Abstract

Q-switched fiber lasers are integral tools in science, industry, and medicine due to their advantages of flexibility, compactness, and reliability. All-optical strategies to generate ultrashort pulses have obtained considerable attention as they can modulate the intracavity Q factors without employing costly and complex electrically driven devices. Here, we propose a high-performance all-optical modulator for actively Q-switched pulse generation based on a microfiber knot resonator deposited with V2CTx MXene. Experimental results show that the obtained Q-switching pulses exhibit a wide adjustment range of repetition rate from 1 kHz to 20 kHz, a high signal-to-background contrast ratio of 55  dB, and a narrow pulse width of 8.82 μs, indicating great potentials of providing a simple and viable solution in photonic applications.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

2019 (10)

Y. Gogotsi and B. Anasori, “The rise of MXenes,” ACS Nano 13, 8491–8494 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Z. Zhang, L. Du, L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, Y. Zou, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Highly stable femtosecond pulse generation from a MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) mode-locked fiber laser,” Photon. Res. 7, 260–264 (2019).

R. Thakur, A. VahidMohammadi, J. Moncada, W. R. Adams, M. Y. Chi, B. Tatarchuk, M. Beidaghi, and C. A. Carrero, “Insights into the thermal and chemical stability of multilayered V2CTx MXene,” Nanoscale 11, 10716–10726 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, N. Macadam, G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, T. Hasan, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched Dy:ZBLAN fiber lasers beyond 3  μm: comparison of pulse generation using acousto-optic modulation and inkjet-printed black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 27, 15032–15045 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Alaniz-Baylon, M. Duran-Sanchez, R. I. Alvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramirez, M. Bello-Jimenez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, A. A. Castillo-Guzman, and E. A. Kuzin, “Fiber laser with simultaneous multi-wavelength Er/Yb passively Q-switched and single-wavelength Tm gain-switched operations,” Photon. Res. 7, 608–614 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Wang, W. C. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. F. Song, Y. Q. Ge, L. M. Wu, J. Liu, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. L. Chen, X. X. Jin, Y. W. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800224 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, X. Jin, S. Chen, X. Jiang, Y. Hu, Q. Jiang, L. Wu, J. Li, Z. Zheng, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MXene-based saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 27, 10159–10170 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Wang, W. C. Huang, J. L. Zhao, H. Huang, C. Wang, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Q. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “A bismuthene-based multifunctional all-optical phase and intensity modulator enabled by photothermal effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 871–878 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Z. Wang, L. M. Wu, X. T. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. X. Jin, Q. Y. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Q. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-based all-optical modulator using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) deposited microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4, 1800532 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

2017 (4)

C. Y. Qiu, Y. X. Yang, C. Li, Y. F. Wang, K. Wu, and J. P. Chen, “All-optical control of light on a graphene-on-silicon nitride chip using thermo-optic effect,” Sci. Rep. 7, 17046 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. T. Gai, J. Li, and Y. Zhao, “Preparation and application of microfiber resonant ring sensors: a review,” Opt. Laser Technol. 89, 126–136 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, C. S. Guo, H. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550 nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25, 17639–17649 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Z. P. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

X. T. Gan, C. Y. Zhao, Y. D. Wang, D. Mao, L. Fang, L. Han, and J. L. Zhao, “Graphene-assisted all-fiber phase shifter and switching,” Optica 2, 468–471 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. H. Hu, G. Q. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).

A. B. Ren, M. Feng, F. Song, Y. Y. Ren, S. Yang, Z. G. Yang, Y. G. Li, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Actively Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser by an all-optical Q-switcher based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23, 21490–21496 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Lei, X. Zhang, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances in MXene: preparation, properties, and applications,” Front. Phys. 10, 276–286 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, K. Chen, D. Y. Tong, Y. J. Huang, J. W. Zhang, J. M. Xue, Q. Huang, and T. Chen, “CO2 and temperature dual responsive ‘smart’ MXene phases,” Chem. Commun. 51, 314–317 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Naguib, J. Halim, J. Lu, K. M. Cook, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “New two-dimensional niobium and vanadium carbides as promising materials for Li-ion batteries,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15966–15969 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. G. Yun, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “An actively Q-switched single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser with an optically pumped saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 23, 095107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

L. Escalante-Zarate, Y. O. Barmenkov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “Q-switch modulator as a pulse shaper in Q-switched fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 312–314 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Actively Q-switched 2.9 μm Ho3+Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2145–2147 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lu, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lee, and T. P. Newson, “Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1318–1319 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adams, W. R.

