Abstract

Green laser diodes (LDs) still perform worst among the visible and near-infrared spectrum range, which is called the “green gap.” Poor performance of green LDs is mainly related to the p-type AlGaN cladding layer, which on one hand imposes large thermal budget on InGaN quantum wells (QWs) during epitaxial growth, and on the other hand has poor electrical property especially when low growth temperature has to be used. We demonstrate in this work that a hybrid LD structure with an indium tin oxide (ITO) p-cladding layer can achieve threshold current density as low as 1.6  kA/cm2, which is only one third of that of the conventional LD structure. The improvement is attributed to two benefits that are enabled by the ITO cladding layer. One is the reduced thermal budget imposed on QWs by reducing p-AlGaN layer thickness, and the other is the increasing hole concentration since a low Al content p-AlGaN cladding layer can be used in hybrid LD structures. Moreover, the slope efficiency is increased by 25% and the operation voltage is reduced by 0.6 V for hybrid green LDs. As a result, a 400 mW high-power green LD has been obtained. These results indicate that a hybrid LD structure can pave the way toward high-performance green LDs.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2019 (1)

M. Kuc, Ł. Piskorski, A. K. Sokół, M. Dems, M. Wasiak, R. P. Sarzała, and T. Czyszanowski, “Optical simulations of blue and green semipolar InGaN/GaN lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10532, 1053228 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. Dnbaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 2021 GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26, 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. B. Xu, Y. Mei, H. Xu, L. Y. Ying, Z. Zheng, H. Long, D. Zhang, B. P. Zhang, and J. P. Liu, “Green vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on combination of blue-emitting quantum wells and cavity-enhanced recombination,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65, 4401–4406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, K. Zhou, M. X. Feng, Z. C. Li, Y. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically pumped InGaN/GaN quantum well blue laser diode directly grown on Si,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. H. Moriya, M. O. Araújo, F. Todão, M. Hemmerling, H. Keßler, R. F. Shiozaki, R. C. Teixerira, and P. W. Courteille, “Comparison between 403  nm and 497  nm repumping schemes for strontium magneto-optical traps,” J. Phys. Commun. 2, 125008 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
[Crossref]

U. Strauss, A. Somers, U. Heine, T. Wurm, M. Peter, C. Eichler, S. Gerhard, G. Bruederl, S. Tautz, B. Stojetz, A. Loeffler, and H. Koenig, “GaInN laser diodes from 440 to 530  nm: a performance study on single mode and multi-mode R&D designs,” Proc. SPIE 10123, 101230A (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, K. Zhou, Y. Cheng, W. Zhou, A. Q. Tian, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “GaN-based blue laser diodes with 2.2  W of light output power under continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 2203–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Myzaferi, A. H. Reading, D. A. Cohen, M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Transparent conducting oxide clad limited area epitaxy semipolar III-nitride laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 061109 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

S. Fujita, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor materials: for their full bloom,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 030101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Chen and W. D. Brewer, “Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 1, 1500113 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Davies, F. Oehler, S. K. Pamenter, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, A. Kovács, T. Williams, M. A. Hopkins, C. J. Humphreys, P. Dawson, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, J. Etheridge, D. W. E. Allsopp, and R. A. Oliver, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, F. Zhang, A. Q. Tian, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Realization of InGaN laser diodes above 500  nm by growth optimization of the InGaN/GaN active region,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 111001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, H. B. Wang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of thermal degradation of InGaN/GaN quantum wells in green laser diode structures during the epitaxial growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152109 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimada, Y. Chida, N. Ohtsubo, T. Aoki, M. Takeuchi, T. Kuga, and Y. Torii, “A simplified 461-nm laser system using blue laser diodes and a hollow cathode lamp for laser cooling of Sr,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 063101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C. C. Pan, C. C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hardy, C. O. Holder, D. F. Feezell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Indium-tin-oxide clad blue and true green semipolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, and M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100  mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {2021} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530  nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082102 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

U. Strauß, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, D. Queren, A. Gomez-Iglesias, C. Eichler, J. Muller, G. Brüderl, and S. Lutgen, “Pros and cons of green InGaN laser on c-plane GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 652–657 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Y. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48, 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (7)

