Abstract

The visible wavelength-division multiplexing (VWDM) optical wireless communication beyond 30 Gbit/s with a white-light beam mixed by red/green/violet (R/G/V) laser diodes (LDs) and yellow (Y) LED is demonstrated via quadrature amplitude modulation discrete multitone modulation (QAM DMT). To facilitate both high-quality indoor lighting and high-speed optical wireless communication, the R/G/V-LD white-light module incorporates with a Y-LED to provide a high color rendering index (CRI) and encapsulates with a frosted glass to enlarge its divergent angle. By respectively encoding the R/G/V-LDs with the filtered QAM DMT data in a back-to-back case, the total raw data rate as high as 34.8 Gbit/s is achieved by encoded R/G/V-LDs with respective VWDM data rates of 18/7.2/9.6 Gbit/s. To fulfill the demanded CRI and correlated color temperature (CCT) for indoor white-lighting, the yellow LED contributes the yellowish-orange luminescence with flexible CCT and CRI varying from 3952 K to 3031 K and from 0 to 45.9, respectively. A cold white-light carrier at a CCT of 4852 K, CRI of 71.6, and CIE of (0.3652, 0.4942) is also approached by attenuating the red LD power, and such a cold white-light spot with an illuminance of 6800 lux and a divergent solid angle of 0.89 steradian (sr) can support VWDM data transmission at 28.4 Gbit/s.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (5)

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, and L.-Y. Wei, “1250  Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, J.-H. Weng, C.-W. Chow, C.-M. Luo, Y.-R. Xie, C.-J. Chen, and M.-C. Wu, “1.7 to 2.3  Gbps OOK LED VLC transmission based on 4 × 4 color-polarization-multiplexing at extremely low illumination,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7904206 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot assisted color conversion of violet laser diode for white lighting communication,” Nanophotonics 8, 2189–2201 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Toward high-speed visible laser lighting based optical wireless communications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 67, 100225 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

2017 (5)

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN Nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101040V (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication sing a GaN violet micro-LED, ” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-F. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kong, W. Lv, T. Ali, R. Sarwar, C. Yu, Y. Qiu, F. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Han, and J. Xu, “10-m 9.51-Gb/s RGB laser diodes-based WDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 25, 20829–20834 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-F. Huang, T.-C. Wu, C.-T. Tsai, L.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10469 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (8)

Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5  Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23, 13626–13633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904507 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, W. Ali, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Gigabit-class optical wireless communication system at indoor distances (1.5–4  m),” Opt. Express 23, 15700–15705 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2  Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23, 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23, 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100  Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23, 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4  Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23, 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Wang, X. Huang, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of visible light communication employing 512-QAM N-SC-FDE and DD-LMS,” Opt. Express 22, 15328–15334 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Chen and C.-W. Chow, “Color-shift keying and code-division multiple-access transmission for RGB-LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 7904106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

Y. Wang, Y. Wang, N. Chi, J. Yu, and H. Shang, “Demonstration of 575  Mb/s downlink and 225  Mb/s uplink Bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED,” Opt. Express 21, 1203–1208 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, H. T. Huang, and S. Chi, “Performance comparison of OFDM signal and CAP signal over high capacity RGB-LED-based WDM visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 7901507 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. H. Azhar, T.-A. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A Gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yeh, Y. L. Liu, and C. W. Chow, “Real-time white-light phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) with compact size,” Opt. Express 21, 26192–26197 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Soltic and A. Chalmers, “Optimization of laser-based white light illuminants,” Opt. Express 21, 8964–8971 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1  Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4  Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20, B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19, A983–A990 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513  Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 3512–3518 (2010).

2009 (2)

L. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, and M. C. Wu, “Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 90–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Integrated system of white LED visible-light communication and power-line communication,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 49, 71–79 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Lu, K. B. Letaief, J. C. I. Chuang, and M. L. Liou, “M-PSK and M-QAM BER computation using signal-space concepts,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 181–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alatawi, A. A.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN Nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101040V (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications,” Opt. Express 24, 19228–19236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Albadri, A. M.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN Nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101040V (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications,” Opt. Express 24, 19228–19236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alhamoud, A. A.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN Nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101040V (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications,” Opt. Express 24, 19228–19236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ali, T.

