Abstract

A tunable plasmonic perfect absorber with a tuning range of 650nm is realized by introducing a 20 nm thick phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 layer into the metal–dielectric–metal configuration. The absorption at the plasmonic resonance is kept above 0.96 across the whole tuning range. In this work we study this extraordinary optical response numerically and reveal the geometric conditions which support this phenomenon. This work shows a promising route to achieve tunable plasmonic devices for multi-band optical modulation, communication, and thermal imaging.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

1. INTRODUCTION

Noble metals, such as copper, silver, and gold, are excellent reflectors in infrared (IR) regime. By patterning such metals in nanoscale, strong absorption can be produced due to the excitation of plasmonic resonance [110]. Among the wide range of designs, the one-side patterned metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures have shown absorption up to 0.99, where electromagnetic energy could be efficiently confined in the sandwiched layer [2]. This extraordinary property could be promising in a variety of applications, for instance, optical modulation, communication, and thermal imaging. Unfortunately, the optical response from this plasmonic platform is fixed, which is determined by its geometric parameters and material properties. Recently, doped semiconductors have been used to replace the insulating layer. With the tunable conductivity associated with these materials upon external electric/heat stimulus, the plasmonic resonance can be spectrally shifted [3]. However, a significant decline in absorption is observed as the resonance is tuned. Together with the limited tuning range, the drawbacks severely affect the optical performance of these devices.

Phase-change materials, such as VO2 and Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), have also been demonstrated in both nonplasmonic [11,12] and plasmonic [1316] tunable absorbers. Particularly, GST receives enormous attentions due to its nonvolatile property at room temperature and the large contrast in refractive index between its different crystallization states [1720]. Nevertheless, the reported phase-change-material absorbers still suffer from a noticeable drop in absorption efficiency during spectral tuning. In this work, we hybrid a 20 nm thick GST layer into the perfect absorber design and demonstrate that by carefully controlling the thickness of the insulator layer and the lattice size, perfect absorption can be maintained while the resonant wavelength is shifted. The GST layer is sandwiched between the gold nanodisk arrays and the SiO2 insulating layer, serving as a tunable dielectric environment for the nanodisk array. By varying the crystallization level of GST, the plasmonic resonance of the structure can be continuously tuned in a large range of 650 nm. The absorption is kept above 0.96 and the Q-factor of the absorption peak is maintained above 4 across the entire tuning range. This highly efficient tunable plasmonic absorber is promising in applications for multi-band optical communication and thermal imaging etc.

2. DESIGN AND SIMULATION

Figure 1 schematically shows the structure of the proposed tunable perfect absorber. The two-dimensional (2D) gold disk array is on the top of the GST thin film. A layer of SiO2 insulating spacer is sandwiched between the GST film and the metal mirror at the bottom. The disk array is arranged in a square lattice, so that the optical response from this structure is polarization-independent. To limit the number of variables in this work, we fix the thickness of the GST layer to be 20 nm; the diameter and the height of the gold disks are 300 and 20 nm, respectively.

 

Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the tunable perfect absorber structure. GST phase-change thin film is sandwiched between the Au disk array and the SiO2 insulating layer. Broadband plane wave polarized in x-axis is normally incident on the Au disk array. Au disks have a diameter of 300 nm and a thickness of 20 nm. GST layer is 20 nm thick.

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To analyze this plasmonic system, a numerical model was constructed by using the commercial finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) software from Lumerical Solutions. A broadband plane wave polarized in x-axis is used to excite the structure at normal incidence. Periodic boundary conditions are applied to a unit cell in x- and y-directions. The dielectric functions of gold and glass are obtained from the experimental data of [21]. The complex refractive indices of GST at amorphous and crystalline phases are obtained from [22,23]. Since the crystallization process of GST is dominated by the random distributed crystalline nucleus that are formed once the temperature is above the critical point (150°C), we assume that the GST thin film at the intermediate phases is composed of different proportions of amorphous and crystalline molecules [24]. The effective dielectric constant of GST in the intermediate phases can be estimated by the effective medium theories [25]. Based on the Lorentz–Lorenz equation, the effective permittivity of GST ϵeff(λ) at any crystallization level is estimated as