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Queren, A. Avramescu, M. Schillgalies, M. Peter, T. Meyer, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “Epitaxial design of 475  nm InGaN laser diodes with reduced wavelength shift,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S826–S829 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Bour, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, M. Teepe, and N. Johnson, “Silver-clad nitride semiconductor laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041124 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “InGaN laser diodes with 50  mW output power emitting at 515  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071103 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “510–515 nm InGaN-based green laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Queren, M. Schillgalies, A. Avramescu, G. Brüderl, A. Laubsch, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “Quality and thermal stability of thin InGaN films,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2933–2936 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. S. Jang and T. Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and thermally stable indium tin oxide ohmic contacts on strained p-In0.15Ga0.85N/p-GaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013711 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Boycheva, A. K. Sytchkova, and A. Piegari, “Optical and electrical characterization of r.f. sputtered ITO films developed as art protection coatings,” Thin Solid Films 515, 8474–8478 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. J. Wen, K. L. Chen, M. H. Yang, W. T. Hsiao, L. G. Chao, and M. S. Leu, “Effect of substrate angle on properties of ITO films deposited by cathodic arc ion plating with In-Sn alloy target,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 198, 362–366 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Li, T. N. Oder, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1210–1212 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

G. M. Laws, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, C. Molloy, and D. Somerford, “Improved refractive index formulas for the AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1108–1115 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Nagahama, T. Yanamoto, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Wavelength dependence of InGaN laser diode characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3075–3081 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Parish, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “SIMS investigations into the effect of growth conditions on residual impurity and silicon incorporation in GaN and AlxGa1−xN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29, 15–20 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3930–3932 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281, 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386, 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. A. Haase, J. Qiu, J. M. DePuydt, and H. Cheng, “Blue-green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272–1274 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Abare, A. C.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3930–3932 (1999).
[Crossref]

Adachi, M.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, and M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100  mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {2021} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530  nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Davies, F. Oehler, S. K. Pamenter, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, A. Kovács, T. Williams, M. A. Hopkins, C. J. Humphreys, P. Dawson, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, J. Etheridge, D. W. E. Allsopp, and R. A. Oliver, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aoki, T.

Y. Shimada, Y. Chida, N. Ohtsubo, T. Aoki, M. Takeuchi, T. Kuga, and Y. Torii, “A simplified 461-nm laser system using blue laser diodes and a hollow cathode lamp for laser cooling of Sr,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 063101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Araújo, M. O.

P. H. Moriya, M. O. Araújo, F. Todão, M. Hemmerling, H. Keßler, R. F. Shiozaki, R. C. Teixerira, and P. W. Courteille, “Comparison between 403  nm and 497  nm repumping schemes for strontium magneto-optical traps,” J. Phys. Commun. 2, 125008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Avramescu, A.

U. Strauß, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, D. Queren, A. Gomez-Iglesias, C. Eichler, J. Muller, G. Brüderl, and S. Lutgen, “Pros and cons of green InGaN laser on c-plane GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 652–657 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “InGaN laser diodes with 50  mW output power emitting at 515  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071103 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Queren, A. Avramescu, M. Schillgalies, M. Peter, T. Meyer, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “Epitaxial design of 475  nm InGaN laser diodes with reduced wavelength shift,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S826–S829 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Queren, M. Schillgalies, A. Avramescu, G. Brüderl, A. Laubsch, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “Quality and thermal stability of thin InGaN films,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2933–2936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

H. Y. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48, 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

Becerra, D. L.

Bour, D.

D. Bour, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, M. Teepe, and N. Johnson, “Silver-clad nitride semiconductor laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386, 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Boycheva, S.

S. Boycheva, A. K. Sytchkova, and A. Piegari, “Optical and electrical characterization of r.f. sputtered ITO films developed as art protection coatings,” Thin Solid Films 515, 8474–8478 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brewer, W. D.

J. L. Chen and W. D. Brewer, “Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 1, 1500113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brüderl, G.