Ali, W.

Alias, M. S.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN Nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101040V (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications,” Opt. Express 24, 19228–19236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alyamani, A. Y.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN Nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101040V (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications,” Opt. Express 24, 19228–19236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Azhar, A. H.

A. H. Azhar, T.-A. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A Gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bamiedakis, N.

Brueck, S. R. J.

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19, A983–A990 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cantore, M.

Chalmers, A.

Chang, J.-K.

Chen, C. W.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, H. T. Huang, and S. Chi, “Performance comparison of OFDM signal and CAP signal over high capacity RGB-LED-based WDM visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 7901507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-J.

C.-H. Yeh, J.-H. Weng, C.-W. Chow, C.-M. Luo, Y.-R. Xie, C.-J. Chen, and M.-C. Wu, “1.7 to 2.3  Gbps OOK LED VLC transmission based on 4 × 4 color-polarization-multiplexing at extremely low illumination,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7904206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Y.

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23, 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

I.-C. Lu, C.-H. Lai, C.-H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36  Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” in Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) (2017), paper W2A.39.

Chen, L.-Y.

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, J.-K. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “White-lighting communication with Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+/CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ glass covered 450-nm InGaN laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1634–1643 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-F. Huang, T.-C. Wu, C.-T. Tsai, L.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10469 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-K.

Chen, S.-H.

S.-H. Chen and C.-W. Chow, “Color-shift keying and code-division multiple-access transmission for RGB-LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 7904106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-Y.

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot assisted color conversion of violet laser diode for white lighting communication,” Nanophotonics 8, 2189–2201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. Y.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, H. T. Huang, and S. Chi, “Performance comparison of OFDM signal and CAP signal over high capacity RGB-LED-based WDM visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 7901507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.-H.

C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Toward high-speed visible laser lighting based optical wireless communications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 67, 100225 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot assisted color conversion of violet laser diode for white lighting communication,” Nanophotonics 8, 2189–2201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, J.-K. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “White-lighting communication with Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+/CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ glass covered 450-nm InGaN laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1634–1643 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W.-H.

Chi, N.

Chi, S.

C.-T. Tsai, C.-C. Li, C.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lin, S. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Long-reach 60-GHz MMWoF link with free-running laser diodes beating,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13711 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, H. T. Huang, and S. Chi, “Performance comparison of OFDM signal and CAP signal over high capacity RGB-LED-based WDM visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 7901507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, M.-K. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Red/green/blue LD mixed white-light communication at 6500  K with divergent diffuser optimization,” Opt. Express 26, 23397–23410 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, J.-K. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “White-lighting communication with Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+/CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ glass covered 450-nm InGaN laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1634–1643 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-F. Huang, T.-C. Wu, C.-T. Tsai, L.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10469 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-F. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23, 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4  Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23, 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, P.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1  Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4  Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20, B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

Chow, C.-W.

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, and L.-Y. Wei, “1250  Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, J.-H. Weng, C.-W. Chow, C.-M. Luo, Y.-R. Xie, C.-J. Chen, and M.-C. Wu, “1.7 to 2.3  Gbps OOK LED VLC transmission based on 4 × 4 color-polarization-multiplexing at extremely low illumination,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7904206 (2019).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Chen and C.-W. Chow, “Color-shift keying and code-division multiple-access transmission for RGB-LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 7904106 (2014).
[Crossref]

L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “20  Gbit/s tricolor R/G/B laser diode based bi-directional signal remodulation visible light communication system,” in Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) (2018), paper M3K.2.

Chuang, J. C. I.

J. Lu, K. B. Letaief, J. C. I. Chuang, and M. L. Liou, “M-PSK and M-QAM BER computation using signal-space concepts,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 181–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

Ciaramella, E.

