Abstract

We report on the high-power amplification of a 1064 nm linearly polarized laser in an all-fiber polarization-maintained master oscillator power amplifier, which can operate at an output power level of 1.3 kW. The beam quality (M2) was measured to be <1.2 at full power operation. The polarization extinction rate of the fiber amplifier was measured to be above 94% before mode instabilities (MIs) set in, which reduced to about 90% after the onset of MI. The power scaling capability of strategies for suppressing MI is analyzed based on a semianalytical model, the theoretical results of which agree with the experimental results. It shows that mitigating MI by coiling the gain fiber is an effective and practical method in standard double-cladding large mode area fiber, and, by tight coiling of the gain fiber to the radius of 5.5 cm, the MI threshold can be increased to three times higher than that without coiling or loose coiling. Experimental studies have been carried out to verify the idea, which has proved that MI was suppressed successfully in the amplifier by proper coiling.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

1. INTRODUCTION

Many applications, such as coherent lidar systems, nonlinear frequency conversion, and coherent beam combining architectures, require high-power linearly polarized laser sources with near-diffraction-limited beam quality [16]. Recently, a linearly polarized fiber laser with 1 kW output power has been achieved in a monolithic fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based Fabry–Perot cavity [7], which employed a pair of high-power FBGs. It is a technological challenge to design an FBG that can withstand multikilowatt power, and further power scaling may encounter some technological difficulties. Fiber laser systems based on master oscillator power amplifiers (MOPAs) are typically capable of reaching high output powers, while also offering more flexibility in terms of linewidth and polarization control than a simple grating-based laser [8]. Most of the high-power fiber laser systems with random polarized output are based on MOPAs at the moment, which has achieved output power as high as tens of kilowatts. However, power scaling of linearly polarized MOPAs to multikilowatt level is currently limited by the onset of mode instabilities (MIs) [810]. Although lots of work has been carried out to deal with MI experimentally and theoretically [1127], few methods to mitigate MI effectively in the all-fiber MOPA configuration with standard step-index large mode area (LMA) fiber have been proposed, and MI-free power scaling in an all-fiber MOPA, which is based on standard step-index polarization-maintaining (PM) LMA fibers, is even more challenging.

In this paper, we present a 1.3-kW-level all-fiber Yb-doped PM fiber amplifier with linearly polarized operation and near-diffraction-limited beam quality. We also discuss experiments, coupled with numerical modeling, to estimate the further power scaling capability of various strategies to mitigate MI. Numerical modeling results suggest that MI-free single-mode output powers in excess of 3 kW could be realized in standard step-index LMA fiber.

2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND RESULTS

A monolithic, all-fiber, Yb-doped PM fiber amplifier is shown in Fig. 1. The seed laser in the experiment is a 50 mW linearly polarized continuous-wave laser with central wavelength at 1064nm, which was then amplified in two preamplifier stages to 25W. The main amplifier consists of a 20 m PM double-clad LMA Yb-doped fiber (YDF) with 21 μm diameter/0.064 NA core and 400 μm diameter/0.44 NA cladding, which is coiled in a radius of 10 cm. Six multimode fiber-pigtailed 915 nm laser diodes were used to pump the gain fiber through a (6+1)×1 signal/pump combiner, which can provide a maximum pump power of about 2 kW. An approximately 0.75 m long passive fiber is spliced to the gain fiber for power delivery, the output end of which is angle cleaved in order to prevent parasitic feedback from Fresnel reflection.

 

Fig. 1. Architecture of the all-fiber PM amplifier.

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The achieved output power at different pump power levels is shown in Fig. 2(a), which is measured after the output beam passed through a dichroic mirror. The slope efficiency of the amplifier is 65.3% with respect to launched pump power, and the pump-limited maximum output power is 1261 W. The inset in Fig. 2(a) shows the measured far-field beam profile at the maximal operation power, and the beam quality factor M2 is measured by M2-200 s (Spiricon) to be <1.2 in both directions. Figure 2(b) shows the measured spectra (by an optical spectrum analyzer, AQ6370C Yokogawa) at full power operation, which shows that a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been achieved and shows no signs of parasitic lasing or significant levels of amplified spontaneous emission. Figure 2(c) shows the measurement of the polarization extinction rate (PER) for different pump power levels. It can be seen that the PER is above 90% in the whole range, which indicates a linearly polarized operation. The sudden degradation from 94% to 90% above 1.2 kW was caused by MI, while the slow degradation of PER as lasing power increases may be caused by the temperature increase of the fiber.

 

Fig. 2. Output characteristics of the main amplifier. (a) Output power. (b) Output spectrums. (c) PER.

