Abstract

All-optical modulation based on the photothermal effect of two-dimensional (2D) materials shows great promise for all-optical signal processing and communication. In this work, an all-optical modulator with a 2D PtSe2-on-silicon structure based on a microring resonator is proposed and demonstrated utilizing the photothermal effect of PtSe2. A tuning efficiency of 0.0040  nm·mW1 is achieved, and the 10%–90% rise and decay times are 304 μs and 284 μs, respectively. The fabricated device exhibits a long-term air stability of more than 3 months. The experimental results prove that 2D PtSe2 has great potential for optical modulation on a silicon photonic platform.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2020 (2)

M. Ono, M. Hata, M. Tsunekawa, K. Nozaki, H. Sumikura, H. Chiba, and M. Notomi, “Ultrafast and energy-efficient all-optical switching with graphene-loaded deep-subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 14, 37–43 (2020).
[Crossref]

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2019 (8)

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Minzioni, C. Lacava, T. Tanabe, J. Dong, X. Hu, G. Csaba, W. Porod, G. Singh, A. E. Willner, and A. Almaiman, “Roadmap on all-optical processing,” J. Opt. 21, 063001 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s-1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13, 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-based all-optical modulator using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) deposited microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4, 1800532 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Xie, D. Zhang, X.-Q. Yan, M. Ren, X. Zhao, F. Liu, R. Sun, X. Li, Z. Li, and S. Chen, “Optical properties of chemical vapor deposition-grown PtSe2 characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” 2D Mater. 6, 035011 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Zhuo, L. Zeng, H. Yuan, D. Wu, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, T. Xu, Y. Tian, X. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “In-situ fabrication of PtSe2/GaN heterojunction for self-powered deep ultraviolet photodetector with ultrahigh current on/off ratio and detectivity,” Nano Res. 12, 183–189 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. H. Tahersima, Z. Ma, Y. Gui, S. Sun, H. Wang, R. Amin, H. Dalir, R. Chen, M. Miscuglio, and V. J. Sorger, “Coupling-enhanced dual ITO layer electro-absorption modulator in silicon photonics,” Nanophotonics 8, 1559 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Ge, L. Wu, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (15)

H. Yang, M. Schmidt, V. Süss, M. Chan, F. F. Balakirev, R. D. McDonald, S. S. P. Parkin, C. Felser, B. Yan, and P. J. W. Moll, “Quantum oscillations in the type-II Dirac semi-metal candidate PtSe2,” New J. Phys. 20, 043008 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, P. Yu, D. Wu, B. Singh, Q. Zeng, H. Lin, W. Zhou, J. Lin, K. Suenaga, and Z. Liu, “Atomically thin noble metal dichalcogenide: a broadband mid-infrared semiconductor,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1545 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, M. Feng, Y. Ren, F. Liu, X. Chen, J. Yang, X. Yan, F. Song, and J. Tian, “Q-switched and mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser using PtSe2 as a saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 893–899 (2018).

C. Yim, N. McEvoy, S. Riazimehr, D. S. Schneider, F. Gity, S. Monaghan, P. K. Hurley, M. C. Lemme, and G. S. Duesberg, “Wide spectral photoresponse of layered platinum diselenide-based photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 18, 1794–1800 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yuan, H. Mu, L. Li, Y. Chen, W. Yu, K. Zhang, B. Sun, S. Lin, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Few-layer platinum diselenide as a new saturable absorber for ultrafast fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 21534–21540 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Zeng, C. Jia, E. Wu, T. Xu, Z. Shi, Y. Tian, X. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “Design of 2D layered PtSe2 heterojunction for the high-performance, room-temperature, broadband, infrared photodetector,” ACS Photonics 5, 3820–3827 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, S. Lin, Z. Lou, H. Yuan, H. Long, Y. Li, W. Lu, S. P. Lau, D. Wu, and Y. H. Tsang, “Ultrafast and sensitive photodetector based on a PtSe2/silicon nanowire array heterojunction with a multiband spectral response from 200 to 1550  nm,” NPG Asia Mater. 10, 352–362 (2018).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Zeng, S.-H. Lin, Z.-J. Li, Z.-X. Zhang, T.-F. Zhang, C. Xie, C.-H. Mak, Y. Chai, S. P. Lau, L.-B. Luo, and Y. H. Tsang, “Fast, self-driven, air-stable, and broadband photodetector based on vertically aligned PtSe2/GaAs heterojunction,” Adv. Functional Mater. 28, 1705970 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, Y. Wang, C. Qiu, and J. Chen, “Thermo-optic all-optical devices based on two-dimensional materials,” Photon. Res. 6, C22–C28 (2018).

