Abstract

Metamaterial absorbers (MAs) serve as important electromagnetic wave-absorbing devices that have captured the attention of researchers for a long term. Functioning as sensitive detectors to determine perturbations in an ambient environment is another significant subsidiary function. Here, we theoretically propose an optimized fabrication method to implement terahertz MAs with fewer steps and also evaluate both absorption and sensing performances of such MAs realized by the new method. Simulation findings demonstrate that such MAs can basically maintain the original absorption features perfectly, including near-complete absorption at resonance as well as strong robustness to wide incident angles. Specifically, the full width at half-maximum and quality factor of the absorption resonances attenuate less than 26% and 8% with this new method, remaining in the ranges of 0.030.04  THz and 2027 for two selected example MAs. More significantly, sensing capacities of this type of MA, in terms of maximum detection range (enhancing at least 9%), observable spectral modulation (increasing at least 6.3%), and refractive index sensitivity, are improved to a large extent because of more intense coupling between resonant field and matter in the case of surface-relief MAs. This stronger coupling results from exposing more spots of the resonantly high field to direct contact with an approaching analyte, which is illustrated by field profiles of the MAs at resonance in this work. Additionally, other desirable absorber features are also explored with such MAs, like functioning as building blocks to configure multiband MAs and strong robustness against fabrication errors. Such new-style terahertz MAs shown in the paper, acting as good examples, not only prove that terahertz MAs can be fabricated by the proposed time- and cost-saving route in contrast to the traditional MA fabrication process, but also can serve as novel platforms to explore other intriguing terahertz photonic effects, such as the field enhancement effect.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2019 (4)

Y. Hu, X. Luo, Y. Chen, Q. Liu, X. Li, Y. Wang, N. Liu, and H. Duan, “3D-integrated metasurfaces for full-colour holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 8, 86 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Beruete and I. Jáuregui-López, “Terahertz sensing based on metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8, 1900721 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Meng, S. J. Park, A. D. Burnett, T. Gill, C. D. Wood, M. Rosamond, L. H. Li, L. Chen, D. R. Bacon, J. R. Freeman, P. Dean, Y. H. Ahn, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. E. Cunningham, “Increasing the sensitivity of terahertz split ring resonator metamaterials for dielectric sensing by localized substrate etching,” Opt. Express 27, 23164–23172 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

2017 (5)

X. C. Zhang, A. Shkurinov, and Y. Zhang, “Extreme terahertz science,” Nat. Photonics 11, 16–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Staude and J. Schilling, “Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 11, 274–284 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, F. Yan, S. Tan, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators,” Photon. Res. 5, 571–577 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chorsi, Y. Lee, A. Alù, and J. X. J. Zhang, “Tunable plasmonic substrates with ultrahigh Q-factor resonances,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15985 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

Y. Moritake, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Enhanced quality factor of Fano resonance in optical metamaterials by manipulating configuration of unit cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 211108 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, L. Zhang, and T. Zhang, “Nanoslit-microcavity-based narrow band absorber for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 23, 20715–20720 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: a comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: a review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, and H. Altug, “Accessible nearfields by nanoantennas on nanopedestals for ultrasensitive vibrational spectroscopy,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 866–872 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, K. Kohno, H. Fujita, K. Hirakawa, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS reconfigurable metamaterial for terahertz switchable filter and modulator,” Opt. Express 22, 21326–21339 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Jung, S. Butz, M. Marthaler, M. V. Fistul, J. Leppäkangas, V. P. Koshelets, and A. V. Ustinov, “Multistability and switching in a superconducting metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3730 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Al-Naib, R. Singh, M. Shalaby, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “Enhanced Q-factor in optimally coupled macrocell THz metamaterials: effect of spatial arrangement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400807 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10, 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 945–947 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Otte, M. C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved biosensing capability with novel suspended nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 5344–5351 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Brian, B. Sepúlveda, Y. Alaverdyan, L. M. Lechuga, and M. Käll, “Sensitivity enhancement of nanoplasmonic sensors in low refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17, 2015–2023 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced nanoplasmonic optical sensors with reduced substrate effect,” Nano Lett. 8, 3893–3898 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials 2, 1–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon-subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Acimovic, S. S.

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

Alaverdyan, Y.

Alivisatos, A. P.

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10, 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

I. Al-Naib, R. Singh, M. Shalaby, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “Enhanced Q-factor in optimally coupled macrocell THz metamaterials: effect of spatial arrangement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400807 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, and H. Altug, “Accessible nearfields by nanoantennas on nanopedestals for ultrasensitive vibrational spectroscopy,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 866–872 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

H. T. Chorsi, Y. Lee, A. Alù, and J. X. J. Zhang, “Tunable plasmonic substrates with ultrahigh Q-factor resonances,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15985 (2017).
[Crossref]

Antosiewicz, T. J.

