Abstract

The real-time measurement of the polarization and phase information of light is very important and desirable in optics. Metasurfaces can be used to achieve flexible wavefront control and can therefore be used to replace traditional optical elements to produce a highly integrated and extremely compact optical system. Here, we propose an efficient and compact optical multiparameter detection system based on a Hartmann–Shack array with 2×2 subarray metalenses. This system not only enables the efficient and accurate measurement of the spatial polarization profiles of optical beams via the inspection of foci amplitudes, but also measures the phase and phase-gradient profiles by analyzing foci displacements. In this work, details of the design of the elliptical silicon pillars for the metalens are described, and we achieve a high average focusing efficiency of 48% and a high spatial resolution. The performance of the system is validated by the experimental measurement of 22 scalar polarized beams, an azimuthally polarized beam, a radially polarized beam, and a vortex beam. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (1)

P. Huo, S. Zhang, Q. Fan, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Photonic spin-controlled generation and transformation of 3D optical polarization topologies enabled by all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 11, 10646–10654 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “Full-Stokes imaging polarimetry using dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 3132–3140 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Feng, M. Zhao, Z. Wan, L. Zhu, J. Liu, Y. Huang, J. Xia, and M. Wegener, “Generalized Hartmann–Shack array of dielectric metalens sub-arrays for polarimetric beam profiling,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

J. P. B. Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 113901 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wei, Z. Yang, and M. Zhao, “Design of ultracompact polarimeters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1580–1583 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Metalenses: versatile multifunctional photonic components,” Science 358, eaam8100 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4, 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Lalanne and P. Chavel, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: past, present, perspectives,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600295 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W.-Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, J.-W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17, 445–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Luo, Q. Li, Y. Yang, X. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Qu, and M. Qiu, “Controlling fluorescence emission with split-ring-resonator-based plasmonic metasurfaces,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600299 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat Commun. 8, 187 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (11)

S. Zhang, M.-H. Kim, F. Aieta, A. She, T. Mansuripur, I. Gabay, M. Khorasaninejad, D. Rousso, X. Wang, M. Troccoli, N. Yu, and F. Capasso, “High efficiency near diffraction-limited mid-infrared flat lenses based on metasurface reflectarrays,” Opt. Express 24, 18024–18034 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, C.-H. Liu, X. Ren, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic lattice lenses for multiwavelength achromatic focusing,” ACS Nano 10, 10275–10282 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11930 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, K. Leosson, and F. Capasso, “Ultracompact metasurface in-line polarimeter,” Optica 3, 42–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, P. Torok, M. R. Foreman, C. Y. Liao, W. Y. Tsai, P. R. Wu, and D. P. Tsai, “Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 27, 224002 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354, aag2472 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352, 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhuit, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16, 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Waveguide metacouplers for in-plane polarimetry,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 064015 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metagratings for simultaneous determination of Stokes parameters,” Optica 2, 716–723 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. X. Zheng, H. Muhlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. X. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tho, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8, 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13, 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alu, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gahurro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Muehlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, e1601102 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9, 235–238 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, S573–S577 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1987 (1)

M. V. Berry, “The adiabatic phase and Pancharatnam’s phase for polarized light,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1401–1407 (1987).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4, 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M.-H. Kim, F. Aieta, A. She, T. Mansuripur, I. Gabay, M. Khorasaninejad, D. Rousso, X. Wang, M. Troccoli, N. Yu, and F. Capasso, “High efficiency near diffraction-limited mid-infrared flat lenses based on metasurface reflectarrays,” Opt. Express 24, 18024–18034 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gahurro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alu, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).

Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “Full-Stokes imaging polarimetry using dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 3132–3140 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “Full-Stokes imaging polarimetry using dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 3132–3140 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
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Science (7)

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Data File 1       Theoretical and reconstructed Stokes parameters of the 22 different polarizations.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic shows the dielectric metalens-based Hartmann–Shack array for a high-efficiency optical multiparameter detection system. The system can simultaneously measure the spatial polarization and phase profiles of optical beams. The colors are only used to enhance the clarity of the image and to distinguish metalenses with different polarization sensitivities in the array.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic and design of metalenses. (a) Scheme for one pixel of a metalens array. (The colors indicate different polarizations.) The dotted crosses on the focal plane correspond to the centers of particular metalenses. (b) Scheme for one unit element of a metalens; (c), (d) simulation results for intensity transmittance and phase shifts of unit elements under normal incidence of y-polarized light. The white triangles indicate the transmittance, phase, and dimensions of 11 elliptical silicon pillars along the x-positive axis from the center of a y-polarized metalens. The white circle at (Dx=800  nm,Dy=224  nm) highlights the structural parameters used for an l-polarized sensitive metalens.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Scanning electron micrographs and intensity distributions of a manufactured metalens array. (a) Local scanning electron micrograph of a fabricated metalens array. The white rectangle indicates one pixel of the array. (b) Corresponding magnified scanning electron micrograph of one pixel, where the polarization bases are denoted by letters for each metalens; (c)–(d) oblique view of the selected parts of the metalenses; (e)–(f) intensity profiles along the x axis, passing through the focus, together with a Gaussian fit for the y-polarized sensitive metalens and l-polarized sensitive metalens; the diameter of the focal spot is 7 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental validation of SOP detection with one pixel. (a) Optical setup for polarization detection. LP, linear polarization; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; λ/2, half-wave plate; VP, vector wave plate; L1, L2, lens; OL, 20× objective lens; CCD, charge-coupled device. (b) Intensity distributions of the focal points in one pixel for incident horizontal or vertical linear polarization (“x” and “y”), diagonal linear polarization (“a” and “b”), and circular polarization (“l” and “r”); (c) experimentally reconstructed (stars) Stokes parameters (S1, S2, S3) and theoretical predictions (small circles) are compared on a Poincaré sphere (see Data File 1).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Detection and reconstruction of two vector beams. (a), (b) Intensity distributions for two vector beams. The blue arrows denote the local SOPs. (c), (d) Raw data of measured focal points for two vector beams; (e), (f) reconstructed polarization profiles. The black arrows correspond to the measured local polarization vectors, and the red arrows correspond to the theoretical predictions. The dashed gray lines are drawn to identify individual pixels.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Detection and reconstruction of the vortex beam. (a) Schematic of the optical setup. L1, L2, L3, L4, lens; A, aperture; P, polarizer; SP, splitter prism; SLM, spatial light modulator; and OL, objective lens. (b) Intensity distribution for the vortex beam; (c) raw data of measured focal points for the vortex beam; (d) phase gradients (pink arrows denote theoretical results, and black arrows denote experimental results) and reconstructed wavefront (false-color scale) of the vortex beam. The dashed lines are drawn in above images to distinguish individual pixels of the metalens array. The length of the reference arrow is 0.4 rad/μm.

Equations (7)

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φ(x,y)=2πλ·(x2+y2+f2f)+const,
tl=to+te2·(1i)+tote2·exp(i·2θo)·(1i).
S0=Ix+Iy,S1=IxIy,S2=IaIb,S3=IrIl,
S0=Ix+Iy,S1=IxIy,S2=2IaIxIy,S3=2IlIxIy.
θp=12arctanS2S1.
ϕx=2πλ·dxf2+dx2,
ϕy=2πλ·dyf2+dy2.