Corsini, R.

Cossu, G.

Davis, W.

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19, A983–A990 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

DenBaars, S. P.

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2  Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23, 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref]

El-Desouki, M. M.

Elgala, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 56–62 (2011).
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Farrell, R. M.

Faulkner, G.

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. James, D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED based wavelength division multiplexed 10 Gb/s visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G. E.

L. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R. X.

Gu, E.

Haas, H.

Han, J.

He, J.-H.

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4  Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23, 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, X.

Hsieh, D.-H.

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23, 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.-W.

L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “20  Gbit/s tricolor R/G/B laser diode based bi-directional signal remodulation visible light communication system,” in Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) (2018), paper M3K.2.

Hsu, Y.

L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “20  Gbit/s tricolor R/G/B laser diode based bi-directional signal remodulation visible light communication system,” in Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) (2018), paper M3K.2.

Huang, C.-Y.

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.-W.

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, M.-K. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Red/green/blue LD mixed white-light communication at 6500  K with divergent diffuser optimization,” Opt. Express 26, 23397–23410 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. T.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, H. T. Huang, and S. Chi, “Performance comparison of OFDM signal and CAP signal over high capacity RGB-LED-based WDM visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 7901507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Huang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, M.-K. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Red/green/blue LD mixed white-light communication at 6500  K with divergent diffuser optimization,” Opt. Express 26, 23397–23410 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-F. Huang, T.-C. Wu, C.-T. Tsai, L.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10469 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-F. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Islim, M. S.

James, J.

Janjua, B.

Jung, D.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

Khalid, A. M.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1  Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4  Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20, B501–B506 (2012).
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Komine, T.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Integrated system of white LED visible-light communication and power-line communication,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 49, 71–79 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kong, M.

Kottke, C.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513  Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 3512–3518 (2010).

Kuo, H.-C.

C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Toward high-speed visible laser lighting based optical wireless communications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 67, 100225 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot assisted color conversion of violet laser diode for white lighting communication,” Nanophotonics 8, 2189–2201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-F. Huang, T.-C. Wu, C.-T. Tsai, L.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10469 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23, 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4  Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23, 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lai, C.-H.

I.-C. Lu, C.-H. Lai, C.-H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36  Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” in Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) (2017), paper W2A.39.

Langer, K.-D.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513  Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 3512–3518 (2010).

Lau, E. K.

E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, and M. C. Wu, “Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 90–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

Lee, K.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Letaief, K. B.

J. Lu, K. B. Letaief, J. C. I. Chuang, and M. L. Liou, “M-PSK and M-QAM BER computation using signal-space concepts,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 181–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, C.-C.

C.-T. Tsai, C.-C. Li, C.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lin, S. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Long-reach 60-GHz MMWoF link with free-running laser diodes beating,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13711 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. T.

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[Crossref]

Lin, G.-R.

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot assisted color conversion of violet laser diode for white lighting communication,” Nanophotonics 8, 2189–2201 (2019).
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C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Toward high-speed visible laser lighting based optical wireless communications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 67, 100225 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Tsai, C.-C. Li, C.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lin, S. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Long-reach 60-GHz MMWoF link with free-running laser diodes beating,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13711 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, and G.-R. Lin, “Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25  Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13142 (2018).
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Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, M.-K. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Red/green/blue LD mixed white-light communication at 6500  K with divergent diffuser optimization,” Opt. Express 26, 23397–23410 (2018).
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T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, J.-K. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “White-lighting communication with Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+/CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ glass covered 450-nm InGaN laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1634–1643 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-F. Huang, T.-C. Wu, C.-T. Tsai, L.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10469 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-F. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-Y. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
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Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23, 13051–13059 (2015).
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H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
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H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1243–1245 (2008).
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C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2  Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23, 29779–29787 (2015).
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Neumann, A.

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19, A983–A990 (2011).
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O’Brien, D.