ϵeff(λ)1ϵeff(λ)+2=m×ϵc(λ)1ϵc(λ)+2+(1m)×ϵa(λ)1ϵa(λ)+2,
where m denotes the crystallization level of the GST thin film ranging from 0 to 1; λ is the wavelength in free space; and ϵa(λ) and ϵc(λ) are the permittivities of GST in the crystalline and amorphous phases, respectively. The permittivity ϵ(λ) and the complex refractive index n(λ)+ik(λ) are related by ϵ(λ)=n(λ)+ik(λ).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

To begin the discussion about the tunable perfect absorber, a typical configuration with lattice constant a=800nm and the thickness of SiO2 layer t=75nm is illustrated as an example. The evolution of the absorption spectrum as the GST crystallization level varies from 0% (amorphous phase) to 100% (crystalline phase) of this structure is shown in Fig. 2. The absorption is calculated as 1−reflection−transmission, with transmission being equal to zero because of the thick metal mirror. Two sets of absorption peaks are identified in Fig. 2, one below 2 μm shaded in gray color and the other above 2 μm. Since the crystalline GST has a larger refractive index compared to its amorphous phase, both the peaks shift significantly for a range about 650 nm as the crystallization level of GST is varied.

 

Fig. 2. Absorption spectra of the tunable perfect absorber in a variety of crystallization levels between the amorphous phase (0%) and crystalline phase (100%).

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The nature of the two sets of absorption peaks can be revealed by studying the near-field intensity distribution at the corresponding peak positions in the spectrum. Without the loss of generality, the structure with 0% crystallized GST is investigated. Figure 3(a) shows the cross section of electric intensity in the xy plane that is 10 nm above the GST layer at the second peak (λ2μm), illustrating a clear pattern of dipole resonance. For comparison, the electric intensity at the first peak (λ1.2μm) with the same color range is shown in Fig. 3(a), inset. No obvious hot spots can be identified at the first peak, suggesting that the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is only excited on the gold disk at the second peak instead of the first peak.

 

Fig. 3. (a) Enhancement of electric field intensity at the second peak in the xy cross section at 10 nm above the GST layer; (b) enhancement of electric field intensity at the second peak in the xz cross section along the diameter of the disk; (c) enhancement of magnetic field intensity at the second peak in the xz cross section along the diameter of the disk. Main panels are extracted from the structure with 0% crystallized GST. Insets, corresponding near-field enhancements at the first peak.

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Further analyses of the near-field electric intensity at the second peak in the xz plane reveals that the localized electric fields from the dipole resonance tunnel through the underneath GST/SiO2 layers and extend to the mirror in the z direction, which is shown in Fig. 3(b). The electromagnetic coupling between the Au disk and the mirror gives rise to a strongly confined magnetic resonance in the sandwiched region [Fig. 3(c)]. The combined electric and magnetic responses result in impedance matching between the free space and the demonstrated structure, which manifests as near-zero reflection or near unit absorption. For the sake of completeness, the corresponding near fields at the first peak are plotted in Figs. 3(b) and 3(c), insets. The weak localized fields in the GST/SiO2 layers suggest that this absorption peak can be attributed to the destructive interference from the multi-layer structure.

We focus mainly on the second absorption peak because of the associated interesting properties, such as the large localized field enhancement and the tunable near-unity absorption. In Fig. 4, the absorption value at the second peak is reported as a function of the GST crystallization level, together with the corresponding quality factors (Q-factors). The maximum absorption is found to be 0.999 when GST is 60% crystallized. Although the absorption decreases at other crystallization levels, the minimum absorption is still reasonably high, which is 0.965 when GST is completely crystallized. The Q-factor, defined as the ratio between the central wavelength and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM), declines from 6 to 4 as GST is changed from the amorphous phase to the crystalline phase. This decreasing trend agrees with the expectation from the increased ohmic loss associated with the crystalline GST, which is manifested in the broadening of the absorption peak.