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An InGaAs photodetector (150 MHz, 700–1800 nm, Thorlabs) with a pinhole of 1.5 mm diameter was put in the center of the collimated beam to monitor the onset of MI [14,15,25]. Time traces at different output powers are shown in Fig. 3(a), and the DC component of the electrical signal is removed. From Fig. 3(a), we can obtain that although the output power is still pump limited to 1.26 kW, we are operating at the MI threshold (@1.26 kW). Although the MI has set in, deterioration of beam quality has not been observed [Fig. 2(a)], which is due to the fact that the fraction of high-order mode (HOM) is relatively small at the beginning of MI [24]. It also shows that, at the onset of MI, the amplitude of the time trace is close to the same as that without MI in the time period T1 and becomes higher than that without MI in time period T2. Applying Fourier analysis on the time traces to calculate the corresponding Fourier spectra, we obtained the frequency distribution of the beam fluctuation as shown in Fig. 3(b). The frequency components of the beam fluctuations distributed in the range of 0–200 Hz at power of 1.14 kW, which means that the output beam profile is stable; however, further increasing the output power, frequency components in 0–3 kHz showed up as well as background noise increased, which indicated that the sign of the instable beam profile appeared and that the amplifiers were approaching the threshold. Similar to the observation in [26], the instability of MI has a grown process: at the start (T1), only background noise increases, which means a stable beam profile and indicates that MI may relate to noise [17]; after a few seconds (T2), frequency components show up, which indicates an unstable beam profile. After multiple power cycles near the maximum power, we observed that the threshold reduced to below 1.2 kW and was finally stabilized around 1180 W, which may due to the fiber degradation [9,27]. It is claimed in [27] that the fiber degradation, which results in the decrease of MI threshold power, is related to the color center formation commonly associated with photodarkening phenomena. The fiber degradation—photodarkening—that induces the threshold decrease of MI is hard to quantify directly: although the MI threshold power reduced, the measured output lasing power remained the same, which means that the system can be considered nearly “photodarkening free” from the practical application. This is due to the fact that the gain available in the fiber will compensate for the extra losses introduced by photodarkening [28]. Based on the aforementioned discussion, it is hard to quantify the fiber degradation directly [29]. However, the MI threshold decreasing can be considered as an indication of the degradation indirectly. If we take it as the criterion to quantify the fiber degradation, the fiber used in the experiment is degraded by 6% ((PinitialPfinal)/Pinitial).

 

Fig. 3. Fluctuation characteristics of the output beam. (a) Time traces. (b) Frequency distribution.

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3. STRATEGIES FOR SUPPRESSING MODE INSTABILITIES

A. Theoretical Model

As shown in the previous section, the linearly polarized single-mode output of the fiber laser is limited by the onset of MI. Work should be carried out to study the further power scaling of the amplifier with single-mode linearly polarized output. One way is to carry out numerical study on MI and to find a way to mitigate this phenomenon effectively. In high-power fiber laser systems, most of the fibers are weakly guided fibers, where optical fields can be well approximated by linearly polarized (LP) modes. For linearly polarized fiber lasers, the optical field of the signal propagating in the fiber is expressed in the conventional LP mode representations

E(r,ϕ,z,t)=m=0l=1Aml(z,t)ψml(r,ϕ)ej(βmlzωmlt)+c.c.,
where m and l are the azimuthal and radial mode numbers, respectively. Aml(z,t), βml, and ψml(r,ϕ) are the slowly varying mode amplitudes, propagation constants, and normalized mode profiles of the LPml mode. Assuming the case in which the fiber amplifiers are operating below or near the MI threshold, we therefore include only the fundamental mode (LP01) and one of the two degenerate LP11 modes, and the subscripts of 01 and 11 are replaced with 1 and 2 for the LP01 mode and the LP11 mode, respectively. Then the signal intensity Is can be written as
Is(r,ϕ,z,t)=2n0ε0cE(r,ϕ,z,t)E(r,ϕ,z,t)*=I0+I˜
with
I0=I11(z,t)ψ1(r,ϕ)ψ1(r,ϕ)+I22(z,t)ψ2(r,ϕ)ψ2(r,ϕ),
I˜=I12(z,t)ψ1(r,ϕ)ψ2(r,ϕ)ej(qzΩt)+I21(z,t)ψ1(r,ϕ)ψ2(r,ϕ)ej(qzΩt),
Ikl(z,t)=4n0ε0cAk(z,t)Al*(z,t),
q=β1β2,Ω=ω1ω2.
Here n0 is the refractive index of the fiber core.

The temperature distribution is governed by the heat transportation equation, which is given by

2T(r,ϕ,z,t)+Q(r,ϕ,z,t)κ=1αT(r,ϕ,z,t)t,
where α=κ/ρC, ρ is the density, C is the specific heat capacity, and κ is the thermal conductivity. Since the heat in high-power fiber amplifiers is mainly generated from the quantum defect and absorption, the volume heat-generation density Q can be approximately expressed as
Q(r,ϕ,z,t)g(r,ϕ,z,t)(vpvsvs)Is(r,ϕ,z,t),
and g(r,ϕ,z,t) is the gain of the amplifier
g(r,ϕ,z,t)=[(σsa+σse)nu(r,ϕ,z,t)σsa]NYb(r,ϕ),
where vp(s) represents the optical frequencies, σsa and σse are the signal absorption and emission cross sections, σpa and σpe are the pump absorption and emission cross sections, NYb(r,ϕ) is the doping profile, and the steady-state population inversion nμ is given in [16]. For the case in which the fiber is doped uniformly, NYb(r,ϕ) is a constant across the doping area, which is equal to the dopant concentration N0.

