Abstract

A compact saturable absorber mirror (SAM) based on few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoplatelets was fabricated and successfully used as an efficient saturable absorber (SA) for the passively Q-switched solid-state laser at 1 μm wavelength. Pulses as short as 182 ns were obtained from a ytterbium-doped (Yb:LGGG) bulk laser Q-switched by the MoS2 SAM, which we believe to be the shortest one ever achieved from the MoS2 SAs-based Q-switched bulk lasers. A maximum average output power of 0.6 W was obtained with a slope efficiency of 24%, corresponding to single pulse energy up to 1.8 μJ. In addition, the simultaneous dual-wavelength Q-switching at 1025.2 and 1028.1 nm has been successfully achieved. The results indicate the promising potential of few-layer MoS2 nanoplatelets as nonlinear optical switches for achieving efficient pulsed bulk lasers.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

1. INTRODUCTION

For the generation of nanosecond pulses and subnanosecond pulses, passive Q-switching (QS) and mode locking by incorporation of saturable absorbers (SAs) have been extensively employed as a consequence of their excellent mechanical stability and compactness. The SA plays a key role in periodically modulating the intracavity loss and turning the continuous-wave (CW) laser into pulse trains. Cr4+:YAG as a powerful SA has been widely used in solid-state lasers, while it has some limitations such as the relatively high cost. The application of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) as Q-switchers is limited because of their complicated and expensive manufacturing technology and narrow operation waveband. Thanks to the excellent saturable absorption properties and high thermal stability, low-dimensional carbon nanostructures have emerged as promising SAs in recent years [14]. With graphene-based SAs, ultrafast pulse generation in the wavelength range between 0.8 and 2.5 μm has been realized [511]. As for the graphene-based QS operation, systematic studies in the spectral region of 0.9 to 2 μm are also performed with impressive results given out [1216]. The success of graphene being applied in pulsed lasers motivates the exploration of other graphene-like two-dimensional (2D) materials. Recently, a rising Dirac material called topological insulators (TIs) with an insulating bulk state and gapless Dirac-type surface/edge has attracted great interest in condensed-matter physics, which has been verified with broadband saturable absorption properties experimentally [1719]. Utilizing the saturable absorption of TI, Tang et al. obtained pulses with pulse widths of 6.3 μs from an Er:YAG bulk laser by using a Bi2Te3 SA [20]. Using a Bi2Se3 SA and a Nd:YVO4 crystal, Q-switched pulse widths as short as 250 ns are achieved, which are the shortest ones from the TI-based Q-switched lasers [21]. In the fiber lasers, TI-based SA devices also demonstrate promising characteristics for realizing pulsed lasers [2225].

In addition, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a typical transition-metal dichalcogenide is now under continuously rising attention due to its thickness-dependent electronic and optical properties. Unlike graphene, which possesses very weak second-order nonlinearity, few-layer MoS2 shows an interesting layer-dependent [26,27] or orientation-dependent second-order nonlinearity [28], determined by the unique symmetry of its lattice structure. The MoS2 dispersions have shown stronger saturable absorption responses than graphene dispersions [29]. Furthermore, it was interesting to note, by introducing suitable defects in MoS2, the bandgap of MoS2 atomic layers decrease to 0.26 eV, corresponding to an absorption edge up to about 4.7 μm [30]. With broadband few-layer MoS2 as SAs, passively Q-switched and ultrafast lasers have been realized [3036]. Zhang et al. reported a MoS2-based optical fiber SA device that fits the mode-locking operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser and experimentally generates nanosecond dissipative soliton pulses at 1054 nm [32]. At 1.5 μm wavelength region, the ultrashort pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by multilayer MoS2-based SAs were also demonstrated [33,34]. In bulk lasers employing the MoS2 samples as SAs, a passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser at a wavelength of 1.06 μm has been realized [30], from which the minimum pulse duration, maximum output power, and maximum pulse energy of 970 ns, 227 mW, and 0.31 μJ were obtained, respectively. Moreover, the MoS2 samples were prepared with the pulsed laser deposition technique by employing an expensive and complicated instrument. In addition, Xu et al. reported a three-layer MoS2 Q-switched Nd:YAP laser at 1079.5 nm [35]. A maximum average output power of 0.26 W was obtained with a slope efficiency of 10.6%. The maximum pulse energy and the shortest pulse width were 1.1 μJ and 227 ns, respectively.