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560, 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bacon, D. R.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon-subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beruete, M.

M. Beruete and I. Jáuregui-López, “Terahertz sensing based on metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8, 1900721 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: a review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bingham, C. M.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials 2, 1–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

Born, N.

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brian, B.

Burnett, A. D.

Butz, S.

P. Jung, S. Butz, M. Marthaler, M. V. Fistul, J. Leppäkangas, V. P. Koshelets, and A. V. Ustinov, “Multistability and switching in a superconducting metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3730 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carrascosa, L. G.

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Saha, S. C.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schilling, J.

I. Staude and J. Schilling, “Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 11, 274–284 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560, 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sepúlveda, B.

M. A. Otte, M. C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved biosensing capability with novel suspended nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 5344–5351 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Brian, B. Sepúlveda, Y. Alaverdyan, L. M. Lechuga, and M. Käll, “Sensitivity enhancement of nanoplasmonic sensors in low refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17, 2015–2023 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shah, C. M.

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: a review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shalaby, M.

I. Al-Naib, R. Singh, M. Shalaby, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “Enhanced Q-factor in optimally coupled macrocell THz metamaterials: effect of spatial arrangement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials 2, 1–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shkurinov, A.

X. C. Zhang, A. Shkurinov, and Y. Zhang, “Extreme terahertz science,” Nat. Photonics 11, 16–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: a comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Al-Naib, R. Singh, M. Shalaby, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “Enhanced Q-factor in optimally coupled macrocell THz metamaterials: effect of spatial arrangement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Šípová, H.

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560, 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sriram, S.

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: a review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Staude, I.

I. Staude and J. Schilling, “Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 11, 274–284 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, D. S.

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced nanoplasmonic optical sensors with reduced substrate effect,” Nano Lett. 8, 3893–3898 (2008).
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Tan, S.

S. Tan, F. Yan, W. Wang, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive sensing with three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Opt. 20, 055101 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, F. Yan, S. Tan, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators,” Photon. Res. 5, 571–577 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: a comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031107 (2015).
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Tang, L.

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tang, M. L.

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10, 631–636 (2011).
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Tao, H.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Toshiyoshi, H.

Tyler, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ustinov, A. V.

P. Jung, S. Butz, M. Marthaler, M. V. Fistul, J. Leppäkangas, V. P. Koshelets, and A. V. Ustinov, “Multistability and switching in a superconducting metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3730 (2014).
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Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
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Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
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Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref]

von Freymann, G.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walia, S.

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: a review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

S. Tan, F. Yan, W. Wang, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive sensing with three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Opt. 20, 055101 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, F. Yan, S. Tan, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators,” Photon. Res. 5, 571–577 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Hu, X. Luo, Y. Chen, Q. Liu, X. Li, Y. Wang, N. Liu, and H. Duan, “3D-integrated metasurfaces for full-colour holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 8, 86 (2019).
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C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Withayachumnankul, W.

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: a review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wood, C. D.

Wu, D.

Xiao, G.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Yahiaoui, R.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: a comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

S. Tan, F. Yan, W. Wang, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive sensing with three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Opt. 20, 055101 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, F. Yan, S. Tan, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators,” Photon. Res. 5, 571–577 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: a comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Ye, H.

Ying, Y.

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Yu, Z.

Zhang, J. X. J.

H. T. Chorsi, Y. Lee, A. Alù, and J. X. J. Zhang, “Tunable plasmonic substrates with ultrahigh Q-factor resonances,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15985 (2017).
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Zhang, L.

Zhang, T.

Zhang, W.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: a comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. C.

X. C. Zhang, A. Shkurinov, and Y. Zhang, “Extreme terahertz science,” Nat. Photonics 11, 16–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

X. C. Zhang, A. Shkurinov, and Y. Zhang, “Extreme terahertz science,” Nat. Photonics 11, 16–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

S. Tan, F. Yan, W. Wang, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive sensing with three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Opt. 20, 055101 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, F. Yan, S. Tan, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators,” Photon. Res. 5, 571–577 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.-K.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, and H. Altug, “Accessible nearfields by nanoantennas on nanopedestals for ultrasensitive vibrational spectroscopy,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 866–872 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Beruete and I. Jáuregui-López, “Terahertz sensing based on metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8, 1900721 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Moritake, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Enhanced quality factor of Fano resonance in optical metamaterials by manipulating configuration of unit cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 211108 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: a comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Rev. (1)

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: a review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

