Abstract

We report on the carrier dynamic and electronic structure investigations on AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with lateral polarity domains. The localized potential maximum is predicted near the domain boundaries by first-principle calculation, suggesting carrier localization and efficient radiative recombination. More importantly, lateral band diagrams of the MQWs are proposed based on electron affinities and valance band levels calculated from ultraviolet (UV) photoelectron spectroscopy. The proposed lateral band diagram is further demonstrated by surface potential distribution collected by Kelvin probe microscopy and the density-of-state calculation of energy bands. This work illustrates that lateral polarity structures are playing essential roles in the electronic properties of III-nitride photonic devices and may provide novel perspective in the realization of high-efficiency UV emitters.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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  4. R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111118 (2012).
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  6. J. Yang, B. S. Eller, and R. J. Nemanich, “Surface band bending and band alignment of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on Ga-and N-face gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123702 (2014).
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  7. G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
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    [Crossref]
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  19. F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
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  20. M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
  23. L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. Zhuang and J. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 48, 1–46 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. P. Hoffmann, “Polarity control and doping in aluminum gallium nitride,” Ph.D. dissertation (North Carolina State University, 2013).
  30. I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  31. F. Lançon, L. Genovese, and J. Eymery, “Towards simulation at picometer-scale resolution: revisiting inversion domain boundaries in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 165306 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  32. I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “Progress in external quantum efficiency for III‐nitride based deep ultraviolet light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 216, 1800815 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Lançon, L. Genovese, and J. Eymery, “Towards simulation at picometer-scale resolution: revisiting inversion domain boundaries in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 165306 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, B. S. Eller, and R. J. Nemanich, “Surface band bending and band alignment of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on Ga-and N-face gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123702 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111118 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Mita, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication of a GaN lateral polarity junction by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 3044–3048 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Mita, R. Collazo, A. Rice, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Influence of gallium supersaturation on the properties of GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013521 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Zhuang and J. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 48, 1–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

V. Fiorentini, “Origin of the efficient light emission from inversion domain boundaries in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1182–1184 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (0001) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN P-N junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ajia, I. A.

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ban, K.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Belekov, E.

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bi, W.

C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “Progress in external quantum efficiency for III‐nitride based deep ultraviolet light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 216, 1800815 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bo, B.

J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bobea, M.

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bryan, I.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bryan, Z.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

Callsen, G.

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
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S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
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I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
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I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
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M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
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W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
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P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
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R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
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F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
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S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
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R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
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S. Mita, R. Collazo, A. Rice, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Influence of gallium supersaturation on the properties of GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013521 (2008).
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X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
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G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
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S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
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P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
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G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
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F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
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F. Lançon, L. Genovese, and J. Eymery, “Towards simulation at picometer-scale resolution: revisiting inversion domain boundaries in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 165306 (2018).
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V. Fiorentini, “Origin of the efficient light emission from inversion domain boundaries in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1182–1184 (2003).
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M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
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F. Lançon, L. Genovese, and J. Eymery, “Towards simulation at picometer-scale resolution: revisiting inversion domain boundaries in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 165306 (2018).
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M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
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P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
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L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
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H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
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M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
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H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Han, X.

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

He, J.

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Heying, B.

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M. P.

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
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H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hussey, L.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
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K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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Jiang, J.

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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Kapolnek, D.

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, B.

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kirste, R.

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, S.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111118 (2012).
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R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kure, T.

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lançon, F.

F. Lançon, L. Genovese, and J. Eymery, “Towards simulation at picometer-scale resolution: revisiting inversion domain boundaries in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 165306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, K. H.

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liang, L.

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liang, R.

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lima, A. P.

P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lin, R.

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maria, J.-P.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

Markurt, T.

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martin, R. W.

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mason, M. D.

P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meng, F.

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U.

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miskys, C.

P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mita, S.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Mita, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication of a GaN lateral polarity junction by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 3044–3048 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Mita, R. Collazo, A. Rice, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Influence of gallium supersaturation on the properties of GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mohn, S.

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN P-N junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN P-N junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nath, D. N.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nemanich, R. J.

J. Yang, B. S. Eller, and R. J. Nemanich, “Surface band bending and band alignment of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on Ga-and N-face gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, J.

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (0001) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pak, Y.

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, P. S.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y.

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pennycook, S. J.

F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rajan, S.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reddy, P.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rice, A.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Mita, R. Collazo, A. Rice, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Influence of gallium supersaturation on the properties of GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roldan, M. A.

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

Roqan, I. S.

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

Scheffler, M.

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (0001) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sebastian Reparaz, J.

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN P-N junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Seong, T.-Y.

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sheikhi, M.

H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shelton, C.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sheng, J.

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sitar, Z.

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Mita, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication of a GaN lateral polarity junction by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 3044–3048 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Mita, R. Collazo, A. Rice, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Influence of gallium supersaturation on the properties of GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013521 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
[Crossref]

Speck, J.

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stolyarchuk, N.

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

Takeda, K.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tarsa, E.

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tian, K.

C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “Progress in external quantum efficiency for III‐nitride based deep ultraviolet light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 216, 1800815 (2019).
[Crossref]

Torre, B.

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tweedie, J.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J.-P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vennéguès, P.

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wagner, M. R.

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wei, G.

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, N.

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, J.-I.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, B. S. Eller, and R. J. Nemanich, “Surface band bending and band alignment of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on Ga-and N-face gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
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Ye, L.

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
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Yi, X.

L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
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Yu, Y.

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “Progress in external quantum efficiency for III‐nitride based deep ultraviolet light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 216, 1800815 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. H.