U. Strauß, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, D. Queren, A. Gomez-Iglesias, C. Eichler, J. Muller, G. Brüderl, and S. Lutgen, “Pros and cons of green InGaN laser on c-plane GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 652–657 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Queren, A. Avramescu, M. Schillgalies, M. Peter, T. Meyer, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “Epitaxial design of 475  nm InGaN laser diodes with reduced wavelength shift,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S826–S829 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Queren, M. Schillgalies, A. Avramescu, G. Brüderl, A. Laubsch, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “Quality and thermal stability of thin InGaN films,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2933–2936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bruederl, G.

U. Strauss, A. Somers, U. Heine, T. Wurm, M. Peter, C. Eichler, S. Gerhard, G. Bruederl, S. Tautz, B. Stojetz, A. Loeffler, and H. Koenig, “GaInN laser diodes from 440 to 530  nm: a performance study on single mode and multi-mode R&D designs,” Proc. SPIE 10123, 101230A (2017).
[Crossref]

Buchinsky, O.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3930–3932 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chao, L. G.

A. J. Wen, K. L. Chen, M. H. Yang, W. T. Hsiao, L. G. Chao, and M. S. Leu, “Effect of substrate angle on properties of ITO films deposited by cathodic arc ion plating with In-Sn alloy target,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 198, 362–366 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. L.

J. L. Chen and W. D. Brewer, “Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 1, 1500113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. L.

A. J. Wen, K. L. Chen, M. H. Yang, W. T. Hsiao, L. G. Chao, and M. S. Leu, “Effect of substrate angle on properties of ITO films deposited by cathodic arc ion plating with In-Sn alloy target,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 198, 362–366 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

M. A. Haase, J. Qiu, J. M. DePuydt, and H. Cheng, “Blue-green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272–1274 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, K. Zhou, Y. Cheng, W. Zhou, A. Q. Tian, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “GaN-based blue laser diodes with 2.2  W of light output power under continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 2203–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chida, Y.

Y. Shimada, Y. Chida, N. Ohtsubo, T. Aoki, M. Takeuchi, T. Kuga, and Y. Torii, “A simplified 461-nm laser system using blue laser diodes and a hollow cathode lamp for laser cooling of Sr,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 063101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chilwell, J.

Chua, C.

D. Bour, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, M. Teepe, and N. Johnson, “Silver-clad nitride semiconductor laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. A.

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. Dnbaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 2021 GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26, 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Myzaferi, A. H. Reading, D. A. Cohen, M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Transparent conducting oxide clad limited area epitaxy semipolar III-nitride laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 061109 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hardy, C. O. Holder, D. F. Feezell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Indium-tin-oxide clad blue and true green semipolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081103 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3930–3932 (1999).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3930–3932 (1999).
[Crossref]

Courteille, P. W.

P. H. Moriya, M. O. Araújo, F. Todão, M. Hemmerling, H. Keßler, R. F. Shiozaki, R. C. Teixerira, and P. W. Courteille, “Comparison between 403  nm and 497  nm repumping schemes for strontium magneto-optical traps,” J. Phys. Commun. 2, 125008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Czyszanowski, T.

M. Kuc, Ł. Piskorski, A. K. Sokół, M. Dems, M. Wasiak, R. P. Sarzała, and T. Czyszanowski, “Optical simulations of blue and green semipolar InGaN/GaN lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10532, 1053228 (2019).
[Crossref]

Davies, M. J.

C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Davies, F. Oehler, S. K. Pamenter, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, A. Kovács, T. Williams, M. A. Hopkins, C. J. Humphreys, P. Dawson, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, J. Etheridge, D. W. E. Allsopp, and R. A. Oliver, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dawson, P.

C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Davies, F. Oehler, S. K. Pamenter, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, A. Kovács, T. Williams, M. A. Hopkins, C. J. Humphreys, P. Dawson, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, J. Etheridge, D. W. E. Allsopp, and R. A. Oliver, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dems, M.

M. Kuc, Ł. Piskorski, A. K. Sokół, M. Dems, M. Wasiak, R. P. Sarzała, and T. Czyszanowski, “Optical simulations of blue and green semipolar InGaN/GaN lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10532, 1053228 (2019).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. Myzaferi, A. H. Reading, D. A. Cohen, M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Transparent conducting oxide clad limited area epitaxy semipolar III-nitride laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 061109 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hardy, C. O. Holder, D. F. Feezell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Indium-tin-oxide clad blue and true green semipolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C. C. Pan, C. C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Parish, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “SIMS investigations into the effect of growth conditions on residual impurity and silicon incorporation in GaN and AlxGa1−xN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29, 15–20 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3930–3932 (1999).
[Crossref]

DePuydt, J. M.

