Abstract

Bidirectional ultrafast fiber lasers present an attractive solution, enabling the generation of two mutually coherent ultrashort pulse trains in a simple and turnkey system. Still, the lack of a comprehensive numerical model describing steady-state bidirectional generation, and even less ultrafast soliton breakdowns and collisions, is obstructing the achievement of the performance compared with unidirectional lasers. In this paper, we have experimentally investigated real-time build-up dynamics of counter-propagating solitons in an ultrafast ring Er-doped fiber laser via the dispersive Fourier transform methodology. We parade that counter-propagating pulses experience independent build-up dynamics from modulation instability, undergoing breathing dynamics and diverging subordinate pulse structure formation and annihilation to a stable bidirectional pulse train. Yet, the interaction of pulses in the cavity presents the key underlying phenomenon driving formation evolution distinct from unidirectional pulse build-up. Our findings will provide physical foundations for bidirectional ultrafast fiber laser design to carry forward their application.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 243901 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356, 50–54 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax1110 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228–234 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “All-fiber bidirectional passively mode-locked ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 64–66 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Chernysheva, M. A. Araimi, H. Kbashi, R. Arif, S. V. Sergeyev, and A. Rozhin, “Isolator-free switchable uni- and bidirectional hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24, 15721–15729 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. A. Krylov, D. S. Chernykh, and E. D. Obraztsova, “Gyroscopic effect detection in the colliding-pulse hybridly mode-locked erbium-doped all-fiber ring soliton laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2439–2442 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Chernysheva, S. Sugavanam, and S. Turitsyn, “Real-time observation of the optical Sagnac effect in ultrafast bidirectional fibre lasers,” APL Photonics 5, 016104 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Ideguchi, T. Nakamura, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Goda, “Kerr-lens mode-locked bidirectional dual-comb ring laser for broadband dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3, 748–753 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Yu, C. Kong, B. Li, J. Kang, Y.-X. Ren, Z.-C. Luo, and K. K. Wong, “Behavioral similarity of dissipative solitons in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 44, 4813–4816 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Afanas’ev, V. Volkov, V. Dritz, and B. Samson, “Interaction of counter-propagating self-induced transparency solitons,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 165–170 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. J. Shaw and B. W. Shore, “Collisions of counterpropagating optical solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1127–1134 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Liu, D. Popa, and N. Akhmediev, “Revealing the transition dynamics from Q-switching to mode locking in a soliton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 093901 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Pusch, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Controllable interaction of counterpropagating solitons in three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023805 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. S. Kudelin, S. Sugavanam, and M. Chernysheva, “Build-up of bidirectional ultrashort pulse laser generation: from Q-switched instabilities to mode-locking,” in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper cj_7_1.
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

M. Chernysheva, S. Sugavanam, and S. Turitsyn, “Real-time observation of the optical Sagnac effect in ultrafast bidirectional fibre lasers,” APL Photonics 5, 016104 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

Y. Yu, C. Kong, B. Li, J. Kang, Y.-X. Ren, Z.-C. Luo, and K. K. Wong, “Behavioral similarity of dissipative solitons in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 44, 4813–4816 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, D. Popa, and N. Akhmediev, “Revealing the transition dynamics from Q-switching to mode locking in a soliton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 093901 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax1110 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228–234 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

A. A. Krylov, D. S. Chernykh, and E. D. Obraztsova, “Gyroscopic effect detection in the colliding-pulse hybridly mode-locked erbium-doped all-fiber ring soliton laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2439–2442 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356, 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chernysheva, M. A. Araimi, H. Kbashi, R. Arif, S. V. Sergeyev, and A. Rozhin, “Isolator-free switchable uni- and bidirectional hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24, 15721–15729 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, T. Nakamura, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Goda, “Kerr-lens mode-locked bidirectional dual-comb ring laser for broadband dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3, 748–753 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Pusch, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Controllable interaction of counterpropagating solitons in three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023805 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

A. Afanas’ev, V. Volkov, V. Dritz, and B. Samson, “Interaction of counter-propagating self-induced transparency solitons,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 165–170 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

M. Yoshizawa and T. Kobayashi, “Experimental and theoretical studies on colliding pulse mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 797–803 (1984).
[Crossref]

Afanas’ev, A.

A. Afanas’ev, V. Volkov, V. Dritz, and B. Samson, “Interaction of counter-propagating self-induced transparency solitons,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 165–170 (1990).
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N.

X. Liu, D. Popa, and N. Akhmediev, “Revealing the transition dynamics from Q-switching to mode locking in a soliton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 093901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Andral, U.

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Araimi, M. A.

Arif, R.

Babin, S.

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bielawski, S.

A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228–234 (2018).
[Crossref]

Billet, C.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boscolo, S.

J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax1110 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chernykh, D. S.

Chernysheva, M.

M. Chernysheva, S. Sugavanam, and S. Turitsyn, “Real-time observation of the optical Sagnac effect in ultrafast bidirectional fibre lasers,” APL Photonics 5, 016104 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. Chernysheva, M. A. Araimi, H. Kbashi, R. Arif, S. V. Sergeyev, and A. Rozhin, “Isolator-free switchable uni- and bidirectional hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24, 15721–15729 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. S. Kudelin, S. Sugavanam, and M. Chernysheva, “Build-up of bidirectional ultrashort pulse laser generation: from Q-switched instabilities to mode-locking,” in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper cj_7_1.
[Crossref]

Churkin, D.

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Churkin, D. V.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Coillet, A.

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dias, F.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dritz, V.

A. Afanas’ev, V. Volkov, V. Dritz, and B. Samson, “Interaction of counter-propagating self-induced transparency solitons,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 165–170 (1990).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Falkovich, G.