Here, a compact MoS2-based saturable absorber mirror (SAM) was fabricated and successfully employed in realizing a diode-pumped passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped (Yb:LGGG) bulk laser. The generated pulses with the shortest pulse width of 182 ns and the highest single pulse energy of 1.8 μJ hold records among the MoS2 SA-based Q-switched solid-state lasers that have been reported, to our knowledge. The corresponding slope efficiency of the passively Q-switched laser could reach 24%. In addition, the simultaneous dual-wavelength QS at 1025.2 and 1028.1 nm has been successfully achieved. The results here suggest that few-layer MoS2 is an efficient Q-switch for achieving short solid-state laser pulses in nanosecond regime.

2. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MoS2

Single or multiple layers of MoS2 flakes were exfoliated from commercially available crystals of molybdenite (SPI Supplied Brand Moly Disulfide) using the scotch-tape micromechanical cleavage technique method pioneered for the production of graphene [37,38]. The MoS2 sheets were dispersed in an ethanol solution. These MoS2 sheets can be directly deposited onto varieties of substrates by the spin-coating method. To confirm that the bulk MoS2 was exfoliated into a few-layer structure, we measured the Raman spectroscopy of our sample, as shown in Fig. 1. The two characteristic peaks E2g1 and A1g of our sample occurred at 382 and 405cm1. The red shift of the shear mode (E2g1) compared with bulk MoS2 implied a successful exfoliation of the bulk MoS2 [39].

 

Fig. 1. Raman spectra of the exfoliated MoS2.

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A piece of quartz was employed as the substrate in this work. The dielectric coatings consisting of dozens of SiO2/TiO2 thin layers with a high refractive index contrast were deposited on it. These thin polymer layers were essential to modify the reflectivity of the substrate to 95% at 1025 nm with a 15 nm band. The MoS2 solution followed by 30 min sonication was spin coated onto it and then dried in a vacuum oven at 100°C for 24 h. By applying these steps, a compact MoS2-based SAM was successfully fabricated.

To meet the requirement of stable pulsed solid-state lasers, the area of MoS2 should cover the oscillating modes. Figure 2 demonstrates the morphology of MoS2 sheets, which are spin-coated on the mica substrate with two different concentrations of MoS2 dispersions (0.08 and 0.2mg/ml) taken by an atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface morphology shows clearly that MoS2 flakes reunite easily at the high concentration case (0.2mg/ml). In order to obtain uniform and thinner film, the concentration of MoS2 dispersion for use in all other tests was diluted to 0.08mg/ml. In this situation, it is can be seen that the average thickness of the film is about 10 nm. By assuming that the height of a single layer is 0.65 nm [37] and the MoS2 layers bond via the Van der Waals interaction, the average number of layers in the film is calculated to be 15. According to the previous results, the indirect bandgap of the 15-layer MoS2 is 0.87eV, which corresponds to an absorption edge up to 1.4 μm [40]. Figure 3(a) shows the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the as-prepared MoS2 nanosheets. The result indicates that MoS2 has a good distribution uniformity on the quartz substrate, and it is in good agreement with the AFM images. The balanced twin detector technology was used for the measurement of saturable absorption of the MoS2 sample on an uncoated quartz [41]. A homemade passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with the pulse duration of 15 ps and wavelength of 1.06 μm is used as the pump source. Figure 3(b) shows the nonlinear transmission of the MoS2 sample. The modulation depth of our MoS2 SA is estimated to be 9.7% at 1 μm. Considering the Fresnel reflection loss of about 8% for both sides of the pure quartz, the nonsaturable loss of our SA was calculated to be 28.8%.

