Sottini, A. Giusti, and M. Alloisio, “SERS investigation on the polymerization of carbazolyl-diacetylene monolayers on gold surfaces,” Macromol. Symp. 230, 67–70 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alvarez-Puebla, R.

R. Alvarez-Puebla, B. Cui, J. Bravo-Vasquez, T. Veres, and H. Fenniri, “Nanoimprinted SERS-active substrates with tunable surface plasmon resonances,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 6720–6723 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alvarez-Puebla, R. A.

R. A. Alvarez-Puebla and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “SERS-based diagnosis and biodetection,” Small 6, 604–610 (2010).
[Crossref]

Angelis, F. D.

G. Das, F. Mecarini, F. Gentile, F. D. Angelis, M. Kumar, P. Candeloro, C. Liberale, G. Cuda, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Nano-patterned SERS substrate: application for protein analysis vs. temperature,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1693–1699 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arctander, E.

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 4, 2015–2018 (2004).
[Crossref]

Artur, C.

E. C. L. Ru, S. A. Meyer, C. Artur, P. G. Etchegoin, J. Grand, P. Lang, and F. Maurel, “Experimental demonstration of surface selection rules for SERS on flat metallic surfaces,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3903–3905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balcytis, A.

E. Mitsai, A. Kuchmizhak, E. Pustovalov, A. Sergeev, A. Mironenko, S. Bratskaya, D. P. Linklater, A. Balčytis, E. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Chemically non-perturbing SERS detection of a catalytic reaction with black silicon,” Nanoscale 10, 9780–9787 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bald, I.

C. Heck, Y. Kanehira, J. Kneipp, and I. Bald, “Placement of single proteins within the SERS hot spots of self-assembled silver nanolenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57, 7444–7447 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, Z.

K. Yuan, J. Zheng, D. T. Yang, B. J. Sánchez, X. Liu, X. Guo, C. Liu, N. E. Dina, J. Jian, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Z. Liang, H. Zhou, and Z. Jiang, “Self-assembly of Au@Ag nanoparticles on mussel shell to form large-scale 3D supercrystals as natural SERS substrates for the detection of pathogenic bacteria,” ACS Omega 3, 2855–2864 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barbosa, S.

A. Guerrero-Martínez, S. Barbosa, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Nanostars shine bright for you: colloidal synthesis, properties and applications of branched metallic nanoparticles,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 118–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bautista, G.

G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective effects in second-harmonic generation from plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18, 2571–2580 (2018).
[Crossref]

Becker, M.

Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christlansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9, 2384–2389 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R. D. R.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, R. D. R. Bhat, and R. M. O. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from scattering of surface plasmon polaritons from radially symmetric nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 235416 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blaber, M. G.

S. L. Kleinman, B. Sharma, M. G. Blaber, A. Henry, N. Valley, R. G. Freeman, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Structure enhancement factor relationships in single gold nanoantennas by surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 301–308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bo, R.

Z. Fusco, R. Bo, Y. Wang, N. Motta, H. Chen, and A. Tricoli, “Self-assembly of Au nano-islands with tuneable organized disorder for highly sensitive SERS,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 6308–6316 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bosch, S.

J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6, 8415–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bratskaya, S.

E. Mitsai, A. Kuchmizhak, E. Pustovalov, A. Sergeev, A. Mironenko, S. Bratskaya, D. P. Linklater, A. Balčytis, E. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Chemically non-perturbing SERS detection of a catalytic reaction with black silicon,” Nanoscale 10, 9780–9787 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bravo-Vasquez, J.

R. Alvarez-Puebla, B. Cui, J. Bravo-Vasquez, T. Veres, and H. Fenniri, “Nanoimprinted SERS-active substrates with tunable surface plasmon resonances,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 6720–6723 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bright, R. M.

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, “Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates,” Science 267, 1629–1632 (1995).
[Crossref]

Brolo, A. G.

M. Fan and A. G. Brolo, “Silver nanoparticles self assembly as SERS substrates with near single molecule detection limit,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 7381–7389 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 4, 2015–2018 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brown, T. G.

Buddharaju, K. D.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, and M. V. Garland, “DNA detection using nanostructured SERS substrates with rhodamine B as Raman label,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216–221 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bullen, C.

P. Zijlstra, C. Bullen, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “High-temperature seedless synthesis of gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19315–19318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Candeloro, P.