M. A. Haase, J. Qiu, J. M. DePuydt, and H. Cheng, “Blue-green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272–1274 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dnbaars, S. P.

Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.

C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Davies, F. Oehler, S. K. Pamenter, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, A. Kovács, T. Williams, M. A. Hopkins, C. J. Humphreys, P. Dawson, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, J. Etheridge, D. W. E. Allsopp, and R. A. Oliver, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eichler, C.

U. Strauss, A. Somers, U. Heine, T. Wurm, M. Peter, C. Eichler, S. Gerhard, G. Bruederl, S. Tautz, B. Stojetz, A. Loeffler, and H. Koenig, “GaInN laser diodes from 440 to 530  nm: a performance study on single mode and multi-mode R&D designs,” Proc. SPIE 10123, 101230A (2017).
[Crossref]

U. Strauß, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, D. Queren, A. Gomez-Iglesias, C. Eichler, J. Muller, G. Brüderl, and S. Lutgen, “Pros and cons of green InGaN laser on c-plane GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 652–657 (2011).
[Crossref]

Enya, Y.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, and M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100  mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {2021} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530  nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Etheridge, J.

C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Davies, F. Oehler, S. K. Pamenter, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, A. Kovács, T. Williams, M. A. Hopkins, C. J. Humphreys, P. Dawson, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, J. Etheridge, D. W. E. Allsopp, and R. A. Oliver, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, X. W.

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

Farrell, M.

A. Myzaferi, A. H. Reading, D. A. Cohen, M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Transparent conducting oxide clad limited area epitaxy semipolar III-nitride laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 061109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C. C. Pan, C. C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C. C. Pan, C. C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

M. T. Hardy, C. O. Holder, D. F. Feezell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Indium-tin-oxide clad blue and true green semipolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, M. X.

Y. Sun, K. Zhou, M. X. Feng, Z. C. Li, Y. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically pumped InGaN/GaN quantum well blue laser diode directly grown on Si,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, H. B. Wang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of thermal degradation of InGaN/GaN quantum wells in green laser diode structures during the epitaxial growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

S. Fujita, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor materials: for their full bloom,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 030101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuutagawa, N.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, and M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100  mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {2021} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530  nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gerhard, S.

U. Strauss, A. Somers, U. Heine, T. Wurm, M. Peter, C. Eichler, S. Gerhard, G. Bruederl, S. Tautz, B. Stojetz, A. Loeffler, and H. Koenig, “GaInN laser diodes from 440 to 530  nm: a performance study on single mode and multi-mode R&D designs,” Proc. SPIE 10123, 101230A (2017).
[Crossref]

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

U. Strauß, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, D. Queren, A. Gomez-Iglesias, C. Eichler, J. Muller, G. Brüderl, and S. Lutgen, “Pros and cons of green InGaN laser on c-plane GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 652–657 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haase, M. A.

M. A. Haase, J. Qiu, J. M. DePuydt, and H. Cheng, “Blue-green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272–1274 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hahn, B.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hamaguchi, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, and M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100  mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {2021} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530  nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hansen, M.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3930–3932 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hardy, M. T.

M. T. Hardy, C. O. Holder, D. F. Feezell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Indium-tin-oxide clad blue and true green semipolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harrison, I.

G. M. Laws, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, C. Molloy, and D. Somerford, “Improved refractive index formulas for the AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1108–1115 (2001).
[Crossref]

Heine, U.

U. Strauss, A. Somers, U. Heine, T. Wurm, M. Peter, C. Eichler, S. Gerhard, G. Bruederl, S. Tautz, B. Stojetz, A. Loeffler, and H. Koenig, “GaInN laser diodes from 440 to 530  nm: a performance study on single mode and multi-mode R&D designs,” Proc. SPIE 10123, 101230A (2017).
[Crossref]

Hemmerling, M.