Assume that the fiber is water cooled; the appropriate boundary condition for the heat equation at the fiber surface is

κTr+hqT=0,
where hq is the convection coefficient for the cooling fluid. By adopting the integral-transform technique to separate variables in the cylindrical system [30], Eq. (4), combined with Eqs. (5) and (6), can be solved as
T(r,ϕ,z,t)=1πασηvm=1Jv(δmr)H(δm)t=0t[B11(ϕ,z)I11(z,t)+B22(ϕ,z)I22(z,t)+B12(ϕ,z)I12(z,t)ej(qzΩt)+B12(ϕ,z)I12*(z,t)ej(qzΩt)]eαδm2(tt)dt
with
Bkl(ϕ,z)={02πdϕ0Rg0Jv(δm,r)cosv(ϕϕ)ψk(r,ϕ)ψk(r,ϕ)1+I0/Isaturationdr,k=l02πdϕ0Rg0Jv(δm,r)cosv(ϕϕ)ψk(r,ϕ)ψl(r,ϕ)(1+I0/Isaturation)2dr,kl,
H(δm)=0RrJv2(δm,r)dr,σ=ηκ(vpvsvs),
where v=0,1,2,3 and we replace π by 2π for v=0, η is the thermal-optic coefficient, R is the radius of the inner cladding, g0 is the small signal gain, and Isaturation is the saturation intensity. Jv(·) is a Bessel function of the first kind, and δm represents the positive roots of δmJv(δmR)+hqκJv(δmR)=0. Solving the time-dependent temperature equation by the integral-transform technique is different from other models, such as solving the temperature equation using different summations of Bessel functions [18] or Green’s functions [17,19,20], or other numerical methods [13]. Considering the effective refractive index of gain from the amplifier, the total refractive index, which attributes to gain (ngn0) and nonlinearity (nNLn0), can be expressed as
n2=(n0+ng+nNL)2n02jg(r,ϕ,z,t)n0k0+2n0nNL,
where nNL is given by
nNL(r,ϕ,z,t)=ηT(r,ϕ,z,t)=h11(r,ϕ,z,t)+h22(r,ϕ,z,t)+h12(r,ϕ,z,t)ejqz+h21(r,ϕ,z,t)ejqz
with
hkl(r,ϕ,z,t)={ασπvm=1Jv(δmr)H(δm)0tBkk(ϕ,z)Ikk(z,t)eαδm2(tt)dt,k=lασπvm=1Jv(δmr)H(δm)0tBkl(ϕ,z)Ikl(z,t)eαδm2(tt)jΩtdt,kl.

Inserting Eqs. (1) and (10) into the wave equation, after very tedious but straightforward derivations, we have obtained the coupled-mode equations

|A1|2z=g(r,ϕ,z)ψ1ψ1rdrdϕ|A1|2,
|A2|2z=[g(r,ϕ,z)ψ2ψ2rdrdϕ+|A1|2χ(Ω,t)]|A2|2
with
χ(Ω)=2n0ω22c2β2Im(h¯12ψ1ψ2rdrdϕ),
h¯kl(r,ϕ,z)=ασπvm=1Jv(δmr)H(δm)Bkl(ϕ,z)αδm2jΩ.

By taking the similar derivation process in [17], we can obtain the HOM content for the quantum noise (QN) induced MI from Eq. (1), which is given as

ξ(L)ω0P1(L)2π0LP1(z)|χ(Ω0)|dzexp{0L[g(r,ϕ,z)ψ2ψ2rdrdϕ]dz+0LP1(z)χ(Ω0)dz},
where L is the length of the gain fiber. For the other case in which MI is seeded by intensity noise, we can obtain
ξ(L)ξ0exp[0Ldzg(r,ϕ,z)(ψ2ψ2ψ1ψ1)rdrdϕαcoilLcoil]+ξ042π0LP1(z)|χ(Ω0)|dzRN(Ω0)×exp[0Ldzg(r,ϕ,z)(ψ2ψ2ψ1ψ1)rdrdϕ+0LP1(z)χ(Ω0)dzαcoilLcoil],
where RN(Ω) is the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the input signal, ξ0 is the initial HOM content, αcoil is the bend-induced power loss by fiber coiling, and Lcoil is the length of the coiled length. Here bend-induced loss is taken into consideration in a simple way, and the effect of bend-induced mode distortion has not been considered. Here we achieved a semianalytical model, which is different from the numerical model in [31]. In [31], the integral-transform technique was also employed to solve the time-dependent temperature equation.

B. Numerical Results

In this section, we have calculated the MI threshold power of the amplifier based on the model. The parameters of the fiber are the same as those in the experiment, which are listed in Table 1. The fiber was doped uniformly, and NYb(r,ϕ)=N0. The initial signal power is 20 W.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of Test Amplifier

First, we calculated the MI threshold power of the amplifier. Figure 4(a) shows the HOM content versus the pump power. It is shown that the quantum-induced-MI threshold power is about 4.7 kW. However, the intensity noise of the signal (RIN=1010, which corresponds to a laser with high RIN, which yields a realistic MI threshold [32,33]) reduces the threshold to about 2 kW, which agrees well with the experimental results. The initial HOM is set to be 0.01. By reducing the intensity noise of the signal (RIN=1011), the MI threshold power can be increased by 300W, which means that measures taken to reduce the intensity noise of the input signal result in only modest improvements in the MI threshold and adding to the overall complexity of the system [34]. The influence of HOM power was also calculated in Fig. 4(b), which shows that the efforts to optimize the in-coupling of the signal have little impact on the MI threshold, which agrees with the experimental results [13].