G. Das, F. Mecarini, F. Gentile, F. D. Angelis, M. Kumar, P. Candeloro, C. Liberale, G. Cuda, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Nano-patterned SERS substrate: application for protein analysis vs. temperature,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1693–1699 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, R. D. R. Bhat, and R. M. O. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from scattering of surface plasmon polaritons from radially symmetric nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 235416 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cha, S. K.

H. M. Jin, J. Y. Kim, M. Heo, S. Jeong, B. Kim, S. K. Cha, K. H. Han, J. H. Kim, G. G. Yang, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Ultralarge area sub-10 nm plasmonic nanogap array by block copolymer self-assembly for reliable high-sensitivity SERS,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 10, 44660–44667 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Z. Fusco, R. Bo, Y. Wang, N. Motta, H. Chen, and A. Tricoli, “Self-assembly of Au nano-islands with tuneable organized disorder for highly sensitive SERS,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 6308–6316 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Y. Jin, Y. Wang, M. Chen, X. Xiao, T. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Jiang, S. Fan, and Q. Li, “Highly sensitive, uniform, and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate with nanometer-scale quasi-periodic nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 9, 32369–32376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

L. Zhang, L. Dai, Y. Rong, Z. Liu, D. Tong, Y. Huang, and T. Chen, “Light-triggered reversible self-assembly of gold nanoparticle oligomers for tunable SERS,” Langmuir 31, 1164–1171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chon, J. W. M.

P. Zijlstra, C. Bullen, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “High-temperature seedless synthesis of gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19315–19318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Christlansen, S.

Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christlansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9, 2384–2389 (2009).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cicchi, S.

M. Muniz-Miranda, T. D. Rosso, E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, G. Ghini, and S. Cicchi, “Surface-enhanced fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of push–pull molecules: sulfur-functionalized 4-amino-7-nitrobenzofurazan adsorbed on Ag and Au nanostructured substrates,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 361–367 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Giorgetti, S. Cicchi, M. Muniz-Miranda, G. Margheri, T. D. Rosso, A. Giusti, A. Rindi, G. Ghini, S. Sottini, A. Marcellif, and P. Foggi, “Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a donor–acceptor system adsorbed on silver or gold nanoisland films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 9798–9803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Çogun, F.

B. Gjergjizi, F. Çoğun, E. Yıldırım, M. Eryilmaz, Y. Selbes, N. Sağlam, and U. Tamer, “SERS-based ultrafast and sensitive detection of luteinizing hormone in human serum using a passive microchip,” Sens. Actuators B 269, 314–321 (2018).
[Crossref]

Connor, S. T.

C. Hsu, S. T. Connor, X. M. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cuda, G.

G. Das, F. Mecarini, F. Gentile, F. D. Angelis, M. Kumar, P. Candeloro, C. Liberale, G. Cuda, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Nano-patterned SERS substrate: application for protein analysis vs. temperature,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1693–1699 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cui, B.

R. Alvarez-Puebla, B. Cui, J. Bravo-Vasquez, T. Veres, and H. Fenniri, “Nanoimprinted SERS-active substrates with tunable surface plasmon resonances,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 6720–6723 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15, 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hsu, S. T. Connor, X. M. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, L.

L. Zhang, L. Dai, Y. Rong, Z. Liu, D. Tong, Y. Huang, and T. Chen, “Light-triggered reversible self-assembly of gold nanoparticle oligomers for tunable SERS,” Langmuir 31, 1164–1171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

G. Xue, Q. Dai, and S. Jiang, “Chemical reactions of imidazole with metallic silver studied by the use of SERS and XPS techniques,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2393–2395 (1988).
[Crossref]

Daniel, I. C.

J. Xie, Q. Zhang, J. Lee, I. C. Daniel, and D. I. C. Wang, “The synthesis of SERS-active gold nanoflower tags for in vivo applications,” ACS Nano 2, 2473–2480 (2008).
[Crossref]

Das, G.

G. Das, F. Mecarini, F. Gentile, F. D. Angelis, M. Kumar, P. Candeloro, C. Liberale, G. Cuda, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Nano-patterned SERS substrate: application for protein analysis vs. temperature,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1693–1699 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99, 2957–2976 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. A.

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, “Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates,” Science 267, 1629–1632 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dieringer, J. A.

S. L. Kleinman, R. R. Frontiera, A. Henry, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Creating, characterizing, and controlling chemistry with SERS hot spots,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 21–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dina, N. E.

K. Yuan, J. Zheng, D. T. Yang, B. J. Sánchez, X. Liu, X. Guo, C. Liu, N. E. Dina, J. Jian, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Z. Liang, H. Zhou, and Z. Jiang, “Self-assembly of Au@Ag nanoparticles on mussel shell to form large-scale 3D supercrystals as natural SERS substrates for the detection of pathogenic bacteria,” ACS Omega 3, 2855–2864 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dong, Q.