 

Fig. 2. AFM scan image of the MoS2 surface and the typical height profiles of MoS2 thin films.

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Fig. 3. (a) SEM image of MoS2 thin film. (b) Relation between transmittance of MoS2 samples and input power with the wavelength of 1 μm.

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3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A 25 mm long, standard two-mirror resonator was used to evaluate the performance of the MoS2 SAM. The uncoated 3 mm long Yb:(LuxGd1x)3Ga5O12 (Yb:LGGG) crystal with a square aperture of 4mm×4mm and 6% Yb concentration was employed as the gain medium. The pump source was a fiber-coupled laser diode at 935 nm, with a 400 μm fiber diameter. The output beam was reimaged into the gain medium with 200 μm radius by an optical collimation system. The crystal was cooled with water at a constant temperature of 13 °C.

Initially, we investigated the performance of the CW Yb:LGGG laser by replacing the MoS2 SAM with a plane quartz reflector with 5% transmittance around 1025 nm. The average output power was plotted in Fig. 4 as a function of the absorbed pump power. The laser oscillation was realized at the threshold pump power of 0.98 W. 1.8 W output power was obtained under the absorbed pump power of 3.85 W, resulting in a slope efficiency of 63.8%. Noise-like pulses were accidentally observed in this free-running regime, which should account for the intracavity intensity fluctuation and the Kerr-lens effect of the gain medium. It was noted that careful cavity alignment did not help much in stabilizing the pulses.

 

Fig. 4. Average output power versus incident pump power for continuous wave and QS operation. Inset: Configuration of the MoS2 Q-switched Yb:LGGG laser.

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When the MoS2 SAM was used to substitute the quartz reflector, as expected, the laser was switched from above free running to QS operation as soon as the absorbed pump power exceeded the threshold of 1.65 W. The relationship between the average output power and absorbed pump power is plotted in Fig. 4. It can be seen that the average output power increased linearly with the incident pump power. No pump saturation was observed even if the incident pump power increased to 3.85 W. Under this absorbed pump power, an average output power of 0.6 W was obtained, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 24%. The pulse width and repetition rate depending on the absorbed pumped power were recorded by a digital oscilloscope and presented in Fig. 5. The pulse width presented a rapid drop from 820 ns to a minimum data of 182 ns in pulse width with the increase of the pump power from the threshold to 3.85 W, while an increase in repetition rate from 94 to 333 kHz occurred.

 

Fig. 5. Pulse width and repetition rate versus absorbed pump power for QS operation.

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We believe the 182 ns pulse, as shown in Fig. 6, to be the shortest one ever reported for the passively Q-switched bulk lasers using MoS2-based SAs. The maximum single pulse energy of 1.8 μJ was achieved under the incident pump power of 3.85 W, which was higher than any previous result [30,35]. The variations of the pulse repetition rates with pump power are shown in Fig. 7. The pulse stability in the experiment seems not perfect. We think the possible reasons are as follows: (1) the inhomogeneity of SA; (2) the simple plane–plane cavity structure, which induced some instability; (3) the thermal accumulation in the SA. Therefore, we believe that the stability could be improved by optimizing the quality of SA and the design of laser cavity.

 

Fig. 6. 182 ns Q-switched pulse profile under the incident pump power of 3.85 W.

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Fig. 7. Pulse trains of MoS2 Q-switched Yb:LGGG laser under the different incident pump power.