M. Miscuglio, A. Mehrabian, Z. Hu, S. I. Azzam, J. George, A. V. Kildishev, M. Pelton, and V. J. Sorger, “All-optical nonlinear activation function for photonic neural networks [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 3851–3863 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. I. Azzam and A. V. Kildishev, “Time-domain dynamics of reverse saturable absorbers with application to plasmon-enhanced optical limiters,” Nanophotonics 8, 145–151 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Huang, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Ge, and Y. Song, “All‐optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Yan, B. Zhang, H. Nie, G. Li, J. Liu, B. Shi, K. Yang, and J. He, “Bilayer platinum diselenide saturable absorber for 2.0 μm passively Q-switched bulk lasers,” Opt. Express 26, 31657–31663 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, “2D noncarbon materials-based nonlinear optical devices for ultrafast photonics,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16, 020004 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Krasnok, S. Lepeshov, and A. Alú, “Nanophotonics with 2D transition metal dichalcogenides [Invited],” Opt. Express 26, 15972–15994 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

C. Qiu, Y. Yang, C. Li, Y. Wang, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “All-optical control of light on a graphene-on-silicon nitride chip using thermo-optic effect,” Sci. Rep. 7, 17046 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, C. Guo, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550  nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25, 17639–17649 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. S. Fandiño, P. Muñoz, D. Doménech, and J. Capmany, “A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter,” Nat. Photonics 11, 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, M. Yan, H. Zhang, H. Huang, M. Arita, Z. Sun, W. Duan, Y. Wu, and S. Zhou, “Experimental evidence for type-II Dirac semimetal in PtSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 125102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Qiao, Z. Yu, P. Yu, K. Xu, S. P. Lau, W. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, W. Ji, and Y. Chai, “High-electron-mobility and air-stable 2D layered PtSe2 FETs,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1604230 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, W. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Computational search for two-dimensional MX2 semiconductors with possible high electron mobility at room temperature,” Materials 9, 716 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10, 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yim, K. Lee, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Riazimehr, N. C. Berner, C. P. Cullen, J. Kotakoski, J. C. Meyer, M. C. Lemme, and G. S. Duesberg, “High-performance hybrid electronic devices from layered PtSe2 films grown at low temperature,” ACS Nano 10, 9550–9558 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, A. Lentine, C. DeRose, A. L. Starbuck, D. Trotter, A. Pomerene, and S. Mookherjea, “Wide-range and fast thermally-tunable silicon photonic microring resonators using the junction field effect,” Opt. Express 24, 23081–23093 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, Q. Li, F. Besenbacher, and M. Dong, “Facile synthesis of single crystal PtSe2 nanosheets for nanoscale electronics,” Adv. Mater. 28, 10224–10229 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, S. Zhou, and W. Duan, “Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 121117 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, X. Chen, Y. Qu, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Photothermal switching based on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer integrated with light absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 7802610 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z. Shi, L. Gan, T.-H. Xiao, H.-L. Guo, and Z.-Y. Li, “All-optical modulation of a graphene-cladded silicon photonic crystal cavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1513–1518 (2015).

Y. Wang, L. Li, W. Yao, S. Song, J. T. Sun, J. Pan, X. Ren, C. Li, E. Okunishi, Y.-Q. Wang, E. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Y. Zhang, H.-T. Yang, E. F. Schwier, H. Iwasawa, K. Shimada, M. Taniguchi, Z. Cheng, S. Zhou, S. Du, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, and H.-J. Gao, “Monolayer PtSe2, a new semiconducting transition-metal-dichalcogenide, epitaxially grown by direct selenization of Pt,” Nano Lett. 15, 4013–4018 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Gan, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, D. Mao, L. Fang, L. Han, and J. Zhao, “Graphene-assisted all-fiber phase shifter and switching,” Optica 2, 468–471 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Shi, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Photothermal switching of SOI waveguide-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer with integrated plasmonic nanoheater,” Plasmonics 9, 1197–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Shi, F. Lou, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25233–25241 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. Ferrari, M. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Xin, W. Luna, G. Shiliang, L. Zhiquan, and Y. Ming, “Doubled temperature measurement range for a single micro-ring sensor,” Acta Phys. Sinica 63, 154209 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H.-P. Komsa and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Electronic structures and optical properties of realistic transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures from first principles,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 085318 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2,” Nano Lett. 13, 5627–5634 (2013).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004)..
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Espinola, M. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1366–1368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Abid, M.

