Abstract

A new method to make an all-fiber nonlinear optic device for laser pulse generation is developed by depositing multi-layer graphene oxide (GO) selectively onto the core of the cleaved fiber facet by combining the electrical arc discharge and the laser-driven self-exfoliation. Using the GO colloid droplet with sub-nanoliter volume, we obtained a GO bulk layer deposited on a fiber facet of the order of milliseconds by using an electric arc. The prepared fiber facet was then included in an Er-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity and we obtained a few layers of GO having nonlinear optic two-dimensional (2D) characteristics selectively on the fiber core by the laser-driven self-exfoliation. The 2D GO layers on the fiber core served as a stable and efficient saturable absorber enabling robust pulse train generation at λ=1600.5  nm, the longest Q-switched laser wavelength in EDFLs. Pulse characteristics were analyzed as we varied the pump power at λ=980  nm from 105.2 mW to 193.6 mW, to obtain the maximum repetition rate of 17.8 kHz and the maximum output power of 2.3 mW with the minimum pulse duration of 7.8 μs. The proposed method could be further applied to other novel inorganic 2D materials opening a window to explore their novel nonlinear optic laser applications.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2020 (1)

M. Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M. Nowak, A. Malolepszy, A. Witowski, D. Wasik, Y. Hu, and L. Stobinski, “Graphene oxide with controlled content of oxygen groups as a filler for polymer composites used for infrared radiation shielding,” Nanomaterials 10, 32 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

A. Matsumoto, H. Ohba, M. Toshimitsu, K. Akaoka, A. Ruas, I. Wakaida, T. Sakka, and S. Yae, “Enhancement of molecular formation in fiber-optic laser ablation with a long nanosecond pulsed laser,” Spectrochim. Acta B 155, 56–60 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, S. A. Reduan, N. Ruslan, C. S. J. Lee, M. Z. Zulkifli, and K. Thambiratnam, “Tunable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser in the C-band region using nanoparticles (TiO2),” Opt. Commun. 435, 283–288 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, F. Zhang, Z. Liang, T. Fan, Z. Li, X. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Revealing of the ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical response and enabled photonic application in two-dimensional tin sulfide,” Photon. Res. 7, 494–502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Ge, L. Wu, J. Liu, and J. Li, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, X. Yang, L. Zhou, W. Xie, Y. Bai, G. Ye, Y. Shen, Z. Lv, H. Zhang, and M. Chen, “BN as a saturable absorber for a passively mode-locked 2  μm solid-state laser,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) 13, 1800482 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, M. Yasin, M. F. Ismail, and K. Thambiratnam, “In2Se3 saturable absorber for generating tunable Q-switched outputs from a bismuth-erbium doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 115105 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Xie, L. Lu, J. Zhao, Y. Wang, X. Jiang, Y. Ge, F. Zhang, S. Lu, and Z. Guo, “Few-layer tin sulfide: a promising black-phosphorus-analogue 2D material with exceptionally large nonlinear optical response, high stability, and applications in all-optical switching and wavelength conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700985 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. R. Dugasani, B. Paulson, T. Ha, T. S. Jung, B. Gnapareddy, J. A. Kim, T. Kim, H. J. Kim, J. H. Kim, and K. Oh, “Fabrication and optoelectronic characterisation of lanthanide-and metal-ion-doped DNA thin films,” J. Phys. D 51, 285301 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Raturi and J. Singh, “Sunlight-driven eco-friendly smart curtain based on infrared responsive graphene oxide-polymer photoactuators,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3687 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Hong, F. Lédée, J. Park, S. Song, H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, B. Kim, D. I. Yeom, E. Deleporte, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of all-fiber lasers operating at both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes in the C- and L-bands using thin film of 2D perovskite crystallites,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800118 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Steinberg, R. M. Gerosa, F. N. Pellicer, J. D. Zapata, S. H. Domingues, E. A. T. de Souza, and L. A. Saito, “Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers onto D-shaped fibers for sub 200-fs EDFL mode-locking,” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 144–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jaworski, M. Wierzbicki, E. Sawosz, A. Jung, G. Gielerak, J. Biernat, H. Jaremek, W. Łojkowski, B. Woźniak, and J. Wojnarowicz, “Graphene oxide-based nanocomposites decorated with silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent,” Nanosc. Res. Lett. 13, 116 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