 

Fig. 4. Maximum absorption at the second peak and the quality factor of the second peak as functions of crystallization level.

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In the previous discussion, we investigated a specific example of the tunable perfect absorber and demonstrated its extraordinary optical response. Now, we will discuss the geometry dependence of this perfect absorption, namely varying the lattice constant a and the thickness of the SiO2 layer t, which serves as a designing guideline for further research of this platform.

In Fig. 5, we report the 2D color maps showing the absorption at the plasmonic resonance (seco peak) as functions of the lattice constant a and the thickness of SiO2 t for both the amorphous and crystalline phases. The range of the color bar is set in a way that any absorption value larger than 0.97 appears as bright yellow while any value below 0.95 is shown in dark blue. A band highlighting the combinations of a and t which result in more than 0.97 absorption can be clearly seen in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) for the two GST phases. Both bands in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) share a similar trend in that a and t increase or decrease together to maintain the “perfect” absorption. Similar conclusions were obtained in terahertz spectrum based on the circuit models from the previous studies of the perfect absorber [26,27]. However, the change of refractive index in the GST layer from the amorphous to crystalline phase shifts the band upward to a region with larger SiO2 thickness. Therefore, finding the suitable pairs of a and t translates into locating an overlapping region that is in yellow color from these two color maps. In this context we define the minimum acceptable absorption to be 0.96, and the red dashed lines mark the overlapping region with more than 0.96 absorption in the both phases. The example demonstrated previously with a=800nm and t=75nm falls inside the enclosed area. Indeed, the change of the refractive index of the GST layer not only shifts the resonant wavelength of the Au disks, it also modifies the impedance of the structure from the circuit-based view [2628]. However, if the GST layer and the SiO2 layer are regarded as a single component in the circuit model, the difference caused by the crystallization variation of the GST layer is averaged by the fixed SiO2 layer, limiting the overall impedance change of the whole structure due to GST. This can be confirmed by the region marked by the red dashed lines in Fig. 5, where a larger thickness of SiO2 corresponds to a wider range of lattice constant which satisfies the perfect absorption (0.96).

 

Fig. 5. 2D color maps present the absorption at the plasmonic resonance as functions of lattice constant (x-axis) and the thickness of SiO2 layer (y-axis) for the following; (a) amorphous GST; (b) crystalline GST.

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4. CONCLUSIONS

A wavelength tunable perfect absorber hybridized with GST phase-change thin film has been demonstrated. By controlling the crystallization level of the 20 nm thick GST layer, the absorption peak due to the plasmonic resonance can be gradually shifted up to 650 nm. The absorption is maintained above 0.96 and the Q-factor is more than 4 across the tuning regime. Such a hybrid plasmonic system is easily implemented by current fabrication techniques. Moreover, GST has long been used in optical disks and phase-change memories; it is well-known for the nonvolatile property at room temperature and short tuning time (30ns) upon external stimulus. This tunable perfect absorber can be combined with a pump laser to position the absorption peak at any specific wavelength by controlling the energy and duration of the laser pulse, achieving real-time wavelength tuning and intensity modulation. This work can lead to potential applications in multi-band optical modulation, communication, and thermal imaging.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Y. C. and M. H. acknowledge the support from the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Competitive Research Program (CRP Award No. NRF-CRP10-2012-04). S. A. M. acknowledges funding from the Leverhulme trust and the EPSRC Active Plasmonics Programm. X. Li and X. Luo acknowledge funding provided by the 973 Program of China (No. 2013CBA01700) and the Chinese Natural Sciences Grant (61138002 and 61307043).

