Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) networks constitute promising solutions for secure communication. Beyond conventional point-to-point QKD, we developed 1 × N QKD network systems with a sub-nanosecond resolution optical path length compensation scheme. With a practical plug-and-play QKD architecture and compact timing control modules based on a field-programmable gate array, we achieved long-term stable operation of a 1×64 QKD network system. Using this architecture, 64 users can simultaneously share secret keys with one server, without using complex software algorithms and expensive hardware. We demonstrated the workings of a 1×4 QKD network system using the fiber network of a metropolitan area.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (2)

F. Gao, S. J. Qin, W. Huang, and Q. Y. Wen, “Quantum private query: a new kind of practical quantum cryptographic protocols,” Sci. China: Phys. Mech. Astron. 62, 070301 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Z. Li, Z. Chen, C. Weedbrook, Y. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Huang, C. Xu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, M. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Zheng, B. Chu, X. Gao, N. Meng, W. Cai, Z. Wang, G. Wang, S. Yu, and H. Guo, “Continuous-variable QKD over 50 km commercial fiber,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 4, 035006 (2019).

2018 (1)

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C. Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

B. K. Park, M. S. Lee, M. K. Woo, Y. S. Kim, S. W. Han, and S. Moon, “QKD system with fast active optical path length compensation,” Sci. China: Phys. Mech. Astron. 60, 060311 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 011024 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, P. Huang, H. Li, T. Wang, Y. Zhou, and G. Zeng, “Field demonstration of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution network,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3511–3514 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2012 (3)

E. Donkor, “Experimental auto-compensating multi-user quantum key distribution network using a wavelength-addressed bus line architecture,” Proc. SPIE 8397, 839704 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Allééaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 20, 14030–14041 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F. X. Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, “Field experiment on a star type metropolitan quantum key distribution network,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 21, 575–577 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Extensible router for a quantum key distribution network,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 3957–3962 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Ma, A. Mink, H. Xu, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network with over Gbps clock synchronization,” IEEE Comm. Lett. 11, 1019–1021 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

P. D. Kumavor, A. C. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. C. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 268–275 (2005).
[Crossref]

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Brassard, F. Bussieres, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, “Multiuser quantum key distribution using wavelength division multiplexing,” Proc. SPIE 5260, 149–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1669–1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug and play’ quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, “Quantum cryptography on multiuser optical fibre networks,” Nature 385, 47–49 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Muller, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography over 23  km in installed under-lake telecom fibre,” Europhys. Lett. 33, 335–339 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1875–1877 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abe, J.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

Allééaume, R.

Asai, T.

Banwell, T. C.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1669–1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1875–1877 (1994).
[Crossref]

Beal, A. C.

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[Crossref]

Blake, J.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1669–1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

Blow, K. J.

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1875–1877 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Brassard, F. Bussieres, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, “Multiuser quantum key distribution using wavelength division multiplexing,” Proc. SPIE 5260, 149–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bussieres, F.

G. Brassard, F. Bussieres, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, “Multiuser quantum key distribution using wavelength division multiplexing,” Proc. SPIE 5260, 149–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

Y. Zhang, Z. Li, Z. Chen, C. Weedbrook, Y. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Huang, C. Xu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, M. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Zheng, B. Chu, X. Gao, N. Meng, W. Cai, Z. Wang, G. Wang, S. Yu, and H. Guo, “Continuous-variable QKD over 50 km commercial fiber,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 4, 035006 (2019).

Cai, W.-Q.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C. Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18, 27217–27225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C. Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chapuran, T. E.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1669–1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, K.

Chen, L.-K.

Chen, S.-J.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 011024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-Y.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 011024 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18, 27217–27225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Chen, Y.-A.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C. Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Y. Zhang, Z. Li, Z. Chen, C. Weedbrook, Y. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Huang, C. Xu, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, M. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Zheng, B. Chu, X. Gao, N. Meng, W. Cai, Z. Wang, G. Wang, S. Yu, and H. Guo, “Continuous-variable QKD over 50 km commercial fiber,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 4, 035006 (2019).

Chen, Z.-B.

Choi, I.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10  Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum information to the home,” New J. Phys. 13, 063039 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chu, B.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. P&P QKD network system architecture for 64 users. The coherent light signals from the server, Bob, are transmitted to 64 users, including Alice, using WDM and polarization-division multiplexing. All users have identical optical systems. BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarization beam splitter; Cir, circulator; APD, avalanche photodiode; DL, delay line; PM, phase modulator; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexing; QC, quantum channel; PD, photodiode; VOA, variable optical attenuator; SL, storage line; IM, intensity modulator; and FM, Faraday mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Timing control module based on an FPGA for one user. The arrows indicate the flow of the signal for generating laser pulses.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Flowchart of the control program for laser drivers in the server. After system operation, the control program performs sifting with multiple users. The program corrects the timing parameters using independent monitoring and path length compensation functions.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Peak wavelengths of the lasers for 64 users.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Sifted key rate and optimal laser timing of four users in 100 min.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Map of the 1×4 QKD network and (b) operation scheduling for the server to demonstrate the workings of the QKD network.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Results of using the 1×4 QKD network over a week in a real-world environment. The points are average key rates and QBERs for one day.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Variations in optimal laser timings for the real-environment QKD network over 100 h.