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Almaiman, A.

P. Minzioni, C. Lacava, T. Tanabe, J. Dong, X. Hu, G. Csaba, W. Porod, G. Singh, A. E. Willner, and A. Almaiman, “Roadmap on all-optical processing,” J. Opt. 21, 063001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004)..
[Crossref]

Alú, A.

Amin, R.

M. H. Tahersima, Z. Ma, Y. Gui, S. Sun, H. Wang, R. Amin, H. Dalir, R. Chen, M. Miscuglio, and V. J. Sorger, “Coupling-enhanced dual ITO layer electro-absorption modulator in silicon photonics,” Nanophotonics 8, 1559 (2019).
[Crossref]

Arita, M.

K. Zhang, M. Yan, H. Zhang, H. Huang, M. Arita, Z. Sun, W. Duan, Y. Wu, and S. Zhou, “Experimental evidence for type-II Dirac semimetal in PtSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 125102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

F. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. Ferrari, M. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref]

Azzam, S. I.

S. I. Azzam and A. V. Kildishev, “Time-domain dynamics of reverse saturable absorbers with application to plasmon-enhanced optical limiters,” Nanophotonics 8, 145–151 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Miscuglio, A. Mehrabian, Z. Hu, S. I. Azzam, J. George, A. V. Kildishev, M. Pelton, and V. J. Sorger, “All-optical nonlinear activation function for photonic neural networks [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 3851–3863 (2018).
[Crossref]

Balakirev, F. F.

H. Yang, M. Schmidt, V. Süss, M. Chan, F. F. Balakirev, R. D. McDonald, S. S. P. Parkin, C. Felser, B. Yan, and P. J. W. Moll, “Quantum oscillations in the type-II Dirac semi-metal candidate PtSe2,” New J. Phys. 20, 043008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

J. Yuan, H. Mu, L. Li, Y. Chen, W. Yu, K. Zhang, B. Sun, S. Lin, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Few-layer platinum diselenide as a new saturable absorber for ultrafast fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 21534–21540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004)..
[Crossref]

Berner, N. C.

C. Yim, K. Lee, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Riazimehr, N. C. Berner, C. P. Cullen, J. Kotakoski, J. C. Meyer, M. C. Lemme, and G. S. Duesberg, “High-performance hybrid electronic devices from layered PtSe2 films grown at low temperature,” ACS Nano 10, 9550–9558 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Besenbacher, F.

Z. Wang, Q. Li, F. Besenbacher, and M. Dong, “Facile synthesis of single crystal PtSe2 nanosheets for nanoscale electronics,” Adv. Mater. 28, 10224–10229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s-1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13, 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. S. Fandiño, P. Muñoz, D. Doménech, and J. Capmany, “A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter,” Nat. Photonics 11, 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, A.

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2,” Nano Lett. 13, 5627–5634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2,” Nano Lett. 13, 5627–5634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chai, Y.

L.-H. Zeng, S.-H. Lin, Z.-J. Li, Z.-X. Zhang, T.-F. Zhang, C. Xie, C.-H. Mak, Y. Chai, S. P. Lau, L.-B. Luo, and Y. H. Tsang, “Fast, self-driven, air-stable, and broadband photodetector based on vertically aligned PtSe2/GaAs heterojunction,” Adv. Functional Mater. 28, 1705970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Qiao, Z. Yu, P. Yu, K. Xu, S. P. Lau, W. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, W. Ji, and Y. Chai, “High-electron-mobility and air-stable 2D layered PtSe2 FETs,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1604230 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chan, M.

H. Yang, M. Schmidt, V. Süss, M. Chan, F. F. Balakirev, R. D. McDonald, S. S. P. Parkin, C. Felser, B. Yan, and P. J. W. Moll, “Quantum oscillations in the type-II Dirac semi-metal candidate PtSe2,” New J. Phys. 20, 043008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

Chen, B.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s-1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13, 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, R.

M. H. Tahersima, Z. Ma, Y. Gui, S. Sun, H. Wang, R. Amin, H. Dalir, R. Chen, M. Miscuglio, and V. J. Sorger, “Coupling-enhanced dual ITO layer electro-absorption modulator in silicon photonics,” Nanophotonics 8, 1559 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-based all-optical modulator using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) deposited microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4, 1800532 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Xie, D. Zhang, X.-Q. Yan, M. Ren, X. Zhao, F. Liu, R. Sun, X. Li, Z. Li, and S. Chen, “Optical properties of chemical vapor deposition-grown PtSe2 characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” 2D Mater. 6, 035011 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Huang, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Ge, and Y. Song, “All‐optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, M. Feng, Y. Ren, F. Liu, X. Chen, J. Yang, X. Yan, F. Song, and J. Tian, “Q-switched and mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser using PtSe2 as a saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 893–899 (2018).