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Figure 8(a) exhibits a typical output dual-wavelength spectrum at a pump power of 3.85 W. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first work realizing a simultaneous dual-wavelength Q-switched laser operation based on the MoS2 SA. For a homogeneous broadening laser system, it would be difficult to realize multiwavelength operation without any spectral filtering, because the oscillating laser mode will consume the same inversion population. However, the LGGG host crystal belongs to a disordered crystal structure, which makes the doped Yb active ions run in the inhomogeneous broadening regime. In this regime, the Yb ions in different crystal sites would tend to emit different peak wavelengths independently since they consume a different inversion population. When working in the passive QS regime, the introduced nonsaturable loss would influence the emission spectrum especially for the three-level laser system and usually blue shift the emission peak in comparison with the free-running operation. On the other hand, the peak wavelength with low gain would be prevented from oscillating. But if the gain is comparable to compensate the loss, the corresponding laser mode will survive. In summary, we attribute the dual-wavelength operation mainly to the disordered structure of Yb:LGGG crystal. The dual-wavelength operation was also observed in the SESAM mode-locked Yb:LGGG laser in our previous work [42].

 

Fig. 8. (a) Typical spectrum of the MoS2 Q-switched Yb:LGGG laser under the incident pump power of 3.85 W. (b) Pulse energy versus the pump power.

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As is shown in Fig. 8(b), the single pulse energy showed a saturation tendency with the absorbed pump power. If we further increased the pump power, obvious deterioration happened to the QS operation. A maximum single pulse energy of 1.8 μJ was obtained, corresponding to an intracavity intensity of 2.8×104W/cm2 on the MoS2 sheets. The pulse energy saturation indicated an oversaturation on the MoS2 SA, which would lead to the deteriorated QS operation. In addition, some studies have addressed the thermal conductivity (κ) of MoS2. A Raman study has estimated that few-layered MoS2 has a κ of 52W/mK in [43]. Using ab initio calculations, the thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS2 with a typical sample size of 1 μm was calculated to be 83W/mK at room temperature [44]. While for the single-layer graphene, this value is found to be 5000W/mK. Moreover, the nonsaturable loss of MoS2-based SAs are in the range of 20%-35% [33,34], which is larger than that of graphene SAs. Using a MoS2 SA that was fabricated with the MoS2 solution of 0.2mg/ml concentration, sparks (damage) could be easily observed on the SAM surface even in a low pump level in the experiment. Basically, the MoS2 SA has large nonsaturable loss introducing a large impurity absorption in the SA, which will cause the heat accumulation. From this side, the subsequent thermal effect on MoS2 SA would further deteriorate the lasing performance together with the oversaturation. By employing MoS2 sheets with larger lateral size and substituting the SAM substrate from quartz to silicon carbide (SiC) (κ=318W/mK), higher output power with larger pulse energy can be expected.

4. CONCLUSIONS

In summary, we have experimentally demonstrated an efficient diode-pumped passively Q-switched bulk laser exploiting a MoS2 SAM. The laser pulses with the shortest pulse width of 182 ns and the highest single pulse energy of 1.8 μJ among the MoS2 SA-based solid-state laser were generated. In addition, the simultaneous dual-wavelength QS at 1025.2 and 1028.1 nm has been successfully achieved. The results, to the best of our knowledge, are records among the MoS2 SA-based solid-state lasers that have been reported and indicate that MoS2 is a kind of promising SA for generating high efficiency and energy pulses with hundreds kHz repetition rates.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51321091, 61275142, 61308042, and 91022003) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2013M531594, 2014T70633).