S. K. Tiwari, G. Hatui, R. Oraon, A. De Adhikari, and G. C. Nayak, “Mixing sequence driven controlled dispersion of graphene oxide in PC/PMMA blend nanocomposite and its effect on thermo-mechanical properties,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 17, 1158–1168 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Aziz, Z. Jusoh, M. Lokman, M. Yasin, E. Hanafi, and S. Harun, “Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide embedded in PMMA film,” Digest J. Nanomater. Biostruct. 12, 325–330 (2017).

C. Xing, Z. Xie, Z. Liang, W. Liang, T. Fan, J. S. Ponraj, S. C. Dhanabalan, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “2D nonlayered selenium nanosheets: facile synthesis, photoluminescence, and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700884 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, X. Tang, Z. Yang, Z. Liang, Y. Chen, K. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Zhang, J. Ji, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer phosphorene-decorated microfiber for all-optical thresholding and optical modulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700026 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

H. Ahmad, N. Ruslan, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, C. Lee, R. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. A. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser using zinc oxide nanoparticles as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4277–4281 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, S. Reduan, C. Lee, S. Sathiyan, S. Sivabalan, and S. W. Harun, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser at C-band region based on WS2 saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1001–1005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chernysheva, C. Mou, R. Arif, M. AlAraimi, M. Rümmeli, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “High power Q-switched thulium doped fibre laser using carbon nanotube polymer composite saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24220 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and P. P. Shum, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

R. Khazaeinezhad, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Passive Q-switching of an all-fiber laser using WS2-deposited optical fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1503507 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber laser based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nanosheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locked all-fiber lasers at both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes based on spin-coated MoS2 nano-sheets on a side-polished fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1500109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, G. Semaan, M. Salhi, A. Niang, K. Guesmi, Z.-C. Luo, and F. Sanchez, “High power L-band mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23, 23053–23058 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, and C. Pan, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, J. Kim, K. Choi, J.-U. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. Cheong, and D.-I. Yeom, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Aksienionek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide paper as a saturable absorber for Er-and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, 119–124 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Kravets, O. Marshall, R. Nair, B. Thackray, A. Zhukov, J. Leng, and A. Grigorenko, “Engineering optical properties of a graphene oxide metamaterial assembled in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Express 23, 1265–1275 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. Song, and J. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035103 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. N. Tien, J. S. Chung, and S. H. Hur, “Fabrication of a novel 2D-graphene/2D-NiO nanosheet-based hybrid nanostructure and its use in highly sensitive NO2 sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 185, 701–705 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

Z.-B. Liu, X. He, and D. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3024–3026 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Proc. 12, 230–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, L. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Jiang, X. Yang, and J. Zhu, “Switchable, dual-wavelength passively mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser based on a single-wall carbon nanotube modelocker and intracavity loss tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 1168–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Badawi, M. A. Tome, A. Atteya, N. Sami, and I. A. Morsy, “Retrospective analysis of non-ablative scar treatment in dark skin types using the sub-millisecond Nd:YAG 1,064  nm laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Zhu, S. Murali, W. Cai, X. Li, J. W. Suk, J. R. Potts, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3906–3924 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Janczuk and A. Zdziennicka, “A study on the components of surface free energy of quartz from contact angle measurements,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 3559–3564 (1994).
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Abramski, K. M.

Ahmad, H.