 

Fig. 4. Threshold calculation of the fiber amplifier.

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It is reported in [35] that the MI threshold power can be increased obviously by increasing cladding diameters. This is contradictive to those reported in [11], which shows that the improvement by increasing the cladding diameter was not large enough for significant power scaling. To study the effect of cladding diameter on MI threshold power, we calculated the MI threshold pump power for different cladding diameters, which is shown in Fig. 5. The computed thresholds are seen to rise with increasing cladding diameters and the resulting increasing degree of population saturation [35]. However, for fiber with larger core diameters, the improvement becomes less significant, which explained the experimental results in [11]. Although MI threshold power can be improved by increasing cladding diameter, longer length is required for fibers with larger cladding diameter to maintain good amplifier efficiency, which makes other nonlinear effect suppression more challenging.

 

Fig. 5. Threshold pump power for different fiber cladding diameters.

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Coiling the fiber with a diameter small enough to induce mode-dependent bend losses can suppress HOM effectively [36], which can improve the MI threshold [23,37]. The threshold power of the amplifier with tight coiling was calculated in Fig. 6. Bend losses for the LP11 mode are calculated using the method of Marcuse [38]: the bending loss is 2.4dB/m for bending radius of 6.5 cm, 6dB/m for 6 cm, and 14dB/m for 5.5 cm. An additional correction factor, yielding an effective bending diameter, incorporates the material stress-optic effect [39]. In practice, only the first half of the gain fiber is coiled with small diameter, so Lcoil is set to be 6 m. These coiling radii are chosen for long-term use. This shows that tight coiling of the fiber can increase the MI threshold power significantly: when coiling at the radius of 5.5 cm, the MI threshold is three times higher than that without coiling or loose coiling, which means that tight coiling of the gain fiber is an effective method to mitigate MI in the all-fiber MOPA configuration with standard step-index LMA fiber. For the case in the experiment, MI is no longer a limitation since the onset of other nonlinear effects, such as SBS and/or SRS, should come into consideration first.

 

Fig. 6. Effect of coiling on MI threshold power.

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C. Experimental Validation

To verify our theoretical predication of the effect of coiling, we have rebuilt our fiber amplifiers with gain fiber coiled at the diameter of 12cm. Then we have an MI-free 1280 W linearly polarized single-mode laser, and all phenomena related to the onset of MI, such as temporal fluctuation and PER degradation, have vanished [as shown in Figs. 7(a) and 7(b)]. Due to the available pump power, the power scaling capabilities by the coiling method have not been fully exploited. The advantage of employing the coiling technique is that it is straightforward to implement, as most fibers are coiled in packaging anyway, and no special gain profiles are necessary to give preferential gain to fiber modes. In addition, the PER of the amplifier has also been improved to 96% at the maximal operation. The results also indicate that MI can be mitigated by designing fiber with an improved delocalization of HOM, such as chirally coupled core (CCC) fiber [40], leakage channel fibers [41], and all-solid photonic bandgap fibers [42].

 

Fig. 7. Fluctuation characteristics of the output beam after tight coiling. (a) Time trace (b) Frequency distribution.

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4. CONCLUSIONS

We have generated a high-power linearly polarized single-mode output laser from a Yb-doped PM fiber amplifier, which operated at 1064nm. The slope efficiency of the amplifier is 65.3% with respect to launched pump power, and the maximal output power is 1261 W. The M2 at full power operation is measured to be <1.2 in both directions. The linear polarization operation was deteriorated by the onset of MI above 1.2 kW. The PER is measured to be >94% without MI, which reduced to about 90% after the onset of MI. A novel theoretical model to study MI has been built up, and the numerical results agree well with the experimental observation. Various methods to improve the power scaling capability of the amplifier without MI have been studied numerically, which reveal that MI can be suppressed by proper coiling and the amplifier in the paper has the potential to deliver MI-free 3 kW output power. An additional experiment has been carried out to study the effect of coiling on MI, which rebuilt the amplifier with tighter coiling. It is shown that MI was suppressed successfully in the amplifier by tight coiling.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors acknowledge the support of Hanwei Zhang, Xiong Wang, Hailong Yu, and Baolai Yang. The research leading to these results has received funding from the program for the National Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61322505, the program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, the Innovation Foundation for Excellent Graduates in National University of Defense Technology under Grant No. B120704, and the Hunan Provincial Innovation Foundation for Postgraduate under Grant No. CX2012B035.