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References

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  1. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Lou, L. Cui, Y. B. Li, J. Hou, J. L. He, Z. T. Jia, J. Q. Liu, B. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, Z. W. Wang, and X. T. Tao, “High-efficiency femtosecond Yb:Gd3Al0.5Ga4.5O12 mode-locked laser based on reduced graphene oxide,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4189–4192 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2  μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 15–19 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Han, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Graphene Q-switched 0.9-μm Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 011401 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19, 9951–9955 (2011).
  14. J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, J. L. He, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, J. Ning, R. W. Zhao, and X. C. Su, “Passively Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAP laser based on graphene saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4968–4971 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Q. Jia, H. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Nanosecond-pulsed, dual-wavelength passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser using a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1601806 (2015).
  22. C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 314–318 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. D. Xia, H. P. Li, C. Y. Lan, C. Li, X. X. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. B. Xu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Z. Huang, J. Peng, Z. Q. Luo, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Weng, and R. Moncorgé, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 nanosecond laser using MoS2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 28934–28940 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4077–4084 (2014).
  37. S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, and A. Kis, “Stretching and breaking of ultrathin MoS2,” ACS Nano 5, 9703–9709 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  38. B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  40. T. Li and G. Galli, “Electronic properties of MoS2 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16192–16196 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  41. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  42. F. Lou, Z. T. Jia, J. L. He, R. W. Zhao, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, S. D. Liu, B. T. Zhang, and C. M. Dong, “Efficient high-peak power wavelength-switchable femtosecond Yb:LGGG laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 407–410 (2015).
  43. S. Sahoo, A. P. S. Gaur, M. Ahmadi, M. J.-F. Guinel, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature-dependent Raman studies and thermal conductivity of few-layer MoS2,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 9042–9047 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  44. W. Li, J. Carrete, and N. Mingo, “Thermal conductivity and phonon linewidths of monolayer MoS2 from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 253103 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

F. Q. Jia, H. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Nanosecond-pulsed, dual-wavelength passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser using a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1601806 (2015).

F. Lou, Z. T. Jia, J. L. He, R. W. Zhao, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, S. D. Liu, B. T. Zhang, and C. M. Dong, “Efficient high-peak power wavelength-switchable femtosecond Yb:LGGG laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 407–410 (2015).

2014 (11)

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. D. Xia, H. P. Li, C. Y. Lan, C. Li, X. X. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Xu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Z. Huang, J. Peng, Z. Q. Luo, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Weng, and R. Moncorgé, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 nanosecond laser using MoS2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 28934–28940 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4077–4084 (2014).

S. Han, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Graphene Q-switched 0.9-μm Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 011401 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, J. L. He, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, J. Ning, R. W. Zhao, and X. C. Su, “Passively Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAP laser based on graphene saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4968–4971 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (12)

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Lou, L. Cui, Y. B. Li, J. Hou, J. L. He, Z. T. Jia, J. Q. Liu, B. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, Z. W. Wang, and X. T. Tao, “High-efficiency femtosecond Yb:Gd3Al0.5Ga4.5O12 mode-locked laser based on reduced graphene oxide,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4189–4192 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sahoo, A. P. S. Gaur, M. Ahmadi, M. J.-F. Guinel, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature-dependent Raman studies and thermal conductivity of few-layer MoS2,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 9042–9047 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Carrete, and N. Mingo, “Thermal conductivity and phonon linewidths of monolayer MoS2 from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 253103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2  μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19, 9951–9955 (2011).

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, and A. Kis, “Stretching and breaking of ultrathin MoS2,” ACS Nano 5, 9703–9709 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Li and G. Galli, “Electronic properties of MoS2 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16192–16196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Agnesi, A.

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahmadi, M.

S. Sahoo, A. P. S. Gaur, M. Ahmadi, M. J.-F. Guinel, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature-dependent Raman studies and thermal conductivity of few-layer MoS2,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 9042–9047 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baillargeat, D.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertolazzi, S.

S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, and A. Kis, “Stretching and breaking of ultrathin MoS2,” ACS Nano 5, 9703–9709 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brivio, J.

S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, and A. Kis, “Stretching and breaking of ultrathin MoS2,” ACS Nano 5, 9703–9709 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z. P.

Carrete, J.

W. Li, J. Carrete, and N. Mingo, “Thermal conductivity and phonon linewidths of monolayer MoS2 from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 253103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, P. S.

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. H.

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

F. Q. Jia, H. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Nanosecond-pulsed, dual-wavelength passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser using a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1601806 (2015).

Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. X.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. H.

Cheng, Y. J.

Chien, H. C.

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiu, H. Y.

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiu, M. H.

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chou, Y. C.

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Coleman, J. N.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, L.

Dean, C. R.

Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diaz, F.

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, C. M.