P. H. Moriya, M. O. Araújo, F. Todão, M. Hemmerling, H. Keßler, R. F. Shiozaki, R. C. Teixerira, and P. W. Courteille, “Comparison between 403  nm and 497  nm repumping schemes for strontium magneto-optical traps,” J. Phys. Commun. 2, 125008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hodgkinson, I.

Hofmann, W.

Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
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Y. Sun, K. Zhou, M. X. Feng, Z. C. Li, Y. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically pumped InGaN/GaN quantum well blue laser diode directly grown on Si,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 13 (2018).
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A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, K. Zhou, Y. Cheng, W. Zhou, A. Q. Tian, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “GaN-based blue laser diodes with 2.2  W of light output power under continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 2203–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, F. Zhang, A. Q. Tian, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Realization of InGaN laser diodes above 500  nm by growth optimization of the InGaN/GaN active region,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 111001 (2014).
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Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, H. B. Wang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of thermal degradation of InGaN/GaN quantum wells in green laser diode structures during the epitaxial growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li, T. N. Oder, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1210–1212 (2002).
[Crossref]

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Y. Sun, K. Zhou, M. X. Feng, Z. C. Li, Y. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically pumped InGaN/GaN quantum well blue laser diode directly grown on Si,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, F. Zhang, A. Q. Tian, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Realization of InGaN laser diodes above 500  nm by growth optimization of the InGaN/GaN active region,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 111001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, H. B. Wang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of thermal degradation of InGaN/GaN quantum wells in green laser diode structures during the epitaxial growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Li, T. N. Oder, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1210–1212 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. Y.

H. Y. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48, 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

R. B. Xu, Y. Mei, H. Xu, L. Y. Ying, Z. Zheng, H. Long, D. Zhang, B. P. Zhang, and J. P. Liu, “Green vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on combination of blue-emitting quantum wells and cavity-enhanced recombination,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65, 4401–4406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, K. Zhou, M. X. Feng, Z. C. Li, Y. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically pumped InGaN/GaN quantum well blue laser diode directly grown on Si,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, K. Zhou, Y. Cheng, W. Zhou, A. Q. Tian, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “GaN-based blue laser diodes with 2.2  W of light output power under continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 2203–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, F. Zhang, A. Q. Tian, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Realization of InGaN laser diodes above 500  nm by growth optimization of the InGaN/GaN active region,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 111001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, H. B. Wang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of thermal degradation of InGaN/GaN quantum wells in green laser diode structures during the epitaxial growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. S.

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Loeffler, A.

U. Strauss, A. Somers, U. Heine, T. Wurm, M. Peter, C. Eichler, S. Gerhard, G. Bruederl, S. Tautz, B. Stojetz, A. Loeffler, and H. Koenig, “GaInN laser diodes from 440 to 530  nm: a performance study on single mode and multi-mode R&D designs,” Proc. SPIE 10123, 101230A (2017).
[Crossref]

Long, H.

R. B. Xu, Y. Mei, H. Xu, L. Y. Ying, Z. Zheng, H. Long, D. Zhang, B. P. Zhang, and J. P. Liu, “Green vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on combination of blue-emitting quantum wells and cavity-enhanced recombination,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65, 4401–4406 (2018).
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J. P. Liu, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, F. Zhang, A. Q. Tian, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Realization of InGaN laser diodes above 500  nm by growth optimization of the InGaN/GaN active region,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 111001 (2014).
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S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, and M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100  mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {2021} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530  nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082102 (2012).
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A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
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A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
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Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
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[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, K. Zhou, Y. Cheng, W. Zhou, A. Q. Tian, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “GaN-based blue laser diodes with 2.2  W of light output power under continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 2203–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, F. Zhang, A. Q. Tian, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Realization of InGaN laser diodes above 500  nm by growth optimization of the InGaN/GaN active region,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 111001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, H. B. Wang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of thermal degradation of InGaN/GaN quantum wells in green laser diode structures during the epitaxial growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152109 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023104 (2009).
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A. J. Wen, K. L. Chen, M. H. Yang, W. T. Hsiao, L. G. Chao, and M. S. Leu, “Effect of substrate angle on properties of ITO films deposited by cathodic arc ion plating with In-Sn alloy target,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 198, 362–366 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. H.