W. Xu, L. Xie, J. Zhu, L. Tang, R. Singh, C. Wang, Y. Ma, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Ying, “Terahertz biosensing with a graphene-metamaterial heterostructure platform,” Carbon 141, 247–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Al-Naib, R. Singh, M. Shalaby, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “Enhanced Q-factor in optimally coupled macrocell THz metamaterials: effect of spatial arrangement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400807 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves (1)

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

S. Tan, F. Yan, W. Wang, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive sensing with three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Opt. 20, 055101 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M. A. Otte, M. C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved biosensing capability with novel suspended nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 5344–5351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, X. Luo, Y. Chen, Q. Liu, X. Li, Y. Wang, N. Liu, and H. Duan, “3D-integrated metasurfaces for full-colour holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 8, 86 (2019).
[Crossref]

Metamaterials (1)

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials 2, 1–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced nanoplasmonic optical sensors with reduced substrate effect,” Nano Lett. 8, 3893–3898 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jung, S. Butz, M. Marthaler, M. V. Fistul, J. Leppäkangas, V. P. Koshelets, and A. V. Ustinov, “Multistability and switching in a superconducting metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3730 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic drawing shows the proposed process for fabricating an MA in detail. The processing steps are listed alphabetically. Different colors represent various materials, that is, light gray, purple, and green parts refer to the Si substrate, Al parts, and dielectric layer, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. 3D schematic plot for the MA examples and the incident THz field polarizations. All the MAs are excited by the same incident field polarizations shown at the top right corner of the plot. Different colored parts represent different materials. (a) and (b) are the original and remolded (SR) cross-shaped MAs. (c) and (d) are the original and remolded (SR) square-shaped MAs. For all MAs, lattice constant, and thicknesses of metal and dielectric layers are labeled as p, t, and h, while l and w represent length and width of the metallic stripes constituting the cross and square structures in MAs, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison plots for absorption performance of two focused sets of MAs at the frequency band of 0.4 to 1.6 THz. (a) Cross MA versus SRC MA and (b) square MA versus SRS MA. The embedded tables show comparative information in a quantitative way.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Contour plots compare the incident-angle tolerance of absorption performance for the four MAs. (a) and (b) show wide incident-angle tolerance for the cross and square MAs as controls, respectively. (c) and (d) display the cases for corresponding MAs realized with the new approach. The bright yellow dashed lines mark the critical incident angle beyond which absorption starts to fall below 50%.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparative plots for depth-sensing performance of two sets of MAs when RI of the analyte is fixed at 1.6. (a) Cross MA versus (c) SRC MA and (b) square MA versus (d) SRS MA. The respective insets display a sectional view for a schematic drawing of the corresponding sensing configurations. Different colored sections in the above subplots mark three different growth trends in depth sensing for all the MA sensors. Green, yellow, and blue sections denote quadratic, exponential, and saturated growth trends, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparative plots of RI sensing performance for three specific depths of analyte h=4, 8, and 25 μm in the cases of (a) cross MA versus SRC MA and (b) square MA versus SRS MA.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Surface electric current distributions at resonance for (a) cross MA at 0.72 THz and (b) SRC MA at 0.8 THz. The direction and thickness of the red arrows denote current direction and intensity. The x component Ex distributions of electric field intensity at the cut plane of y=0 for (c) cross and (d) SRC MAs at 0.72 and 0.8 THz, respectively. The rectangular boxes formed by the black solid lines between air and Si in (c) and (d) represent the dielectric supporting layer.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Surface electric current distributions at resonance for (a) square MA at 0.73 THz and (b) SRS MA at 0.85 THz. The direction and thickness of the red arrows denote current direction and intensity, respectively. The x component Ex distributions of electric field intensity at the cut plane of y=0 for (c) square and (d) SRS MAs at 0.73 and 0.85 THz, respectively. The rectangular boxes formed by the black lines between air and Si in (c) and (d) represent the dielectric supporting layer.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) displays the optimized SRC and SRS MAs achieving single-band perfection absorption. (b) shows a triple band perfect MA realized by an SRS design. The structural parameters of the triband SRS MA are p=150  μm, t=0.2  μm, h=8  μm, and w=12  μm. The three square frames with different arm lengths are indicated by white, orange, and green parts in (b), whose lengths are 120, 80, and 52 μm, respectively.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Thickness influence of the top patterned metal layer deposited on the ground metal plane on the absorption performance for (a) SRC MA and (b) SRS MA. The top insets show the zoom-in peak absorption feature to distinguish the evolutions. The influence of the basic angles of the dielectric layer on the absorption for (c) SRC MA and (d) SRS MA, respectively. The illustrative plots are also displayed in the insets.