REFERENCES

1. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008). [CrossRef]  

2. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef]  

3. H. Zhou, F. Ding, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Terahertz metamaterial modulators based on absorption,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 119, 449–460 (2011). [CrossRef]  

4. B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Q. Hao, B. Kiraly, I.-C. Khoo, S. Chen, and T. J. Huang, “Polarization-independent dual-band infrared perfect absorber based on a metal-dielectric-metal elliptical nanodisk array,” Opt. Express 19, 15221–15228 (2011). [CrossRef]  

5. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011). [CrossRef]  

6. J. Hendrickson, J. Guo, B. Zhang, W. Buchwald, and R. Soref, “Wideband perfect light absorber at midwave infrared using multiplexed metal structures,” Opt. Lett. 37, 371–373 (2012). [CrossRef]  

7. Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012). [CrossRef]  

8. M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009). [CrossRef]  

9. S. Dai, D. Zhao, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, “Double-sided polarization-independent plasmonic absorber at near-infrared region,” Opt. Express 21, 13125–13133 (2013). [CrossRef]  

10. J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014). [CrossRef]  

11. M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012). [CrossRef]  

12. P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014). [CrossRef]  

13. Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012). [CrossRef]  

14. T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Rapid phase transition of a phase-change metamaterial perfect absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1101–1110 (2013). [CrossRef]  

15. T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, and M. J. Cryan, “Mid-infrared tunable polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1580–1585 (2013). [CrossRef]  

16. T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3955 (2014).

17. N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998). [CrossRef]  

18. N. Yamada, “Development of materials for third generation optical storage media,” in Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications, S. Raoux and M. Wuttig, eds. (Springer, 2009), Chap. 10, pp. 199–226.

19. N. Yamada, “Origin, secret, and application of the ideal phase-change material GeSbTe,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1837–1842 (2012). [CrossRef]  

20. Y. G. Chen, T. S. Kao, B. Ng, X. Li, X. G. Luo, B. Luk’yanchuk, S. A. Maier, and M. H. Hong, “Hybrid phase-change plasmonic crystals for active tuning of lattice resonances,” Opt. Express 21, 13691–13698 (2013). [CrossRef]  

21. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 of Academic Press Handbook Series (Academic, 1985).

22. J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008). [CrossRef]  

23. K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008). [CrossRef]  

24. U. Russo, D. Ielmini, and A. Lacaita, “Analytical modeling of chalcogenide crystallization for PCM data-retention extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2769–2777 (2007). [CrossRef]  

25. N. V. Voshchinnikov, G. Videen, and T. Henning, “Effective medium theories for irregular fluffy structures: aggregation of small particles,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4065–4072 (2007). [CrossRef]  

26. M. P. Hokmabadi, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Design and analysis of perfect terahertz metamaterial absorber by a novel dynamic circuit model,” Opt. Express 21, 16455–16465 (2013). [CrossRef]  

27. F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1201–1209 (2013). [CrossRef]  

28. D. Zhu, M. Bosman, and J. K. W. Yang, “A circuit model for plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 22, 9809–9819 (2014). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Zhou, F. Ding, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Terahertz metamaterial modulators based on absorption,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 119, 449–460 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Q. Hao, B. Kiraly, I.-C. Khoo, S. Chen, and T. J. Huang, “Polarization-independent dual-band infrared perfect absorber based on a metal-dielectric-metal elliptical nanodisk array,” Opt. Express 19, 15221–15228 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Hendrickson, J. Guo, B. Zhang, W. Buchwald, and R. Soref, “Wideband perfect light absorber at midwave infrared using multiplexed metal structures,” Opt. Lett. 37, 371–373 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Dai, D. Zhao, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, “Double-sided polarization-independent plasmonic absorber at near-infrared region,” Opt. Express 21, 13125–13133 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Rapid phase transition of a phase-change metamaterial perfect absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1101–1110 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, and M. J. Cryan, “Mid-infrared tunable polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1580–1585 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3955 (2014).
  17. N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. Yamada, “Development of materials for third generation optical storage media,” in Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications, S. Raoux and M. Wuttig, eds. (Springer, 2009), Chap. 10, pp. 199–226.
  19. N. Yamada, “Origin, secret, and application of the ideal phase-change material GeSbTe,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1837–1842 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. G. Chen, T. S. Kao, B. Ng, X. Li, X. G. Luo, B. Luk’yanchuk, S. A. Maier, and M. H. Hong, “Hybrid phase-change plasmonic crystals for active tuning of lattice resonances,” Opt. Express 21, 13691–13698 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 of Academic Press Handbook Series (Academic, 1985).
  22. J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. U. Russo, D. Ielmini, and A. Lacaita, “Analytical modeling of chalcogenide crystallization for PCM data-retention extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2769–2777 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. V. Voshchinnikov, G. Videen, and T. Henning, “Effective medium theories for irregular fluffy structures: aggregation of small particles,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4065–4072 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. P. Hokmabadi, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Design and analysis of perfect terahertz metamaterial absorber by a novel dynamic circuit model,” Opt. Express 21, 16455–16465 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1201–1209 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Zhu, M. Bosman, and J. K. W. Yang, “A circuit model for plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 22, 9809–9819 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3955 (2014).