R. Thakur, A. VahidMohammadi, J. Moncada, W. R. Adams, M. Y. Chi, B. Tatarchuk, M. Beidaghi, and C. A. Carrero, “Insights into the thermal and chemical stability of multilayered V2CTx MXene,” Nanoscale 11, 10716–10726 (2019).
[Crossref]

Alaniz-Baylon, J.

Albrow-Owen, T.

Ali, A.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

Alvarez-Tamayo, R. I.

Anasori, B.

Y. Gogotsi and B. Anasori, “The rise of MXenes,” ACS Nano 13, 8491–8494 (2019).
[Crossref]

Andres, M. V.

L. Escalante-Zarate, Y. O. Barmenkov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “Q-switch modulator as a pulse shaper in Q-switched fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 312–314 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

L. Escalante-Zarate, Y. O. Barmenkov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “Q-switch modulator as a pulse shaper in Q-switched fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 312–314 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barsoum, M. W.

M. Naguib, J. Halim, J. Lu, K. M. Cook, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “New two-dimensional niobium and vanadium carbides as promising materials for Li-ion batteries,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15966–15969 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lu, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beidaghi, M.

R. Thakur, A. VahidMohammadi, J. Moncada, W. R. Adams, M. Y. Chi, B. Tatarchuk, M. Beidaghi, and C. A. Carrero, “Insights into the thermal and chemical stability of multilayered V2CTx MXene,” Nanoscale 11, 10716–10726 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bello-Jimenez, M.

Cai, D.

Carrero, C. A.

R. Thakur, A. VahidMohammadi, J. Moncada, W. R. Adams, M. Y. Chi, B. Tatarchuk, M. Beidaghi, and C. A. Carrero, “Insights into the thermal and chemical stability of multilayered V2CTx MXene,” Nanoscale 11, 10716–10726 (2019).
[Crossref]

Castillo-Guzman, A. A.

Chen, G. W.

Chen, J.

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, K. Chen, D. Y. Tong, Y. J. Huang, J. W. Zhang, J. M. Xue, Q. Huang, and T. Chen, “CO2 and temperature dual responsive ‘smart’ MXene phases,” Chem. Commun. 51, 314–317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. P.

C. Y. Qiu, Y. X. Yang, C. Li, Y. F. Wang, K. Wu, and J. P. Chen, “All-optical control of light on a graphene-on-silicon nitride chip using thermo-optic effect,” Sci. Rep. 7, 17046 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, C. S. Guo, H. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550 nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25, 17639–17649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

J. Chen, K. Chen, D. Y. Tong, Y. J. Huang, J. W. Zhang, J. M. Xue, Q. Huang, and T. Chen, “CO2 and temperature dual responsive ‘smart’ MXene phases,” Chem. Commun. 51, 314–317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. Zhang, G. H. Hu, G. Q. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).

Chen, L. L.

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. L. Chen, X. X. Jin, Y. W. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800224 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Z. Wang, L. M. Wu, X. T. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. X. Jin, Q. Y. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Q. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-based all-optical modulator using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) deposited microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4, 1800532 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, X. Jin, S. Chen, X. Jiang, Y. Hu, Q. Jiang, L. Wu, J. Li, Z. Zheng, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MXene-based saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 27, 10159–10170 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

J. Chen, K. Chen, D. Y. Tong, Y. J. Huang, J. W. Zhang, J. M. Xue, Q. Huang, and T. Chen, “CO2 and temperature dual responsive ‘smart’ MXene phases,” Chem. Commun. 51, 314–317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Z. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. X. Chen, W. C. Huang, Z. M. Liang, L. M. Wu, Y. Q. Ge, Y. F. Song, J. Liu, D. Zhang, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “All-optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. X.