H. Ahmad, S. A. Reduan, N. Ruslan, C. S. J. Lee, M. Z. Zulkifli, and K. Thambiratnam, “Tunable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser in the C-band region using nanoparticles (TiO2),” Opt. Commun. 435, 283–288 (2019).
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H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, M. Yasin, M. F. Ismail, and K. Thambiratnam, “In2Se3 saturable absorber for generating tunable Q-switched outputs from a bismuth-erbium doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 115105 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, N. Ruslan, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, C. Lee, R. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. A. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser using zinc oxide nanoparticles as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4277–4281 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, S. Reduan, C. Lee, S. Sathiyan, S. Sivabalan, and S. W. Harun, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser at C-band region based on WS2 saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1001–1005 (2016).
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W. Lim, Y. Yap, W. Chong, C. Pua, N. Huang, R. De La Rue, and H. Ahmad, “Graphene oxide-based waveguide polariser: from thin film to quasi-bulk,” Opt. Express 22, 11090–11098 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. Soltanian, M. Alimadad, and S. Harun, “Stable narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched graphene oxide embedded in a photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105101 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, F. Muhammad, M. Zulkifli, and S. Harun, “Graphene-oxide-based saturable absorber for all-fiber Q-switching with a simple optical deposition technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2205–2213 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ismail, S. W. Harun, H. Ahmad, and M. C. Paul, Passive Q-switched and Mode-locked Fiber Lasers Using Carbon-based Saturable Absorbers (IntechOpen, 2016).

Akaoka, K.

A. Matsumoto, H. Ohba, M. Toshimitsu, K. Akaoka, A. Ruas, I. Wakaida, T. Sakka, and S. Yae, “Enhancement of molecular formation in fiber-optic laser ablation with a long nanosecond pulsed laser,” Spectrochim. Acta B 155, 56–60 (2019).
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AlAraimi, M.

M. Chernysheva, C. Mou, R. Arif, M. AlAraimi, M. Rümmeli, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “High power Q-switched thulium doped fibre laser using carbon nanotube polymer composite saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24220 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ali, Z.

H. Ahmad, N. Ruslan, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, C. Lee, R. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. A. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser using zinc oxide nanoparticles as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4277–4281 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alimadad, M.

H. Ahmad, M. Soltanian, M. Alimadad, and S. Harun, “Stable narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched graphene oxide embedded in a photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arif, R.

M. Chernysheva, C. Mou, R. Arif, M. AlAraimi, M. Rümmeli, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “High power Q-switched thulium doped fibre laser using carbon nanotube polymer composite saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24220 (2016).
[Crossref]

Atteya, A.

A. Badawi, M. A. Tome, A. Atteya, N. Sami, and I. A. Morsy, “Retrospective analysis of non-ablative scar treatment in dark skin types using the sub-millisecond Nd:YAG 1,064  nm laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aziz, N.

N. Aziz, Z. Jusoh, M. Lokman, M. Yasin, E. Hanafi, and S. Harun, “Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide embedded in PMMA film,” Digest J. Nanomater. Biostruct. 12, 325–330 (2017).

Badawi, A.

A. Badawi, M. A. Tome, A. Atteya, N. Sami, and I. A. Morsy, “Retrospective analysis of non-ablative scar treatment in dark skin types using the sub-millisecond Nd:YAG 1,064  nm laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

L. Li, X. Yang, L. Zhou, W. Xie, Y. Bai, G. Ye, Y. Shen, Z. Lv, H. Zhang, and M. Chen, “BN as a saturable absorber for a passively mode-locked 2  μm solid-state laser,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) 13, 1800482 (2019).
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Bao, H.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, and C. Pan, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biernat, J.

S. Jaworski, M. Wierzbicki, E. Sawosz, A. Jung, G. Gielerak, J. Biernat, H. Jaremek, W. Łojkowski, B. Woźniak, and J. Wojnarowicz, “Graphene oxide-based nanocomposites decorated with silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent,” Nanosc. Res. Lett. 13, 116 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boguslawski, J.

Cai, W.