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36. J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, “Single mode operation of a coiled multi-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 442–444 (2000). [CrossRef]  

37. K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500 W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014). [CrossRef]  

38. D. Marcuse, “Curvature loss formula for optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216–220 (1976). [CrossRef]  

39. R. Schermer and J. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 899–909 (2007). [CrossRef]  

40. M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100 kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011). [CrossRef]  

41. T.-W. Wu, L. Dong, and H. Winful, “Bend performance of leakage channel fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 4278–4285 (2008). [CrossRef]  

42. L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. C. B. Olausson, A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, J. K. Lyngsø, J. Broeng, K. P. Hansen, A. Bjarklev, and K. Ueda, “167  W, power scalable ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1178  nm,” Opt. Express 18, 16345–16352 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Wang, J. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Gu, J. Chen, and Y. Feng, “A 100  W all-fiber linearly-polarized Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Opt. Express 20, 28373–28378 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Mo, S. Xu, X. Huang, W. Zhang, Z. Feng, D. Chen, T. Yang, and Z. Yang, “A 1014  nm linearly polarized low noise narrow linewidth single-frequency fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 12419–12423 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Liu, H. Shi, K. Liu, Y. Hou, and P. Wang, “210  W single-frequency, single-polarization, thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA,” Opt. Express 22, 13572–13578 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Samson and A. Carter, “Recent progress on power scaling narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers and their applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 41, 714–717 (2010).
  6. A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).
  7. S. Belke, F. Becker, B. Neumann, S. Ruppik, and U. Hefter, “Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 896124 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Karow, H. Tunnermann, J. Neumann, D. Kracht, and P. Wessels, “Beam quality degradation of a single frequency Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with low mode instability threshold power,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4242–4244 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 11407–11422 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instability in a high power fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 13274–13283 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Experimental study on mode instabilities in all-fiberized high-power fiber amplifiers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 020603 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Smith and J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 10180–10192 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 1944–1971 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Dong, “Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 2642–2656 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Steady-periodic method for modeling mode instability in fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 2606–2623 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Impact of gain saturation on the mode instability threshold in high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22, 11267–11278 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. W.-W. Ke, X.-J. Wang, X.-F. Bao, and X.-J. Shu, “Thermally induced mode distortion and its limit to power scaling of fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 21, 14272–14281 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Jauregui, H. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21, 19375–19386 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Maximizing the mode instability threshold of a fiber amplifier,” arXiv:1301.3489 (2013).
  24. H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21, 17285–17298 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 15710–15722 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Study of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers by detecting scattering light,” presented at International Photonics and OptoElectronics Meetings, Wuhan, China, 2014, paper FTh2F.2.
  27. M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292  W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express 20, 5742–5753 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of photodarkening on mode instabilities in high power fiber laser systems,” presented at Advanced Solid State Lasers, Shanghai, China, 2014, paper ATh2A.1.
  29. B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “High-power large-mode area optical fibers for fiber lasers and amplifiers,” in OFC/NFOEC (2008).
  30. M. N. Ozisik, Heat Conduction, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1993).
  31. I.-N. Hu, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, A. Thomas, and A. Galvanauskas, “Analytical time-dependent theory of thermally-induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860109 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Modal instability of rod fiber amplifiers: a semi-analytic approach,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860123 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612P (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, Y. Hu, Y. Kaneda, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low-noise narrow-linewidth fiber laser at 1550  nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 57–62 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Increasing mode instability thresholds of fiber amplifiers by gain saturation,” Opt. Express 21, 15168–15182 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, “Single mode operation of a coiled multi-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 442–444 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  38. D. Marcuse, “Curvature loss formula for optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216–220 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  39. R. Schermer and J. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 899–909 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  40. M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
    [Crossref]
  41. T.-W. Wu, L. Dong, and H. Winful, “Bend performance of leakage channel fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 4278–4285 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  42. L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
    [Crossref]

2014 (7)

J. Liu, H. Shi, K. Liu, Y. Hou, and P. Wang, “210  W single-frequency, single-polarization, thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA,” Opt. Express 22, 13572–13578 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Belke, F. Becker, B. Neumann, S. Ruppik, and U. Hefter, “Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 896124 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Experimental study on mode instabilities in all-fiberized high-power fiber amplifiers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 020603 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Impact of gain saturation on the mode instability threshold in high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22, 11267–11278 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612P (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (10)

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Increasing mode instability thresholds of fiber amplifiers by gain saturation,” Opt. Express 21, 15168–15182 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Mo, S. Xu, X. Huang, W. Zhang, Z. Feng, D. Chen, T. Yang, and Z. Yang, “A 1014  nm linearly polarized low noise narrow linewidth single-frequency fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 12419–12423 (2013).
[Crossref]

I.-N. Hu, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, A. Thomas, and A. Galvanauskas, “Analytical time-dependent theory of thermally-induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860109 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Modal instability of rod fiber amplifiers: a semi-analytic approach,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860123 (2013).
[Crossref]

W.-W. Ke, X.-J. Wang, X.-F. Bao, and X.-J. Shu, “Thermally induced mode distortion and its limit to power scaling of fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 21, 14272–14281 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, H. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21, 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21, 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 1944–1971 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, “Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 2642–2656 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Steady-periodic method for modeling mode instability in fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 2606–2623 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Karow, H. Tunnermann, J. Neumann, D. Kracht, and P. Wessels, “Beam quality degradation of a single frequency Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with low mode instability threshold power,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4242–4244 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instability in a high power fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 13274–13283 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Gu, J. Chen, and Y. Feng, “A 100  W all-fiber linearly-polarized Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Opt. Express 20, 28373–28378 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292  W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express 20, 5742–5753 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Smith and J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 10180–10192 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
[Crossref]

C. B. Olausson, A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, J. K. Lyngsø, J. Broeng, K. P. Hansen, A. Bjarklev, and K. Ueda, “167  W, power scalable ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1178  nm,” Opt. Express 18, 16345–16352 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Samson and A. Carter, “Recent progress on power scaling narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers and their applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 41, 714–717 (2010).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

R. Schermer and J. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1976 (1)

Afzal, R.