Y. Z. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. X. Chen, W. C. Huang, Z. M. Liang, L. M. Wu, Y. Q. Ge, Y. F. Song, J. Liu, D. Zhang, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “All-optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chi, M. Y.

R. Thakur, A. VahidMohammadi, J. Moncada, W. R. Adams, M. Y. Chi, B. Tatarchuk, M. Beidaghi, and C. A. Carrero, “Insights into the thermal and chemical stability of multilayered V2CTx MXene,” Nanoscale 11, 10716–10726 (2019).
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M. Naguib, J. Halim, J. Lu, K. M. Cook, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “New two-dimensional niobium and vanadium carbides as promising materials for Li-ion batteries,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15966–15969 (2013).
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J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

Y. Z. Wang, W. C. Huang, J. L. Zhao, H. Huang, C. Wang, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Q. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “A bismuthene-based multifunctional all-optical phase and intensity modulator enabled by photothermal effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 871–878 (2019).
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Y. Z. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. X. Chen, W. C. Huang, Z. M. Liang, L. M. Wu, Y. Q. Ge, Y. F. Song, J. Liu, D. Zhang, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “All-optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
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H. G. Yun, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “An actively Q-switched single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser with an optically pumped saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 23, 095107 (2013).
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R. Thakur, A. VahidMohammadi, J. Moncada, W. R. Adams, M. Y. Chi, B. Tatarchuk, M. Beidaghi, and C. A. Carrero, “Insights into the thermal and chemical stability of multilayered V2CTx MXene,” Nanoscale 11, 10716–10726 (2019).
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K. Wu, C. S. Guo, H. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550 nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25, 17639–17649 (2017).
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Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

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Optica (1)

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Sci. Rep. (2)

C. Y. Qiu, Y. X. Yang, C. Li, Y. F. Wang, K. Wu, and J. P. Chen, “All-optical control of light on a graphene-on-silicon nitride chip using thermo-optic effect,” Sci. Rep. 7, 17046 (2017).
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M. Zhang, G. H. Hu, G. Q. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Structural characterization of MXene (V2CTx). (a) SEM image of V2C after selective removal of Al. (b) TEM image of exfoliated V2CTx nanosheets. (c) HRTEM image of exfoliated V2CTx nanosheets. (d) AFM image of exfoliated V2CTx nanosheets. (e) XRD patterns of V2AlC, V2C, and exfoliated V2CTx nanosheets. (f) UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of exfoliated V2CTx nanosheets.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Experimental setup for testing the spectral response of the bare MKR and MXene-deposited MKR. Insets: optical microscopic images of MXene-deposited MKR illuminated by a red laser and a close-up of MXene-deposited MKR (inset). Transmission spectra of (b) the bare MKR and (c) the MXene-deposited MKR.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Experimental configuration of all-optical phase modulator based on the MXene-deposited MKR. (b) Thermograms of MXene-deposited MKR under pump power of 0 mW (upper) and 71 mW (lower). (c) Normalized transmission spectrum under pump power of 0 mW (blue dashed line) and 50 mW (red solid line). (d) Phase shift versus pump power. (e) Experimental configuration of all-optical intensity modulator based on the MXene-deposited MKR. (f) Waveforms of input pump light (black solid line), output signal light (blue solid line), and its fitting curves (red dotted line).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Experimental setup of the wavelength tunable fiber laser enabled by the proposed AOM. (b) Typical laser spectrum at PUMP1 power of 34 mW. (c) The laser spectra at different PUMP2 powers (0 mW, 6 mW, 10 mW, 17 mW, and 22 mW). (d) Dependence of central wavelength and spectral width on PUMP2 power. (e) The laser spectrum at PUMP2 power of 33 mW.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic diagram of the actively Q-switched fiber laser enabled by the proposed AOM. (b) Waveforms of active Q-switching pulse trains. (c) Single pulse profile fitted by a Gaussian function. (d) Laser spectrum.