A. H. Azhar, T.-A. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A Gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 171–174 (2013).
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H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
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H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1243–1245 (2008).
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H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. James, D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED based wavelength division multiplexed 10 Gb/s visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
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Oh, Y.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
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H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1243–1245 (2008).
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L. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).
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A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19, A983–A990 (2011).
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Oubei, H. M.

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Prabaswara, A.

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Qu, F.

Rajbhandari, S.

Retamal, J. R. D.

Sarwar, R.

Shang, H.

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Shi, J.

Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5  Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23, 13626–13633 (2015).
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Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904507 (2015).
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Soltic, S.

Speck, J. S.

Sung, H.-K.

E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, and M. C. Wu, “Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 90–99 (2008).
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Tao, L.

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904507 (2015).
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Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5  Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23, 13626–13633 (2015).
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Tran, T.-A.

A. H. Azhar, T.-A. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A Gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.-T.

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot assisted color conversion of violet laser diode for white lighting communication,” Nanophotonics 8, 2189–2201 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Toward high-speed visible laser lighting based optical wireless communications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 67, 100225 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Tsai, C.-C. Li, C.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lin, S. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Long-reach 60-GHz MMWoF link with free-running laser diodes beating,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13711 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, J.-K. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “White-lighting communication with Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+/CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ glass covered 450-nm InGaN laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1634–1643 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-F. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-F. Huang, T.-C. Wu, C.-T. Tsai, L.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10469 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4  Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23, 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23, 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D.-P.

Tsao, J. Y.

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19, A983–A990 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Videv, S.

Viola, S.

Vucic, J.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513  Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 3512–3518 (2010).

Walewski, J. W.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513  Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 3512–3518 (2010).

Wang, H.-Y.

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot assisted color conversion of violet laser diode for white lighting communication,” Nanophotonics 8, 2189–2201 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, and G.-R. Lin, “Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25  Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13142 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, J.-K. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “White-lighting communication with Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+/CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ glass covered 450-nm InGaN laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1634–1643 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-F. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4  Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23, 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, W.-C. Wang, D.-W. Huang, L.-Y. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphor enhanced high-CRI R/G/B LD lighting fidelity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 9556–9563 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot assisted color conversion of violet laser diode for white lighting communication,” Nanophotonics 8, 2189–2201 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, and G.-R. Lin, “Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25  Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13142 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Watson, S.

Wei, C. C.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, H. T. Huang, and S. Chi, “Performance comparison of OFDM signal and CAP signal over high capacity RGB-LED-based WDM visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 7901507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, L.-Y.

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, and L.-Y. Wei, “1250  Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “20  Gbit/s tricolor R/G/B laser diode based bi-directional signal remodulation visible light communication system,” in Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) (2018), paper M3K.2.

Weng, J.-H.

C.-H. Yeh, J.-H. Weng, C.-W. Chow, C.-M. Luo, Y.-R. Xie, C.-J. Chen, and M.-C. Wu, “1.7 to 2.3  Gbps OOK LED VLC transmission based on 4 × 4 color-polarization-multiplexing at extremely low illumination,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7904206 (2019).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

Wierer, J. J.

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19, A983–A990 (2011).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, F. M.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, H. T. Huang, and S. Chi, “Performance comparison of OFDM signal and CAP signal over high capacity RGB-LED-based WDM visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 7901507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, and M. C. Wu, “Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 90–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.-C.

C.-H. Yeh, J.-H. Weng, C.-W. Chow, C.-M. Luo, Y.-R. Xie, C.-J. Chen, and M.-C. Wu, “1.7 to 2.3  Gbps OOK LED VLC transmission based on 4 × 4 color-polarization-multiplexing at extremely low illumination,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7904206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.-C.

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Cheng, J.-K. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “White-lighting communication with Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+/CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ glass covered 450-nm InGaN laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1634–1643 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-F. Huang, T.-C. Wu, C.-T. Tsai, L.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10469 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-F. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, E.

Xie, Y.-R.