Y. Zhu, S. Murali, W. Cai, X. Li, J. W. Suk, J. R. Potts, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3906–3924 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-R.

Chen, M.

L. Li, X. Yang, L. Zhou, W. Xie, Y. Bai, G. Ye, Y. Shen, Z. Lv, H. Zhang, and M. Chen, “BN as a saturable absorber for a passively mode-locked 2  μm solid-state laser,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) 13, 1800482 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

J. Zheng, X. Tang, Z. Yang, Z. Liang, Y. Chen, K. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Zhang, J. Ji, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer phosphorene-decorated microfiber for all-optical thresholding and optical modulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700026 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, and C. Pan, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.-M.

Cheng, X.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and X. Cheng, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 441–447 (2014).
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Cheong, H.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, J. Kim, K. Choi, J.-U. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. Cheong, and D.-I. Yeom, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chernysheva, M.

M. Chernysheva, C. Mou, R. Arif, M. AlAraimi, M. Rümmeli, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “High power Q-switched thulium doped fibre laser using carbon nanotube polymer composite saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24220 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, K.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, J. Kim, K. Choi, J.-U. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. Cheong, and D.-I. Yeom, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chong, W.

Chung, J. S.

H. N. Tien, J. S. Chung, and S. H. Hur, “Fabrication of a novel 2D-graphene/2D-NiO nanosheet-based hybrid nanostructure and its use in highly sensitive NO2 sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 185, 701–705 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dahotre, N. B.

N. B. Dahotre and S. Harimkar, Laser Fabrication and Machining of Materials (Springer, 2008).

De Adhikari, A.

S. K. Tiwari, G. Hatui, R. Oraon, A. De Adhikari, and G. C. Nayak, “Mixing sequence driven controlled dispersion of graphene oxide in PC/PMMA blend nanocomposite and its effect on thermo-mechanical properties,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 17, 1158–1168 (2017).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R.

de Souza, E. A. T.

Debnath, P.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. Song, and J. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deleporte, E.

S. Hong, F. Lédée, J. Park, S. Song, H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, B. Kim, D. I. Yeom, E. Deleporte, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of all-fiber lasers operating at both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes in the C- and L-bands using thin film of 2D perovskite crystallites,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dhanabalan, S. C.

C. Xing, Z. Xie, Z. Liang, W. Liang, T. Fan, J. S. Ponraj, S. C. Dhanabalan, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “2D nonlayered selenium nanosheets: facile synthesis, photoluminescence, and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700884 (2017).
[Crossref]

DiGiovanni, D.

Domingues, S. H.

Dugasani, S. R.

S. R. Dugasani, B. Paulson, T. Ha, T. S. Jung, B. Gnapareddy, J. A. Kim, T. Kim, H. J. Kim, J. H. Kim, and K. Oh, “Fabrication and optoelectronic characterisation of lanthanide-and metal-ion-doped DNA thin films,” J. Phys. D 51, 285301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

C. Xing, Z. Xie, Z. Liang, W. Liang, T. Fan, J. S. Ponraj, S. C. Dhanabalan, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “2D nonlayered selenium nanosheets: facile synthesis, photoluminescence, and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700884 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, T.

Z. Xie, F. Zhang, Z. Liang, T. Fan, Z. Li, X. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Revealing of the ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical response and enabled photonic application in two-dimensional tin sulfide,” Photon. Res. 7, 494–502 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Xing, Z. Xie, Z. Liang, W. Liang, T. Fan, J. S. Ponraj, S. C. Dhanabalan, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “2D nonlayered selenium nanosheets: facile synthesis, photoluminescence, and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700884 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

Ge, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Ge, L. Wu, J. Liu, and J. Li, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Xie, L. Lu, J. Zhao, Y. Wang, X. Jiang, Y. Ge, F. Zhang, S. Lu, and Z. Guo, “Few-layer tin sulfide: a promising black-phosphorus-analogue 2D material with exceptionally large nonlinear optical response, high stability, and applications in all-optical switching and wavelength conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700985 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gerosa, R. M.