D. Zhu, M. Bosman, and J. K. W. Yang, “A circuit model for plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 22, 9809–9819 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

2012 (5)

Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yamada, “Origin, secret, and application of the ideal phase-change material GeSbTe,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1837–1842 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Hendrickson, J. Guo, B. Zhang, W. Buchwald, and R. Soref, “Wideband perfect light absorber at midwave infrared using multiplexed metal structures,” Opt. Lett. 37, 371–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. Zhou, F. Ding, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Terahertz metamaterial modulators based on absorption,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 119, 449–460 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Q. Hao, B. Kiraly, I.-C. Khoo, S. Chen, and T. J. Huang, “Polarization-independent dual-band infrared perfect absorber based on a metal-dielectric-metal elliptical nanodisk array,” Opt. Express 19, 15221–15228 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

U. Russo, D. Ielmini, and A. Lacaita, “Analytical modeling of chalcogenide crystallization for PCM data-retention extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2769–2777 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. V. Voshchinnikov, G. Videen, and T. Henning, “Effective medium theories for irregular fluffy structures: aggregation of small particles,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4065–4072 (2007).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998).
[Crossref]

Akahira, N.

N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baek, S. H.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bosman, M.

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Buchwald, W.

Cao, T.

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y. G.

Chen, Z.

Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Costa, F.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M. J.

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

Da, S.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

Diem, M.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, F.

H. Zhou, F. Ding, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Terahertz metamaterial modulators based on absorption,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 119, 449–460 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fang, N. X.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fung, K. H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genovesi, S.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

Hao, Q.

He, S.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, F. Ding, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Terahertz metamaterial modulators based on absorption,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 119, 449–460 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hendrickson, J.

Henning, T.

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ho, G. W.

J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hokmabadi, M. P.

Hong, M.

J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, M. H.

Hosseini, P.

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, T. J.

Ielmini, D.

U. Russo, D. Ielmini, and A. Lacaita, “Analytical modeling of chalcogenide crystallization for PCM data-retention extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2769–2777 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, F. Ding, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Terahertz metamaterial modulators based on absorption,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 119, 449–460 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jing, Y.

Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Juarez, L. F.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kang, T. D.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y. S.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kao, T. S.

J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Chen, T. S. Kao, B. Ng, X. Li, X. G. Luo, B. Luk’yanchuk, S. A. Maier, and M. H. Hong, “Hybrid phase-change plasmonic crystals for active tuning of lattice resonances,” Opt. Express 21, 13691–13698 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kawahara, K.

N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998).
[Crossref]

Khang, Y. H.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I.-C.

Kim, C. K.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. J.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. M.

Kiraly, B.

Koschny, T.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kremers, S.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kung, P.

Lacaita, A.

U. Russo, D. Ielmini, and A. Lacaita, “Analytical modeling of chalcogenide crystallization for PCM data-retention extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2769–2777 (2007).
[Crossref]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. Y.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lencer, D.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Li, X.