D. Bour, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, M. Teepe, and N. Johnson, “Silver-clad nitride semiconductor laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yen, C. C.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C. C. Pan, C. C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ying, L. Y.

R. B. Xu, Y. Mei, H. Xu, L. Y. Ying, Z. Zheng, H. Long, D. Zhang, B. P. Zhang, and J. P. Liu, “Green vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on combination of blue-emitting quantum wells and cavity-enhanced recombination,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65, 4401–4406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoshizumi, Y.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, and M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100  mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {2021} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530  nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zehnder, U.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B. P.

R. B. Xu, Y. Mei, H. Xu, L. Y. Ying, Z. Zheng, H. Long, D. Zhang, B. P. Zhang, and J. P. Liu, “Green vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on combination of blue-emitting quantum wells and cavity-enhanced recombination,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65, 4401–4406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

R. B. Xu, Y. Mei, H. Xu, L. Y. Ying, Z. Zheng, H. Long, D. Zhang, B. P. Zhang, and J. P. Liu, “Green vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on combination of blue-emitting quantum wells and cavity-enhanced recombination,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65, 4401–4406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, F. Zhang, A. Q. Tian, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Realization of InGaN laser diodes above 500  nm by growth optimization of the InGaN/GaN active region,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 111001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Y.

Y. Mei, G. E. Weng, B. P. Zhang, J. P. Liu, W. Hofmann, L. Y. Ying, J. Y. Zhang, Z. C. Li, H. Yang, and H. C. Kuo, “Quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers covering the ‘green gap’,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16199 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. Q.

Y. Sun, K. Zhou, M. X. Feng, Z. C. Li, Y. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically pumped InGaN/GaN quantum well blue laser diode directly grown on Si,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Green laser diodes with low threshold current density via interface engineering of InGaN/GaN quantum well active region,” Opt. Express 25, 415–421 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, K. Zhou, Y. Cheng, W. Zhou, A. Q. Tian, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “GaN-based blue laser diodes with 2.2  W of light output power under continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 2203–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, Z. C. Li, M. X. Feng, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, F. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Conductivity enhancement in AlGaN:Mg by suppressing the incorporation of carbon impurity,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 051001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, F. Zhang, A. Q. Tian, K. Zhou, D. Y. Li, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Realization of InGaN laser diodes above 500  nm by growth optimization of the InGaN/GaN active region,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 111001 (2014).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. M.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

A. Q. Tian, J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, L. R. Jiang, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, P. Y. Wen, Y. Cheng, X. W. Fan, and H. Yang, “Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 112102 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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J. P. Liu, L. Q. Zhang, D. Y. Li, K. Zhou, Y. Cheng, W. Zhou, A. Q. Tian, M. Ikeda, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “GaN-based blue laser diodes with 2.2  W of light output power under continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 2203–2206 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Structure of the hybrid LD with ITO cladding layer or conventional LD with Pd/Pt/Au electrode. (b) Calculated internal loss of the hybrid LD and conventional LD as a function of p-AlGaN cladding layer thickness. (c) Calculated internal loss of hybrid LDs with various absorption coefficients of ITO layers as a function of p-AlGaN cladding layer thickness.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Optical and electrical characteristics of ITO layer. (a) The ellipsometer measurement curves of the annealed ITO layer. (b) The absorption coefficient and refractive index of the ITO layer fitted by the ellipsometer. (c) Current-voltage curves of circular transmission line method test for various electrode spacing. (d) The specific contact resistivity fitting curve.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Power–current (PI) curves of hybrid LDs with ITO cladding layer and conventional LD with Pd/Pt/Au electrode. The P-Al0.08GaN cladding layer thicknesses and electrode are shown in the legends. (b) Lasing spectra of four different kinds of LDs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Integrated electroluminescence intensity as a function of current density in a double logarithmic plot. The intersections of the linear fitting with slopes of 2 and 1 are marked by the dotted lines.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) PI curves of ITO LDs with 300 nm different p-AlGaN cladding layers; Al contents are shown in the legends. (b) IV curves of three different kinds of LDs.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. PI curve of ITO LDs with 300 nm p-Al0.035GaN cladding layer. The front facet coating reflectivity is 40%.