Gielerak, G.

S. Jaworski, M. Wierzbicki, E. Sawosz, A. Jung, G. Gielerak, J. Biernat, H. Jaremek, W. Łojkowski, B. Woźniak, and J. Wojnarowicz, “Graphene oxide-based nanocomposites decorated with silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent,” Nanosc. Res. Lett. 13, 116 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gladush, G. G.

G. G. Gladush and I. Smurov, Physics of Laser Materials Processing: Theory and Experiment (Springer, 2011).

Gnapareddy, B.

S. R. Dugasani, B. Paulson, T. Ha, T. S. Jung, B. Gnapareddy, J. A. Kim, T. Kim, H. J. Kim, J. H. Kim, and K. Oh, “Fabrication and optoelectronic characterisation of lanthanide-and metal-ion-doped DNA thin films,” J. Phys. D 51, 285301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A.

Guesmi, K.

Guo, J.

Y. Wang, W. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Ge, L. Wu, J. Liu, and J. Li, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

L. Wu, Z. Xie, L. Lu, J. Zhao, Y. Wang, X. Jiang, Y. Ge, F. Zhang, S. Lu, and Z. Guo, “Few-layer tin sulfide: a promising black-phosphorus-analogue 2D material with exceptionally large nonlinear optical response, high stability, and applications in all-optical switching and wavelength conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700985 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ha, T.

S. R. Dugasani, B. Paulson, T. Ha, T. S. Jung, B. Gnapareddy, J. A. Kim, T. Kim, H. J. Kim, J. H. Kim, and K. Oh, “Fabrication and optoelectronic characterisation of lanthanide-and metal-ion-doped DNA thin films,” J. Phys. D 51, 285301 (2018).
[Crossref]

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A. H. Hamad, “Effects of different laser pulse regimes (nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond) on the ablation of materials for production of nanoparticles in liquid solution,” in High Energy and Short Pulse Lasers (InTech, 2016), pp. 305–325.

Hanafi, E.

N. Aziz, Z. Jusoh, M. Lokman, M. Yasin, E. Hanafi, and S. Harun, “Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide embedded in PMMA film,” Digest J. Nanomater. Biostruct. 12, 325–330 (2017).

Harimkar, S.

N. B. Dahotre and S. Harimkar, Laser Fabrication and Machining of Materials (Springer, 2008).

Harun, S.

N. Aziz, Z. Jusoh, M. Lokman, M. Yasin, E. Hanafi, and S. Harun, “Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide embedded in PMMA film,” Digest J. Nanomater. Biostruct. 12, 325–330 (2017).

H. Ahmad, M. Soltanian, M. Alimadad, and S. Harun, “Stable narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched graphene oxide embedded in a photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105101 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, F. Muhammad, M. Zulkifli, and S. Harun, “Graphene-oxide-based saturable absorber for all-fiber Q-switching with a simple optical deposition technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2205–2213 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harun, S. W.

Hatui, G.

S. K. Tiwari, G. Hatui, R. Oraon, A. De Adhikari, and G. C. Nayak, “Mixing sequence driven controlled dispersion of graphene oxide in PC/PMMA blend nanocomposite and its effect on thermo-mechanical properties,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 17, 1158–1168 (2017).
[Crossref]

He, X.

Holdynski, M.

Hong, S.

S. Hong, F. Lédée, J. Park, S. Song, H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, B. Kim, D. I. Yeom, E. Deleporte, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of all-fiber lasers operating at both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes in the C- and L-bands using thin film of 2D perovskite crystallites,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, W.-F.

Hu, Y.

M. Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M. Nowak, A. Malolepszy, A. Witowski, D. Wasik, Y. Hu, and L. Stobinski, “Graphene oxide with controlled content of oxygen groups as a filler for polymer composites used for infrared radiation shielding,” Nanomaterials 10, 32 (2020).
[Crossref]

Huang, N.