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Finot, C.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

Genty, G.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goda, K.

T. Ideguchi, T. Nakamura, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Goda, “Kerr-lens mode-locked bidirectional dual-comb ring laser for broadband dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3, 748–753 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grelu, P.

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hamm, J. M.

A. Pusch, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Controllable interaction of counterpropagating solitons in three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Herink, G.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356, 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hess, O.

A. Pusch, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Controllable interaction of counterpropagating solitons in three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ideguchi, T.

Jalali, B.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356, 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

Kbashi, H.

Kieu, K.

Kobayashi, T.

M. Yoshizawa and T. Kobayashi, “Experimental and theoretical studies on colliding pulse mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 797–803 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, Y.

Kong, C.

Krupa, K.

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krylov, A. A.

Kudelin, I. S.

I. S. Kudelin, S. Sugavanam, and M. Chernysheva, “Build-up of bidirectional ultrashort pulse laser generation: from Q-switched instabilities to mode-locking,” in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper cj_7_1.
[Crossref]

Kurtz, F.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356, 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lapre, C.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Popa, and N. Akhmediev, “Revealing the transition dynamics from Q-switching to mode locking in a soliton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 093901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.-C.

Mansuripur, M.

Meng, F.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

Merolla, J.-M.

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

Närhi, M.

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nithyanandan, K.

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Obraztsova, E. D.

Peng, J.

J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax1110 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Podivilov, E.

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

X. Liu, D. Popa, and N. Akhmediev, “Revealing the transition dynamics from Q-switching to mode locking in a soliton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 093901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pusch, A.

A. Pusch, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Controllable interaction of counterpropagating solitons in three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Randoux, S.

A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228–234 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.-X.

Ropers, C.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356, 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A.

Ryczkowski, P.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

Samson, B.

A. Afanas’ev, V. Volkov, V. Dritz, and B. Samson, “Interaction of counter-propagating self-induced transparency solitons,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 165–170 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sergeyev, S. V.

Shaw, M. J.

Shore, B. W.

Shu, X.

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, S.

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solli, D.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Solli, D. R.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356, 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sorokina, M.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sugavanam, S.

M. Chernysheva, S. Sugavanam, and S. Turitsyn, “Real-time observation of the optical Sagnac effect in ultrafast bidirectional fibre lasers,” APL Photonics 5, 016104 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. S. Kudelin, S. Sugavanam, and M. Chernysheva, “Build-up of bidirectional ultrashort pulse laser generation: from Q-switched instabilities to mode-locking,” in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper cj_7_1.
[Crossref]

Suret, P.

A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228–234 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sylvestre, T.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Szwaj, C.

A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228–234 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tarasov, N.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tchofo-Dinda, P.

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tikan, A.

A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228–234 (2018).
[Crossref]

Toenger, S.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S.

M. Chernysheva, S. Sugavanam, and S. Turitsyn, “Real-time observation of the optical Sagnac effect in ultrafast bidirectional fibre lasers,” APL Photonics 5, 016104 (2020).
[Crossref]

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S. K.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Turitsyna, E.

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Volkov, V.

A. Afanas’ev, V. Volkov, V. Dritz, and B. Samson, “Interaction of counter-propagating self-induced transparency solitons,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 165–170 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, B.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. K.

Yoshizawa, M.

M. Yoshizawa and T. Kobayashi, “Experimental and theoretical studies on colliding pulse mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 797–803 (1984).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Zeng, H.

J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax1110 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax1110 (2019).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

M. Chernysheva, S. Sugavanam, and S. Turitsyn, “Real-time observation of the optical Sagnac effect in ultrafast bidirectional fibre lasers,” APL Photonics 5, 016104 (2020).
[Crossref]

Commun. Phys. (1)

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Yoshizawa and T. Kobayashi, “Experimental and theoretical studies on colliding pulse mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 797–803 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Afanas’ev, V. Volkov, V. Dritz, and B. Samson, “Interaction of counter-propagating self-induced transparency solitons,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 165–170 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (2)

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (5)

E. Turitsyna, S. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. Babin, E. Podivilov, D. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. Turitsyn, “The laminar-turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7, 783–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228–234 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Pusch, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Controllable interaction of counterpropagating solitons in three-level media,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

X. Liu, D. Popa, and N. Akhmediev, “Revealing the transition dynamics from Q-switching to mode locking in a soliton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 093901 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax1110 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9, 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356, 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

I. S. Kudelin, S. Sugavanam, and M. Chernysheva, “Build-up of bidirectional ultrashort pulse laser generation: from Q-switched instabilities to mode-locking,” in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper cj_7_1.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Animated evolution of single-shot spectra over soliton build-up in bidirectional mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser, measured via dispersive Fourier transform technique
» Visualization 2       Animated evolution of field autocorrelation over soliton build-up in bidirectional mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser, obtained by FFT of single-shot spectra measured via dispersive Fourier transform technique

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. EDF, Er-doped fiber; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; SWNT, single-walled carbon nanotubes; PC, polarization controller; EPC, electronic polarization controller; PZF, polarizing fiber; ISO, isolator; SMF, single-mode fiber; DCF, dispersion compensating fiber; DSO, digital storage oscilloscope.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental results of the build-up of bidirectional solitons: clockwise (top) and counter-clockwise (bottom) (see Visualization 1 and Visualization 2). (a),(c) The real-time spectral and (b),(d) the field autocorrelation evolution with the characteristic cross sections. (e) Energy evolution of clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) pulses. Inset: breathing dynamics zoom-in.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Stage III: Breathing dynamics. (a),(c) Single-shot spectra and (b),(d) field autocorrelation evolution. Detailed dynamics of (e) counter-clockwise single-shot pulse spectrum and (f) field autocorrelation.

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