F. Lou, Z. T. Jia, J. L. He, R. W. Zhao, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, S. D. Liu, B. T. Zhang, and C. M. Dong, “Efficient high-peak power wavelength-switchable femtosecond Yb:LGGG laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 407–410 (2015).

Du, J.

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Edwin, T. H.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Erbert, G.

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, J. T.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y. Y.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fiebig, C.

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fox, D.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Galli, G.

T. Li and G. Galli, “Electronic properties of MoS2 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16192–16196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gao, W. L.

Gaur, A. P. S.

S. Sahoo, A. P. S. Gaur, M. Ahmadi, M. J.-F. Guinel, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature-dependent Raman studies and thermal conductivity of few-layer MoS2,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 9042–9047 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giacometti, V.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

Griebner, U.

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guinel, M. J.-F.

S. Sahoo, A. P. S. Gaur, M. Ahmadi, M. J.-F. Guinel, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature-dependent Raman studies and thermal conductivity of few-layer MoS2,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 9042–9047 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

Hao, X.

Hao, X. P.

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19, 9951–9955 (2011).

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hasan, M. Z.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, J. L.

F. Lou, Z. T. Jia, J. L. He, R. W. Zhao, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, S. D. Liu, B. T. Zhang, and C. M. Dong, “Efficient high-peak power wavelength-switchable femtosecond Yb:LGGG laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 407–410 (2015).

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, J. L. He, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, J. Ning, R. W. Zhao, and X. C. Su, “Passively Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAP laser based on graphene saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4968–4971 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lou, L. Cui, Y. B. Li, J. Hou, J. L. He, Z. T. Jia, J. Q. Liu, B. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, Z. W. Wang, and X. T. Tao, “High-efficiency femtosecond Yb:Gd3Al0.5Ga4.5O12 mode-locked laser based on reduced graphene oxide,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4189–4192 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19, 9951–9955 (2011).

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

Hsu, W. T.

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huang, H. T.

Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. Z.

Jia, F. Q.

F. Q. Jia, H. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Nanosecond-pulsed, dual-wavelength passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser using a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1601806 (2015).

Jia, Z. T.

F. Lou, Z. T. Jia, J. L. He, R. W. Zhao, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, S. D. Liu, B. T. Zhang, and C. M. Dong, “Efficient high-peak power wavelength-switchable femtosecond Yb:LGGG laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 407–410 (2015).

F. Lou, L. Cui, Y. B. Li, J. Hou, J. L. He, Z. T. Jia, J. Q. Liu, B. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, Z. W. Wang, and X. T. Tao, “High-efficiency femtosecond Yb:Gd3Al0.5Ga4.5O12 mode-locked laser based on reduced graphene oxide,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4189–4192 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, B. X.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, G. B.

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

Josef, W.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kane, C. L.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

Katiyar, R. S.

S. Sahoo, A. P. S. Gaur, M. Ahmadi, M. J.-F. Guinel, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature-dependent Raman studies and thermal conductivity of few-layer MoS2,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 9042–9047 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kis, A.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, and A. Kis, “Stretching and breaking of ultrathin MoS2,” ACS Nano 5, 9703–9709 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, J.

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar, N.

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lan, C. Y.

Lee, H. W.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, H.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H. P.

Li, L. J.

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

T. Li and G. Galli, “Electronic properties of MoS2 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16192–16196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Li, J. Carrete, and N. Mingo, “Thermal conductivity and phonon linewidths of monolayer MoS2 from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 253103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, X. L.

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19, 9951–9955 (2011).

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. B.

Li, Y. L.

Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. Y.

Lin, Z. Q.

Liu, H.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2  μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. Q.

Liu, M.

Liu, P.

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H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
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Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
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Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
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M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
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I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
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Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2  μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 15–19 (2012).
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Sun, Z.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
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Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, P.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, R.

Tao, X. T.

Tay, B. K.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

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E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

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S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
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S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
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K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
[Crossref]

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B. Xu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Z. Huang, J. Peng, Z. Q. Luo, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Weng, and R. Moncorgé, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 nanosecond laser using MoS2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 28934–28940 (2014).
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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. G.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2  μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Wang, Z. W.