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Babazadeh, A.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.-F.

Becker, F.

S. Belke, F. Becker, B. Neumann, S. Ruppik, and U. Hefter, “Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 896124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Belke, S.

S. Belke, F. Becker, B. Neumann, S. Ruppik, and U. Hefter, “Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 896124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A.

Brar, K.

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

Carter, A.

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Samson and A. Carter, “Recent progress on power scaling narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers and their applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 41, 714–717 (2010).

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “High-power large-mode area optical fibers for fiber lasers and amplifiers,” in OFC/NFOEC (2008).

Chen, D.

Chen, J.

Chen, M.

Cole, J.

R. Schermer and J. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Courtney, S.

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

Dajani, I.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Vries, O.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instability in a high power fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 13274–13283 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of photodarkening on mode instabilities in high power fiber laser systems,” presented at Advanced Solid State Lasers, Shanghai, China, 2014, paper ATh2A.1.

Dilley, C.

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, “Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 2642–2656 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-W. Wu, L. Dong, and H. Winful, “Bend performance of leakage channel fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 4278–4285 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eberhardt, R.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instability in a high power fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 13274–13283 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
[Crossref]

Edgecumbe, J.

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

Eidam, T.

Feng, Y.

Feng, Z.

Foy, P.

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

Frith, G.

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “High-power large-mode area optical fibers for fiber lasers and amplifiers,” in OFC/NFOEC (2008).

Galipeau, J.

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

Galvanauskas, A.

I.-N. Hu, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, A. Thomas, and A. Galvanauskas, “Analytical time-dependent theory of thermally-induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860109 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

Goldberg, L.

Gu, G.

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

Haarlammert, N.

Hamedani Golshan, A.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hansen, K. P.

Hansen, K. R.

Hawkins, T.

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

Hefter, U.

S. Belke, F. Becker, B. Neumann, S. Ruppik, and U. Hefter, “Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 896124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heidariazar, A.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hejaz, K.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Henrie, J.

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

Honea, E.

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

Hou, Y.

Hu, I.-N.

I.-N. Hu, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, A. Thomas, and A. Galvanauskas, “Analytical time-dependent theory of thermally-induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Hu, Y.

Huang, X.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jiang, S.

Jørgensen, M. M.

M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612P (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Modal instability of rod fiber amplifiers: a semi-analytic approach,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860123 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292  W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express 20, 5742–5753 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaneda, Y.

Karow, M.

Ke, W.-W.

Kliner, A.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Kong, F.

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

Koplow, J. P.

Kracht, D.

Kuznetsov, A.

M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
[Crossref]

Lægsgaard, J.

Lafouti, M.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lanari, A.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
[Crossref]

Laurila, M.

M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612P (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Modal instability of rod fiber amplifiers: a semi-analytic approach,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860123 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292  W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express 20, 5742–5753 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Liu, C.-H.

M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, K.

Liu, Z.

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Experimental study on mode instabilities in all-fiberized high-power fiber amplifiers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 020603 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Study of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers by detecting scattering light,” presented at International Photonics and OptoElectronics Meetings, Wuhan, China, 2014, paper FTh2F.2.

Lyngsø, J. K.

Ma, P.

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Experimental study on mode instabilities in all-fiberized high-power fiber amplifiers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 020603 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Study of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers by detecting scattering light,” presented at International Photonics and OptoElectronics Meetings, Wuhan, China, 2014, paper FTh2F.2.

Machewirth, D. P.

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

Marcuse, D.

Mcclane, D.

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

Mo, S.

Modsching, N.

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of photodarkening on mode instabilities in high power fiber laser systems,” presented at Advanced Solid State Lasers, Shanghai, China, 2014, paper ATh2A.1.

Neumann, B.

S. Belke, F. Becker, B. Neumann, S. Ruppik, and U. Hefter, “Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 896124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neumann, J.

Norouzey, A.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, M.

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

Olausson, C. B.

Otto, H.

Otto, H.-J.

Ozisik, M. N.

M. N. Ozisik, Heat Conduction, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1993).

Peschel, T.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instability in a high power fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 13274–13283 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

Poozesh, R.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rekas, M.

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
[Crossref]

Rezaei Nasirabad, R.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Robin, C.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roohforouz, A.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruppik, S.

S. Belke, F. Becker, B. Neumann, S. Ruppik, and U. Hefter, “Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 896124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, K.

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

Samson, B.

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Samson and A. Carter, “Recent progress on power scaling narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers and their applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 41, 714–717 (2010).

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “High-power large-mode area optical fibers for fiber lasers and amplifiers,” in OFC/NFOEC (2008).