H. Gong, X. Chen, Y. Qu, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Photothermal switching based on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer integrated with light absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 7802610 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Shi, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Photothermal switching of SOI waveguide-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer with integrated plasmonic nanoheater,” Plasmonics 9, 1197–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Shi, F. Lou, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25233–25241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Huang, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Ge, and Y. Song, “All‐optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yuan, H. Mu, L. Li, Y. Chen, W. Yu, K. Zhang, B. Sun, S. Lin, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Few-layer platinum diselenide as a new saturable absorber for ultrafast fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 21534–21540 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Shi, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Photothermal switching of SOI waveguide-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer with integrated plasmonic nanoheater,” Plasmonics 9, 1197–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Shi, F. Lou, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25233–25241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Y. Wang, L. Li, W. Yao, S. Song, J. T. Sun, J. Pan, X. Ren, C. Li, E. Okunishi, Y.-Q. Wang, E. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Y. Zhang, H.-T. Yang, E. F. Schwier, H. Iwasawa, K. Shimada, M. Taniguchi, Z. Cheng, S. Zhou, S. Du, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, and H.-J. Gao, “Monolayer PtSe2, a new semiconducting transition-metal-dichalcogenide, epitaxially grown by direct selenization of Pt,” Nano Lett. 15, 4013–4018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiba, H.

M. Ono, M. Hata, M. Tsunekawa, K. Nozaki, H. Sumikura, H. Chiba, and M. Notomi, “Ultrafast and energy-efficient all-optical switching with graphene-loaded deep-subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 14, 37–43 (2020).
[Crossref]

Csaba, G.

P. Minzioni, C. Lacava, T. Tanabe, J. Dong, X. Hu, G. Csaba, W. Porod, G. Singh, A. E. Willner, and A. Almaiman, “Roadmap on all-optical processing,” J. Opt. 21, 063001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cullen, C. P.

C. Yim, K. Lee, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Riazimehr, N. C. Berner, C. P. Cullen, J. Kotakoski, J. C. Meyer, M. C. Lemme, and G. S. Duesberg, “High-performance hybrid electronic devices from layered PtSe2 films grown at low temperature,” ACS Nano 10, 9550–9558 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dalir, H.

M. H. Tahersima, Z. Ma, Y. Gui, S. Sun, H. Wang, R. Amin, H. Dalir, R. Chen, M. Miscuglio, and V. J. Sorger, “Coupling-enhanced dual ITO layer electro-absorption modulator in silicon photonics,” Nanophotonics 8, 1559 (2019).
[Crossref]

Deng, M.

DeRose, C.

Ding, Y.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doménech, D.

J. S. Fandiño, P. Muñoz, D. Doménech, and J. Capmany, “A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter,” Nat. Photonics 11, 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Donegan, J. F.

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

P. Minzioni, C. Lacava, T. Tanabe, J. Dong, X. Hu, G. Csaba, W. Porod, G. Singh, A. E. Willner, and A. Almaiman, “Roadmap on all-optical processing,” J. Opt. 21, 063001 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dong, M.

Z. Wang, Q. Li, F. Besenbacher, and M. Dong, “Facile synthesis of single crystal PtSe2 nanosheets for nanoscale electronics,” Adv. Mater. 28, 10224–10229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, S.

Y. Wang, L. Li, W. Yao, S. Song, J. T. Sun, J. Pan, X. Ren, C. Li, E. Okunishi, Y.-Q. Wang, E. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Y. Zhang, H.-T. Yang, E. F. Schwier, H. Iwasawa, K. Shimada, M. Taniguchi, Z. Cheng, S. Zhou, S. Du, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, and H.-J. Gao, “Monolayer PtSe2, a new semiconducting transition-metal-dichalcogenide, epitaxially grown by direct selenization of Pt,” Nano Lett. 15, 4013–4018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duan, W.

K. Zhang, M. Yan, H. Zhang, H. Huang, M. Arita, Z. Sun, W. Duan, Y. Wu, and S. Zhou, “Experimental evidence for type-II Dirac semimetal in PtSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 125102 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, S. Zhou, and W. Duan, “Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 121117 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dubey, M.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duesberg, G. S.