Wen, S.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

Wu, J. Y.

Wu, Y.

Wu, Y. Z.

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19, 9951–9955 (2011).

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, H. D.

Xiang, Y. J.

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, B.

Xu, C. W.

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Xu, H. Y.

Xu, J.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2  μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. L.

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19, 9951–9955 (2011).

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. C.

Xu, X.

Yamashita, S.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. J.

F. Lou, L. Cui, Y. B. Li, J. Hou, J. L. He, Z. T. Jia, J. Q. Liu, B. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, Z. W. Wang, and X. T. Tao, “High-efficiency femtosecond Yb:Gd3Al0.5Ga4.5O12 mode-locked laser based on reduced graphene oxide,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4189–4192 (2013).
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J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yap, C. C. R.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D.

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

You, Y. M.

Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

S. Han, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Graphene Q-switched 0.9-μm Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 011401 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. H.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

Zhang, B. T.

Zhang, H.

S. Han, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Graphene Q-switched 0.9-μm Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 011401 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. Z.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. C.

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. J.

Zhang, X.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. X.

Zhang, X. Y.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, H.

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M. W.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q. Z.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R. W.

F. Lou, Z. T. Jia, J. L. He, R. W. Zhao, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, S. D. Liu, B. T. Zhang, and C. M. Dong, “Efficient high-peak power wavelength-switchable femtosecond Yb:LGGG laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 407–410 (2015).

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, J. L. He, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, J. Ning, R. W. Zhao, and X. C. Su, “Passively Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAP laser based on graphene saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4968–4971 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Z. A.

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, L. H.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2  μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X. W.

Zhong, M.

Zhu, Z. X.

Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interface (1)

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (3)

W. T. Hsu, Z. A. Zhao, L. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, P. S. Chang, Y. C. Chou, and W. H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers,” ACS Nano 8, 2951–2958 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. Josef, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, and A. Kis, “Stretching and breaking of ultrathin MoS2,” ACS Nano 5, 9703–9709 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K. J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. W. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161112 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Carrete, and N. Mingo, “Thermal conductivity and phonon linewidths of monolayer MoS2 from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 253103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Q. Jia, H. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Nanosecond-pulsed, dual-wavelength passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser using a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1601806 (2015).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Lou, Z. T. Jia, J. L. He, R. W. Zhao, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, S. D. Liu, B. T. Zhang, and C. M. Dong, “Efficient high-peak power wavelength-switchable femtosecond Yb:LGGG laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 407–410 (2015).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

S. Sahoo, A. P. S. Gaur, M. Ahmadi, M. J.-F. Guinel, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature-dependent Raman studies and thermal conductivity of few-layer MoS2,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 9042–9047 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li and G. Galli, “Electronic properties of MoS2 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16192–16196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. X. Zhu, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. T. Huang, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, and D. Y. Tang, “A graphene-based passively Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operation at 1645  nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055801 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2  μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. L. Li, Y. Rao, K. F. Mak, Y. M. You, S. Y. Wang, C. R. Dean, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Raman spectra of the exfoliated MoS 2 .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. AFM scan image of the MoS 2 surface and the typical height profiles of MoS 2 thin films.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) SEM image of MoS 2 thin film. (b) Relation between transmittance of MoS 2 samples and input power with the wavelength of 1 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Average output power versus incident pump power for continuous wave and QS operation. Inset: Configuration of the MoS 2 Q-switched Yb:LGGG laser.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Pulse width and repetition rate versus absorbed pump power for QS operation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. 182 ns Q-switched pulse profile under the incident pump power of 3.85 W.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Pulse trains of MoS 2 Q-switched Yb:LGGG laser under the different incident pump power.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Typical spectrum of the MoS 2 Q-switched Yb:LGGG laser under the incident pump power of 3.85 W. (b) Pulse energy versus the pump power.

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