C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “Progress in external quantum efficiency for III‐nitride based deep ultraviolet light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 216, 1800815 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, D.

D. Zhuang and J. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 48, 1–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

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T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (0001) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

R. Liang, J. Dai, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. He, S. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Peng, L. Ye, and H.-C. Kuo, “Interface anchored effect on improving working stability of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode using graphene oxide-based fluoropolymer encapsulant,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 8238–8244 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Z. Liu, E. Guo, H. Yang, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Interface and transport properties of metallization contacts to flat and wet-etching roughed N-polar n-type GaN,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 5797–5803 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

I. A. Ajia, P. R. Edwards, Y. Pak, E. Belekov, M. A. Roldan, N. Wei, Z. Liu, R. W. Martin, and I. S. Roqan, “Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit-enhanced InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode,” ACS Photon. 5, 820–826 (2018).
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W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. H. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral‐polarity structure of AlGaN quantum wells: a promising approach to enhancing the ultraviolet luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Liu, R. Collazo, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, S. J. Pennycook, and G. Duscher, “Direct observation of inversion domain boundaries of GaN on c‐sapphire at sub‐ångstrom resolution,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2162–2165 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

P. J. Schuck, M. D. Mason, R. D. Grober, O. Ambacher, A. P. Lima, C. Miskys, R. Dimitrov, and M. Stutzmann, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence of inversion domain boundaries in GaN-based lateral polarity heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 952–954 (2001).
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[Crossref]

G. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Yu, L. Yan, P. Li, X. Han, L. Chen, D. Zhao, and G. Du, “Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 151607 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (0001) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Kapolnek, E. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, B. Keller, U. Mishra, S. DenBaars, and J. Speck, “Nucleation layer evolution in metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1371–1373 (1996).
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W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: a way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 082110 (2015).
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R. Kirste, S. Mita, L. Hussey, M. P. Hoffmann, W. Guo, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, J. Tweedie, J. Xie, and M. Gerhold, “Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181913 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

M. Sheikhi, J. Li, F. Meng, H. Li, S. Guo, L. Liang, H. Cao, P. Gao, J. Ye, and G. Wei, “Polarity control of GaN and realization of GaN Schottky barrier diode based on lateral polarity structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 64, 4424–4429 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

R. Kirste, R. Collazo, G. Callsen, M. R. Wagner, T. Kure, J. Sebastian Reparaz, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, and J. Tweedie, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093503 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Mita, R. Collazo, A. Rice, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Influence of gallium supersaturation on the properties of GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013521 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, B. S. Eller, and R. J. Nemanich, “Surface band bending and band alignment of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on Ga-and N-face gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123702 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Reddy, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123701 (2014).
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J. Cryst. Growth (3)

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I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
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J. Phys. D (1)

W. Guo, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, Z. Yang, H. Li, S. Guo, J. Sheng, J. Sun, and B. Bo, “Comparative study on luminescence extraction strategies of LED by large-scale fabrication of nanopillar and nanohole structures,” J. Phys. D 51, 24LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Semicond. (1)

J. Li, W. Guo, M. Sheikhi, H. Li, B. Bo, and J. Ye, “Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode,” J. Semicond. 39, 053003 (2018).
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Mater. Sci. Eng. R (1)

D. Zhuang and J. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 48, 1–46 (2005).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
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Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

S. Mohn, N. Stolyarchuk, T. Markurt, R. Kirste, M. P. Hoffmann, R. Collazo, A. Courville, R. Di Felice, Z. Sitar, and P. Vennéguès, “Polarity control in group-III nitrides beyond pragmatism,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 054004 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

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Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

M. P. Hoffmann, R. Kirste, S. Mita, W. Guo, J. Tweedie, M. Bobea, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, M. Gerhold, and R. Collazo, “Growth and characterization of AlxGa1-xn lateral polarity structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1039–1042 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “Progress in external quantum efficiency for III‐nitride based deep ultraviolet light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 216, 1800815 (2019).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

H. Xu, M. Sheikhi, Z. Chen, J. Hoo, S. Guo, W. Guo, H. Sun, and J. Ye, “Single peak deep ultraviolet emission and high internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells grown on large miscut sapphire substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 129, 20–27 (2019).
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Other (1)

M. P. Hoffmann, “Polarity control and doping in aluminum gallium nitride,” Ph.D. dissertation (North Carolina State University, 2013).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic structure of AlGaN MQWs with IDBs AFM images of (b) III-polar and (c) N-polar AlGaN MQWs in a 20    μm × 20    μm region. Top view SEM images of MQWs near IDBs (d) before and (e) after KOH etching.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Steady-state (a) PL spectra and (b) PL decay curves of single-polarity MQWs and MQWs with IDBs.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematics of atomic arrangements and corresponding electronic potential distributions near IDBs for (a), (b) GaN; (c), (d)  Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 N ; and (e), (f) AlN.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Electronic potential of the free surface of (a) GaN and (b) AlN comprising both [0001] and [000–1] directions.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Surface potential distribution and (b) corresponding topography image of AlGaN MQWs with IDBs in the center. (c) Line-scan of the potential as indicated by the red line in the KFM mapping.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. VB spectra and cutoff values measured from N- and III-polar AlGaN MQWs via UPS.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Lateral band diagram of AlGaN MQWs with IDBs located in the center.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. DOS calculation of AlN with IDBs in the center. The left side indicates III polarity, and the right side indicates N polarity.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Calculation of Fast and Slow Components of the Decay Lifetimes

Equations (2)

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I ( t ) = A f exp ( t τ f ) + A s exp ( t τ s ) .
χ = h ν ω E g ,