J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Chen, T. S. Kao, B. Ng, X. Li, X. G. Luo, B. Luk’yanchuk, S. A. Maier, and M. H. Hong, “Hybrid phase-change plasmonic crystals for active tuning of lattice resonances,” Opt. Express 21, 13691–13698 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Long, Y.

Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Luo, F.

J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, X. G.

Ma, H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

Manara, G.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matsunaga, T.

N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miyagawa, N.

N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Monorchio, A.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ng, B.

Ohta, H.

N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998).
[Crossref]

Otoba, M.

N. Yamada, M. Otoba, K. Kawahara, N. Miyagawa, H. Ohta, N. Akahira, and T. Matsunaga, “Phase-change optical disk having a nitride interface layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2104–2110 (1998).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
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E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 of Academic Press Handbook Series (Academic, 1985).

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J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qazilbash, M. M.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
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Qiu, M.

Ramanathan, S.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
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Robertson, J.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref]

Russo, U.

U. Russo, D. Ielmini, and A. Lacaita, “Analytical modeling of chalcogenide crystallization for PCM data-retention extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2769–2777 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
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Sharma, D.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
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Shportko, K.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
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Simpson, R. E.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
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Soref, R.

Soukoulis, C.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
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Suh, D. S.

J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Teng, J.

J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
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Voshchinnikov, N. V.

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T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3955 (2014).

T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Rapid phase transition of a phase-change metamaterial perfect absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1101–1110 (2013).
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J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, T. D. Kang, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, T. Y. Lee, D. S. Suh, K. J. Kim, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Khang, L. F. Juarez, S. Da, and S. H. Wei, “Optical properties of (GeTe, Sb2Te3) pseudobinary thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, Q.

Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilbert, D. S.

Woda, M.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wright, C. D.

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wuttig, M.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
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Xu, J.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
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N. Yamada, “Origin, secret, and application of the ideal phase-change material GeSbTe,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1837–1842 (2012).
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N. Yamada, “Development of materials for third generation optical storage media,” in Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications, S. Raoux and M. Wuttig, eds. (Springer, 2009), Chap. 10, pp. 199–226.

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J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
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Yang, J. K. W.

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Q. Wen, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Long, Y. Jing, Y. Lin, and P. Zhang, “A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films,” J. Phys. D 45, 235106 (2012).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
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J. Yang, F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
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Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
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N. Yamada, “Development of materials for third generation optical storage media,” in Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications, S. Raoux and M. Wuttig, eds. (Springer, 2009), Chap. 10, pp. 199–226.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the tunable perfect absorber structure. GST phase-change thin film is sandwiched between the Au disk array and the SiO2 insulating layer. Broadband plane wave polarized in x-axis is normally incident on the Au disk array. Au disks have a diameter of 300 nm and a thickness of 20 nm. GST layer is 20 nm thick.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Absorption spectra of the tunable perfect absorber in a variety of crystallization levels between the amorphous phase (0%) and crystalline phase (100%).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Enhancement of electric field intensity at the second peak in the xy cross section at 10 nm above the GST layer; (b) enhancement of electric field intensity at the second peak in the xz cross section along the diameter of the disk; (c) enhancement of magnetic field intensity at the second peak in the xz cross section along the diameter of the disk. Main panels are extracted from the structure with 0% crystallized GST. Insets, corresponding near-field enhancements at the first peak.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Maximum absorption at the second peak and the quality factor of the second peak as functions of crystallization level.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. 2D color maps present the absorption at the plasmonic resonance as functions of lattice constant (x-axis) and the thickness of SiO2 layer (y-axis) for the following; (a) amorphous GST; (b) crystalline GST.

Equations (1)

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ϵeff(λ)1ϵeff(λ)+2=m×ϵc(λ)1ϵc(λ)+2+(1m)×ϵa(λ)1ϵa(λ)+2,

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