C.-H. Yeh, J.-H. Weng, C.-W. Chow, C.-M. Luo, Y.-R. Xie, C.-J. Chen, and M.-C. Wu, “1.7 to 2.3  Gbps OOK LED VLC transmission based on 4 × 4 color-polarization-multiplexing at extremely low illumination,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7904206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, Z.

Yeh, C. H.

Yeh, C.-H.

C.-H. Yeh, J.-H. Weng, C.-W. Chow, C.-M. Luo, Y.-R. Xie, C.-J. Chen, and M.-C. Wu, “1.7 to 2.3  Gbps OOK LED VLC transmission based on 4 × 4 color-polarization-multiplexing at extremely low illumination,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7904206 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, and L.-Y. Wei, “1250  Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “20  Gbit/s tricolor R/G/B laser diode based bi-directional signal remodulation visible light communication system,” in Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) (2018), paper M3K.2.

I.-C. Lu, C.-H. Lai, C.-H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36  Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” in Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) (2017), paper W2A.39.

Yu, C.

Yu, J.

Zeng, L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100  Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED, ” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Photograph of the R/G/V/Y white-lighting communication system.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup of the R/G/V/Y white-lighting communication system.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) P-I curves, (b) V-I curves, (c) resistances, and (d) differential resistances of the R/G/V-LDs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Spectra of the R, G, and V LDs. Frequency modulation responses of the (b) RLD, (c) GLD, and (d) VLD at different bias currents.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Photograph of the yellow LED. (b) Photograph of the yellow LED at 2.2 V. (c) Current-voltage-power curve and (d) the optical spectrum of the employed yellow LED.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Photographs of the diffuser, (b) the angle distribution of illuminance, and (c) the lighting spot on white paper.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Optical spectra and chromaticity diagrams of the R/G/V-LDs mixed white-light source (a) without and (b) with yellow LED.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Photographs of the OD filters, (b) the mixing spectra of the R/G/V/Y mixed white-light source with different OD filters.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Chromaticity diagrams and (b) the CCTs and CRIs of the R/G/V/Y mixed white-light source with different OD filters.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) BERs of 3.2-GHz 32-QAM DMT data carried by the RLD at different bias currents. (b) BERs of 1.6-GHz 16-QAM DMT data carried by the GLD at different bias currents. (c) BERs of 2.2-GHz 16-QAM DMT data carried by the VLD at different bias currents.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Bandwidth-dependent BERs of (a) the RLD delivered 32-QAM DMT data, (b) the GLD delivered 16-QAM DMT data, and (c) the VLD delivered 16-QAM DMT data.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. (a) Pre-leveling slope-dependent BER, (b) RF spectrum, and (c) subcarrier SNRs of the RLD carried 3.6-GHz 32-QAM DMT data. (d) Pre-leveling slope-dependent BER, (e) RF spectrum, and (f) subcarrier SNRs of the GLD carried 1.8-GHz 16-QAM DMT data. (g) Pre-leveling slope-dependent BER, (h) RF spectrum, and (i) subcarrier SNRs of the VLD carried 2.4-GHz 16-QAM DMT data.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. (a) BERs of 2.9-GHz 16-QAM DMT data transmitted by the RLD attenuated by 0.6-OD filter at different pre-leveling slopes. (b) RF spectrum, (c) constellation plot, and (d) subcarrier SNRs of 2.9-GHz 16-QAM DMT data transmitted by the RLD with 0.6-OD filter.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. (a) Waveforms and (b) PAPRs of the received data transmitted by the RLD with or without 0.6-OD filter.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. (a) Subcarrier SNRs of 2.9-GHz 16-QAM DMT data transmitted by the RLD and (b) subcarrier SNRs of 1.8-GHz 16-QAM DMT data transmitted by GLD with or without Y-LED.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. R/G/V-LD Carried QAM DMT Transmission Parameters under Warm White-Light Case

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Table 2. R/G/V-LD+Y-LED Warm and Cold White-Lighting Performance

Equations (1)

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BER2(11M)log2M{erfc[3SNR2(M1)]+erfc[33SNR2(M1)]},