Savage-Leuchs, M.

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

Schermer, R.

R. Schermer and J. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, T.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instability in a high power fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 13274–13283 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, H.

Shirakawa, A.

Shu, X.-J.

Smith, A.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, J.

Smith, J. J.

Sosnowski, T.

M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
[Crossref]

Spiegelberg, C.

Stock, M. L.

M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, F.

Tabatabaei Jafari, N.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. Rezaei Nasirabad, N. Tabatabaei Jafari, A. Hamedani Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500  W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24, 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tankala, K.

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “High-power large-mode area optical fibers for fiber lasers and amplifiers,” in OFC/NFOEC (2008).

Tao, R.

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Experimental study on mode instabilities in all-fiberized high-power fiber amplifiers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 020603 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Study of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers by detecting scattering light,” presented at International Photonics and OptoElectronics Meetings, Wuhan, China, 2014, paper FTh2F.2.

Thomas, A.

I.-N. Hu, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, A. Thomas, and A. Galvanauskas, “Analytical time-dependent theory of thermally-induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsybin, I.

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
[Crossref]

Tudury, G.

M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
[Crossref]

Tunnermann, H.

Tünnermann, A.

Ueda, K.

Wang, J.

Wang, P.

Wang, X.

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Experimental study on mode instabilities in all-fiberized high-power fiber amplifiers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 020603 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Study of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers by detecting scattering light,” presented at International Photonics and OptoElectronics Meetings, Wuhan, China, 2014, paper FTh2F.2.

Wang, X.-J.

Ward, B.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wessels, P.

Winful, H.

Wirth, C.

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.-W.

Xu, S.

Yang, T.

Yang, Z.

Zeringue, C.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

I.-N. Hu, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, A. Thomas, and A. Galvanauskas, “Analytical time-dependent theory of thermally-induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, W.

Zhou, P.

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Experimental study on mode instabilities in all-fiberized high-power fiber amplifiers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 020603 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Study of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers by detecting scattering light,” presented at International Photonics and OptoElectronics Meetings, Wuhan, China, 2014, paper FTh2F.2.

Zhu, C.

I.-N. Hu, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, A. Thomas, and A. Galvanauskas, “Analytical time-dependent theory of thermally-induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Schermer and J. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 899–909 (2007).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

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[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (18)

C. B. Olausson, A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, J. K. Lyngsø, J. Broeng, K. P. Hansen, A. Bjarklev, and K. Ueda, “167  W, power scalable ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1178  nm,” Opt. Express 18, 16345–16352 (2010).
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J. Wang, J. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Gu, J. Chen, and Y. Feng, “A 100  W all-fiber linearly-polarized Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Opt. Express 20, 28373–28378 (2012).
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S. Mo, S. Xu, X. Huang, W. Zhang, Z. Feng, D. Chen, T. Yang, and Z. Yang, “A 1014  nm linearly polarized low noise narrow linewidth single-frequency fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 12419–12423 (2013).
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J. Liu, H. Shi, K. Liu, Y. Hou, and P. Wang, “210  W single-frequency, single-polarization, thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA,” Opt. Express 22, 13572–13578 (2014).
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A. Smith and J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 10180–10192 (2011).
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K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 1944–1971 (2013).
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L. Dong, “Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 2642–2656 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Steady-periodic method for modeling mode instability in fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 2606–2623 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Impact of gain saturation on the mode instability threshold in high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22, 11267–11278 (2014).
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W.-W. Ke, X.-J. Wang, X.-F. Bao, and X.-J. Shu, “Thermally induced mode distortion and its limit to power scaling of fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 21, 14272–14281 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, H. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21, 19375–19386 (2013).
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A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Increasing mode instability thresholds of fiber amplifiers by gain saturation,” Opt. Express 21, 15168–15182 (2013).
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H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21, 17285–17298 (2013).
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H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instability in a high power fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 13274–13283 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292  W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express 20, 5742–5753 (2012).
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T.-W. Wu, L. Dong, and H. Winful, “Bend performance of leakage channel fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 4278–4285 (2008).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (10)

I.-N. Hu, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, A. Thomas, and A. Galvanauskas, “Analytical time-dependent theory of thermally-induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860109 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Modal instability of rod fiber amplifiers: a semi-analytic approach,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860123 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612P (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Carter, J. Edgecumbe, D. P. Machewirth, J. Galipeau, B. Samson, K. Tankala, and M. O’Connor, “Recent progress in the development of kW-level monolithic PM-LMA fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6344, 6344F (2006).

S. Belke, F. Becker, B. Neumann, S. Ruppik, and U. Hefter, “Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 896124 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, R. Afzal, and E. Honea, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611R (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, K. Saitoh, F. Kong, P. Foy, T. Hawkins, D. Mcclane, and G. Gu, “All-solid photonic bandgap fibers for high power lasers (Invited Paper),” Proc. SPIE 8547, 85470J (2012).
[Crossref]

M. L. Stock, C.-H. Liu, A. Kuznetsov, G. Tudury, A. Galvanauskas, and T. Sosnowski, “Polarized, 100  kW peak power, high brightness nanosecond lasers based on 3C optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140U (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

B. Samson and A. Carter, “Recent progress on power scaling narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers and their applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 41, 714–717 (2010).