C. Yim, N. McEvoy, S. Riazimehr, D. S. Schneider, F. Gity, S. Monaghan, P. K. Hurley, M. C. Lemme, and G. S. Duesberg, “Wide spectral photoresponse of layered platinum diselenide-based photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 18, 1794–1800 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Yim, K. Lee, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Riazimehr, N. C. Berner, C. P. Cullen, J. Kotakoski, J. C. Meyer, M. C. Lemme, and G. S. Duesberg, “High-performance hybrid electronic devices from layered PtSe2 films grown at low temperature,” ACS Nano 10, 9550–9558 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eda, G.

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2,” Nano Lett. 13, 5627–5634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elibol, K.

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Espinola, R.

R. Espinola, M. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1366–1368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fandiño, J. S.

J. S. Fandiño, P. Muñoz, D. Doménech, and J. Capmany, “A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter,” Nat. Photonics 11, 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fang, L.

Fang, W.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Felser, C.

H. Yang, M. Schmidt, V. Süss, M. Chan, F. F. Balakirev, R. D. McDonald, S. S. P. Parkin, C. Felser, B. Yan, and P. J. W. Moll, “Quantum oscillations in the type-II Dirac semi-metal candidate PtSe2,” New J. Phys. 20, 043008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, M.

Ferrari, A.

F. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. Ferrari, M. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref]

Frandsen, L. H.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gan, L.

Z. Shi, L. Gan, T.-H. Xiao, H.-L. Guo, and Z.-Y. Li, “All-optical modulation of a graphene-cladded silicon photonic crystal cavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1513–1518 (2015).

Gan, X.

Gao, H.-J.

Y. Wang, L. Li, W. Yao, S. Song, J. T. Sun, J. Pan, X. Ren, C. Li, E. Okunishi, Y.-Q. Wang, E. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Y. Zhang, H.-T. Yang, E. F. Schwier, H. Iwasawa, K. Shimada, M. Taniguchi, Z. Cheng, S. Zhou, S. Du, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, and H.-J. Gao, “Monolayer PtSe2, a new semiconducting transition-metal-dichalcogenide, epitaxially grown by direct selenization of Pt,” Nano Lett. 15, 4013–4018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s-1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13, 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Ge, L. Wu, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Huang, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Ge, and Y. Song, “All‐optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

George, J.

Gity, F.

C. Yim, N. McEvoy, S. Riazimehr, D. S. Schneider, F. Gity, S. Monaghan, P. K. Hurley, M. C. Lemme, and G. S. Duesberg, “Wide spectral photoresponse of layered platinum diselenide-based photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 18, 1794–1800 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gong, H.

H. Gong, X. Chen, Y. Qu, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Photothermal switching based on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer integrated with light absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 7802610 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A. N.

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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Photon. Res. (3)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Optical microscopy image of the CVD grown PtSe2 film. (b) Raman spectrum of PtSe2 film. (c) AFM image of the transferred PtSe2 and the typical height profile along the white dashed line. XPS spectra of (d) the PtSe2 film, (e) the Pt 4f region, and (f) the Se 3d region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Microscope image of the all-optical modulator where PtSe2 film fully covers the whole device. (b) A zoom-in on the part of the MRR shows uniformly transferred thin film. (c) Cross section of the PtSe2-on-silicon structure. (d) Transmission spectra of the MRR without (brown) and with (blue) the PtSe2 film (normalized respectively). (e) All-optical modulation mechanism and experimental setup of the PtSe2-based modulator. TLS, tunable laser source; ASE, amplified spontaneous emission; PC, polarization controller; SMF, single-mode fiber; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; PD, photodetector; OSCP, oscilloscope.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Static spectral response for different pump powers. (b) Measured resonance shift versus pump power and the corresponding linear fitting curves, for pristine PtSe2 device (red) and the device after 3-month air exposure (blue).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Pump light with 100 Hz frequency and (b) the corresponding modulated signal light. (c) Several signal waveforms at different frequencies. (d) Vpp versus modulation frequency.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Infrared thermograms of the PtSe2 modulator with pump powers of (a) 50 mW and (b) 500 mW. (c) Surface temperature change of the modulator versus pump power.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Optical microscopy image of the pure silicon MZI. (b) Static spectral response for different pump powers. (c) Measured resonance shift versus pump power and the corresponding fitting curve.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of Reported All-Optical Modulators Based on the Photothermal Effect of 2D Materials

Equations (5)

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λm=2πrneffm,
ΔλFSR=λ22πrng,
n(T)=n(T0)[1+C(TT0)],
L(T)=L(T0)eα(TT0),
Δλ=L(T0)(eαΔT+eαΔTCΔT1)2πrλm.