Huang, W.

Y. Wang, W. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Ge, L. Wu, J. Liu, and J. Li, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hur, S. H.

H. N. Tien, J. S. Chung, and S. H. Hur, “Fabrication of a novel 2D-graphene/2D-NiO nanosheet-based hybrid nanostructure and its use in highly sensitive NO2 sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 185, 701–705 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ismail, M.

Ismail, M. A.

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. A. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser using zinc oxide nanoparticles as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4277–4281 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, N. Ruslan, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, C. Lee, R. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ismail, S. W. Harun, H. Ahmad, and M. C. Paul, Passive Q-switched and Mode-locked Fiber Lasers Using Carbon-based Saturable Absorbers (IntechOpen, 2016).

Ismail, M. F.

H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, M. Yasin, M. F. Ismail, and K. Thambiratnam, “In2Se3 saturable absorber for generating tunable Q-switched outputs from a bismuth-erbium doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 115105 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jagiello, J.

Janczuk, B.

B. Janczuk and A. Zdziennicka, “A study on the components of surface free energy of quartz from contact angle measurements,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 3559–3564 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jaremek, H.

S. Jaworski, M. Wierzbicki, E. Sawosz, A. Jung, G. Gielerak, J. Biernat, H. Jaremek, W. Łojkowski, B. Woźniak, and J. Wojnarowicz, “Graphene oxide-based nanocomposites decorated with silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent,” Nanosc. Res. Lett. 13, 116 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jaworski, S.

S. Jaworski, M. Wierzbicki, E. Sawosz, A. Jung, G. Gielerak, J. Biernat, H. Jaremek, W. Łojkowski, B. Woźniak, and J. Wojnarowicz, “Graphene oxide-based nanocomposites decorated with silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent,” Nanosc. Res. Lett. 13, 116 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, J. Kim, K. Choi, J.-U. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. Cheong, and D.-I. Yeom, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Passive Q-switching of an all-fiber laser using WS2-deposited optical fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1503507 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locked all-fiber lasers at both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes based on spin-coated MoS2 nano-sheets on a side-polished fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1500109 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber laser based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nanosheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22, 23732–23742 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ji, J.

J. Zheng, X. Tang, Z. Yang, Z. Liang, Y. Chen, K. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Zhang, J. Ji, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer phosphorene-decorated microfiber for all-optical thresholding and optical modulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700026 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, G.

Jiang, X.

Z. Xie, F. Zhang, Z. Liang, T. Fan, Z. Li, X. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Revealing of the ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical response and enabled photonic application in two-dimensional tin sulfide,” Photon. Res. 7, 494–502 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Xie, L. Lu, J. Zhao, Y. Wang, X. Jiang, Y. Ge, F. Zhang, S. Lu, and Z. Guo, “Few-layer tin sulfide: a promising black-phosphorus-analogue 2D material with exceptionally large nonlinear optical response, high stability, and applications in all-optical switching and wavelength conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700985 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

Jung, A.

S. Jaworski, M. Wierzbicki, E. Sawosz, A. Jung, G. Gielerak, J. Biernat, H. Jaremek, W. Łojkowski, B. Woźniak, and J. Wojnarowicz, “Graphene oxide-based nanocomposites decorated with silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent,” Nanosc. Res. Lett. 13, 116 (2018).
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[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber laser based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nanosheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locked all-fiber lasers at both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes based on spin-coated MoS2 nano-sheets on a side-polished fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1500109 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, J. Kim, K. Choi, J.-U. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. Cheong, and D.-I. Yeom, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22, 23732–23742 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Yu, X.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and P. P. Shum, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and P. P. Shum, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and X. Cheng, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 441–447 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Zdrojek, M.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and X. Cheng, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 441–447 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Zhou, L.