Other (5)

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Maximizing the mode instability threshold of a fiber amplifier,” arXiv:1301.3489 (2013).

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of photodarkening on mode instabilities in high power fiber laser systems,” presented at Advanced Solid State Lasers, Shanghai, China, 2014, paper ATh2A.1.

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “High-power large-mode area optical fibers for fiber lasers and amplifiers,” in OFC/NFOEC (2008).

M. N. Ozisik, Heat Conduction, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1993).

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Study of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers by detecting scattering light,” presented at International Photonics and OptoElectronics Meetings, Wuhan, China, 2014, paper FTh2F.2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Architecture of the all-fiber PM amplifier.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Output characteristics of the main amplifier. (a) Output power. (b) Output spectrums. (c) PER.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Fluctuation characteristics of the output beam. (a) Time traces. (b) Frequency distribution.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Threshold calculation of the fiber amplifier.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Threshold pump power for different fiber cladding diameters.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Effect of coiling on MI threshold power.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Fluctuation characteristics of the output beam after tight coiling. (a) Time trace (b) Frequency distribution.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters of Test Amplifier

Equations (22)

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E(r,ϕ,z,t)=m=0l=1Aml(z,t)ψml(r,ϕ)ej(βmlzωmlt)+c.c.,
Is(r,ϕ,z,t)=2n0ε0cE(r,ϕ,z,t)E(r,ϕ,z,t)*=I0+I˜
I0=I11(z,t)ψ1(r,ϕ)ψ1(r,ϕ)+I22(z,t)ψ2(r,ϕ)ψ2(r,ϕ),
I˜=I12(z,t)ψ1(r,ϕ)ψ2(r,ϕ)ej(qzΩt)+I21(z,t)ψ1(r,ϕ)ψ2(r,ϕ)ej(qzΩt),
Ikl(z,t)=4n0ε0cAk(z,t)Al*(z,t),
q=β1β2,Ω=ω1ω2.
2T(r,ϕ,z,t)+Q(r,ϕ,z,t)κ=1αT(r,ϕ,z,t)t,
Q(r,ϕ,z,t)g(r,ϕ,z,t)(vpvsvs)Is(r,ϕ,z,t),
g(r,ϕ,z,t)=[(σsa+σse)nu(r,ϕ,z,t)σsa]NYb(r,ϕ),
κTr+hqT=0,
T(r,ϕ,z,t)=1πασηvm=1Jv(δmr)H(δm)t=0t[B11(ϕ,z)I11(z,t)+B22(ϕ,z)I22(z,t)+B12(ϕ,z)I12(z,t)ej(qzΩt)+B12(ϕ,z)I12*(z,t)ej(qzΩt)]eαδm2(tt)dt
Bkl(ϕ,z)={02πdϕ0Rg0Jv(δm,r)cosv(ϕϕ)ψk(r,ϕ)ψk(r,ϕ)1+I0/Isaturationdr,k=l02πdϕ0Rg0Jv(δm,r)cosv(ϕϕ)ψk(r,ϕ)ψl(r,ϕ)(1+I0/Isaturation)2dr,kl,
H(δm)=0RrJv2(δm,r)dr,σ=ηκ(vpvsvs),
n2=(n0+ng+nNL)2n02jg(r,ϕ,z,t)n0k0+2n0nNL,
nNL(r,ϕ,z,t)=ηT(r,ϕ,z,t)=h11(r,ϕ,z,t)+h22(r,ϕ,z,t)+h12(r,ϕ,z,t)ejqz+h21(r,ϕ,z,t)ejqz
hkl(r,ϕ,z,t)={ασπvm=1Jv(δmr)H(δm)0tBkk(ϕ,z)Ikk(z,t)eαδm2(tt)dt,k=lασπvm=1Jv(δmr)H(δm)0tBkl(ϕ,z)Ikl(z,t)eαδm2(tt)jΩtdt,kl.
|A1|2z=g(r,ϕ,z)ψ1ψ1rdrdϕ|A1|2,
|A2|2z=[g(r,ϕ,z)ψ2ψ2rdrdϕ+|A1|2χ(Ω,t)]|A2|2
χ(Ω)=2n0ω22c2β2Im(h¯12ψ1ψ2rdrdϕ),
h¯kl(r,ϕ,z)=ασπvm=1Jv(δmr)H(δm)Bkl(ϕ,z)αδm2jΩ.
ξ(L)ω0P1(L)2π0LP1(z)|χ(Ω0)|dzexp{0L[g(r,ϕ,z)ψ2ψ2rdrdϕ]dz+0LP1(z)χ(Ω0)dz},
ξ(L)ξ0exp[0Ldzg(r,ϕ,z)(ψ2ψ2ψ1ψ1)rdrdϕαcoilLcoil]+ξ042π0LP1(z)|χ(Ω0)|dzRN(Ω0)×exp[0Ldzg(r,ϕ,z)(ψ2ψ2ψ1ψ1)rdrdϕ+0LP1(z)χ(Ω0)dzαcoilLcoil],

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