J. Parisi, Q. Dong, and Y. Lei, “In situ microfluidic fabrication of SERS nanostructures for highly sensitive fingerprint microfluidic-SERS sensing,” RSC Adv. 5, 14081–14809 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dreser, C.

G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective effects in second-harmonic generation from plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18, 2571–2580 (2018).
[Crossref]

Duyne, R. P. V.

S. L. Kleinman, B. Sharma, M. G. Blaber, A. Henry, N. Valley, R. G. Freeman, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Structure enhancement factor relationships in single gold nanoantennas by surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 301–308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eryilmaz, M.

B. Gjergjizi, F. Çoğun, E. Yıldırım, M. Eryilmaz, Y. Selbes, N. Sağlam, and U. Tamer, “SERS-based ultrafast and sensitive detection of luteinizing hormone in human serum using a passive microchip,” Sens. Actuators B 269, 314–321 (2018).
[Crossref]

Etchegoin, P. G.

E. C. L. Ru, S. A. Meyer, C. Artur, P. G. Etchegoin, J. Grand, P. Lang, and F. Maurel, “Experimental demonstration of surface selection rules for SERS on flat metallic surfaces,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3903–3905 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. M. Galloway, P. G. Etchegoin, and E. C. Le Ru, “Ultrafast nonradiative decay rates on metallic surfaces by comparing surface-enhanced Raman and fluorescence signals of single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ewers, T.

J. M. Luther, P. K. Jain, T. Ewers, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Localized surface plasmon resonances arising from free carriers in doped quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 10, 361–366 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fabrizio, E. D.

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P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15, 4591–4598 (2015).
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M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. Mcquillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
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S. L. Kleinman, R. R. Frontiera, A. Henry, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Creating, characterizing, and controlling chemistry with SERS hot spots,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 21–36 (2013).
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A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8, 4969–4974 (2014).
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A. B. Serrano-Montes, D. J. D. Aberasturi, J. Langer, J. J. Giner-Casares, L. Scarabelli, A. Herrero, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “A general method for solvent exchange of plasmonic nanoparticles and self-assembly into SERS-active monolayers,” Langmuir 31, 9205–9213 (2015).
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C. Hanske, E. H. Hill, D. Vila-Liarte, G. González-Rubio, C. Matricardi, A. Mihi, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Solvent-assisted self-assembly of gold nanorods into hierarchically organized plasmonic mesostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 11, 11763–11771 (2019).
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W. Zhang, C. Li, K. Gao, F. Lu, M. Liu, X. Li, L. Zhang, D. Mao, F. Gao, L. Huang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with Au-nanoparticle substrate fabricated by using femtosecond pulse,” Nanotechnology 29, 205301 (2018).
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K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99, 2957–2976 (1999).
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K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
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Y. Jin, Y. Wang, M. Chen, X. Xiao, T. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Jiang, S. Fan, and Q. Li, “Highly sensitive, uniform, and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate with nanometer-scale quasi-periodic nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 9, 32369–32376 (2017).
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H. M. Jin, J. Y. Kim, M. Heo, S. Jeong, B. Kim, S. K. Cha, K. H. Han, J. H. Kim, G. G. Yang, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Ultralarge area sub-10 nm plasmonic nanogap array by block copolymer self-assembly for reliable high-sensitivity SERS,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 10, 44660–44667 (2018).
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Y. Jin, Y. Wang, M. Chen, X. Xiao, T. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Jiang, S. Fan, and Q. Li, “Highly sensitive, uniform, and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate with nanometer-scale quasi-periodic nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 9, 32369–32376 (2017).
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C. Heck, Y. Kanehira, J. Kneipp, and I. Bald, “Placement of single proteins within the SERS hot spots of self-assembled silver nanolenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57, 7444–7447 (2018).
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G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective effects in second-harmonic generation from plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18, 2571–2580 (2018).
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C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, and M. V. Garland, “DNA detection using nanostructured SERS substrates with rhodamine B as Raman label,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216–221 (2008).
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H. M. Jin, J. Y. Kim, M. Heo, S. Jeong, B. Kim, S. K. Cha, K. H. Han, J. H. Kim, G. G. Yang, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Ultralarge area sub-10 nm plasmonic nanogap array by block copolymer self-assembly for reliable high-sensitivity SERS,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 10, 44660–44667 (2018).
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Kim, D. H.

Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christlansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9, 2384–2389 (2009).
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H. M. Jin, J. Y. Kim, M. Heo, S. Jeong, B. Kim, S. K. Cha, K. H. Han, J. H. Kim, G. G. Yang, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Ultralarge area sub-10 nm plasmonic nanogap array by block copolymer self-assembly for reliable high-sensitivity SERS,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 10, 44660–44667 (2018).
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Kim, J. Y.

H. M. Jin, J. Y. Kim, M. Heo, S. Jeong, B. Kim, S. K. Cha, K. H. Han, J. H. Kim, G. G. Yang, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Ultralarge area sub-10 nm plasmonic nanogap array by block copolymer self-assembly for reliable high-sensitivity SERS,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 10, 44660–44667 (2018).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. (3)

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[Crossref]

H. M. Jin, J. Y. Kim, M. Heo, S. Jeong, B. Kim, S. K. Cha, K. H. Han, J. H. Kim, G. G. Yang, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Ultralarge area sub-10 nm plasmonic nanogap array by block copolymer self-assembly for reliable high-sensitivity SERS,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 10, 44660–44667 (2018).
[Crossref]

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ACS Nano (4)

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8, 4969–4974 (2014).
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ACS Omega (1)

K. Yuan, J. Zheng, D. T. Yang, B. J. Sánchez, X. Liu, X. Guo, C. Liu, N. E. Dina, J. Jian, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Z. Liang, H. Zhou, and Z. Jiang, “Self-assembly of Au@Ag nanoparticles on mussel shell to form large-scale 3D supercrystals as natural SERS substrates for the detection of pathogenic bacteria,” ACS Omega 3, 2855–2864 (2018).
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Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Hsu, S. T. Connor, X. M. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133109 (2008).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Sketch map of the experimental setup for SERS examination of the ATNA substrate. Inset is (a1) the mode intensity distribution and (a2)−(a4) the polarization examination results of the AVB.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabrication and characterization of the ATNA substrates. (a)–(c) Sketch map of the fabrication process of the ATNA substrates; (d) SEM image of the Ag-coated PS nanosphere array with the diameter of PS nanospheres of D=300  nm; (e) SEM image of the Ag-coated PS nanospheres stripped from the silicon wafer using the slide glass; SEM images of the ATNA substrates fabricated using PS nanospheres with (f) D=300  nm, (g) 400 nm, and (h) 600 nm. (i) Reflection spectra of the ATNA substrates with D=300  nm (red curve), 400 nm (green curve), and 600 nm (violet curve).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Calculation of the electric-field intensity enhancement factor of the ATNA substrates excited via the focused LPB and AVB. Transverse-electric-field intensity distributions of the focused (a) LPB and (b) AVB, under conditions of NA=0.8 and λ=633  nm. Sketch map of the ATNA substrates excited via (c) LPB and (d) AVB. Electric-field intensity distribution on the surface of ATNA substrates, with D=600  nm, excited via (e) LPB and (f) AVB. Electric-field intensity distribution on the surface of the ATNA substrates, with (g) D=300  nm and (h) 400 nm, excited via AVB.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SERS sensitivity examination of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm. (a) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentration from 108  M down to 1012  M, absorbed on the surface of the ATNA substrates and excited via LPB. (b) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentration of 1011  M, excited via AVB (blue curve) and LPB (red curve). (c) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentrations of 1012  M and 1013  M, excited via the focused AVB.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. SERS sensitivity examination of the ATNA substrate with D=400  nm. (a) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentration from 109  M down to 1011  M, absorbed on ATNA substrate and excited via LPB. (b) Raman spectra of R6G, with concentrations of 1011,1012, and 1013  M, excited via AVB.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Examination of SERS uniformity and Raman enhancement factor of the ATNA substrate with D=600  nm. (a) Schematic diagram of Raman mapping excited via AVB; (b) Raman imaging within a square of 15  μm×15  μm using the characteristic peak of 1511  cm1 [inset in (d)] of R6G with a concentration of 108  M; (c) histogram of the intensities of the 1511  cm1 characteristic peak obtained along the white curve in (b); (d) Raman spectra of R6G with concentrations of 108  M (red curve) and 101  M (black curve) on the ATNA substrate and a glass slide, respectively.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Examination of reproducibility of ATNA substrates excited via AVB. (a) Raman spectra of R6G with a concentration of 109  M obtained from five ANTA substrates with D=600  nm. (b) Histogram of intensities of the 1511  cm1 characteristic peak shown in (a).

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