L. Li, X. Yang, L. Zhou, W. Xie, Y. Bai, G. Ye, Y. Shen, Z. Lv, H. Zhang, and M. Chen, “BN as a saturable absorber for a passively mode-locked 2  μm solid-state laser,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) 13, 1800482 (2019).
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[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Xie, L. Lu, J. Zhao, Y. Wang, X. Jiang, Y. Ge, F. Zhang, S. Lu, and Z. Guo, “Few-layer tin sulfide: a promising black-phosphorus-analogue 2D material with exceptionally large nonlinear optical response, high stability, and applications in all-optical switching and wavelength conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700985 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Xing, Z. Xie, Z. Liang, W. Liang, T. Fan, J. S. Ponraj, S. C. Dhanabalan, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “2D nonlayered selenium nanosheets: facile synthesis, photoluminescence, and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700884 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, X. Tang, Z. Yang, Z. Liang, Y. Chen, K. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Zhang, J. Ji, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer phosphorene-decorated microfiber for all-optical thresholding and optical modulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700026 (2017).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the proposed deposition process and Q switching of an Er-doped fiber laser using a graphene oxide saturable absorber. The inset shows the three steps in the proposed GO deposition by using the electric arc and self-starting Q-switched laser pulses. (LD, pump laser diode at λ=980  nm; PC, polarization controller; EDF, Er-doped fiber; WDM, 980 nm/1550 nm wavelength-division multiplexer; GO-SA, graphene oxide saturable absorber.)
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Configuration of the fabricated all-fiber GO-SA. The inset picture was taken from the fusion splicer. The gap between two fiber facets, d, was optimized to be 8  μm. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the GO bulk film on the fiber facet deposited by the electric arc. Inset is its optical microscopic image. (c) SEM images of the GO multi-layer film on the fiber facet formed by laser-driven self-exfoliation. The blown SEM image clearly shows a layered structure on the fiber core. The inset is its optical microscopic image, where the light was guided through the core with a significantly thinner GO multi-layer film. (d) Micro Raman spectrum of the deposited GO film on the fiber core after the laser-driven self-exfoliation. (SMF, single mode fiber; GO-SA, graphene oxide saturable absorber.)
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Linear transmission spectrum of GO bulk film on a silica substrate. (b) The measurement setup for the nonlinear transmission of the GO-SA formed by the laser-driven self-exfoliation process. (c) Nonlinear transmission of the GO-SA as a function of the input laser intensity. (GO-SA, graphene oxide saturable absorber; VOA, variable optical attenuator; PC, polarization controller.)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of Q switching experimental setup using the all-fiber GO-SA. The output of the laser was monitored in the wavelength spectral domain, RF domain, and time domain. (GO-SA, graphene oxide multi-layer film saturable absorber; LD, laser diode; EDF, erbium-doped fiber; PD, photodetector; PC, polarization controller; hybrid component, an integrated wavelength-division multiplexer and isolator; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.)
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Lasing characteristics for the bulk GO film device in the ring laser cavity: (a) optical spectra, (b) RF spectra and the oscilloscope trace in the inset. Here the pump laser power was 149  mW.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Lasing characteristics of the Q-switched EDFL using the multi-layer GO-SA. (a) Optical spectrum (the inset shows the peak wavelength of the output laser for CW, unstable pulsing, and stable Q-switched pulsing); (b) RF spectrum; (c) oscilloscope trace of the pulse train. (d) Pulse repetition rate and pulse width as functions of the pump power; (e) output power and pulse energy as functions of the pump power. (f) Duty cycle and peak power as functions of the pump power.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Schematic diagram of transmission measurements for the fabricated multi-layer GO-SA with the gap of 8  μm. (b) Fabry–Perot filter simulation (black line), experimental measurements (blue line), and the laser output (red line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Q-Switched EDFLs Based on Graphene Oxide Saturable Absorbers

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Table 2. Performance Comparison of the Present Result to Recent Q-Switched EDFLs Incorporating Other Materials in the L-Band

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