Abstract

Metamaterials play an important role in the modulation of amplitude and group delay in the terahertz (THz) regime on account of their optical properties, which are rare in natural materials. Here an ultrafast anisotropic switch of the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect is experimentally and numerically demonstrated by metamaterial devices composed of two pairs of planar split-ring resonators and a pair of closed-ring resonators. By integration with a germanium (Ge) film, a recovery time of 3 ps and a decay constant of 785 fs are realized in the metadevice. Stimulated by the exterior optical pump, the PIT windows at different frequencies are switched off with an excellent property of slow light for vertical and horizontal THz polarizations, realizing an astonishing modulation depth as high as 99.06%. This work provides a new platform for ultrafast anisotropic metadevices tunable for amplitude and group delay.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (13)

J. Y. Suen, K. Fan, and W. J. Padilla, “A zero-rank, maximum nullity perfect electromagnetic wave absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801632 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, T. Liu, H. Guo, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-performance meta-devices based on multilayer meta-atoms: interplay between the number of layers and phase coverage,” Sci. Bull. 64, 823–835 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, T. Jiang, J. Zhou, H. Hao, H. Sun, H. Ouyang, M. Tong, Y. Tang, H. Li, J. You, X. Zheng, Z. Xu, and X. Cheng, “Ultrafast terahertz frequency and phase tuning by all-optical molecularization of metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1901050 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, H. Jo, W. Lee, B. Kim, H. Choi, M. S. Kang, and H. Lee, “Electrical control of electromagnetically induced transparency by terahertz metamaterial funneling,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801205 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. T. Nouman, J. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, G. Lee, D.-Y. Noh, and J.-H. Jang, “Dynamic-metasurface-based cavity structures for enhanced absorption and phase modulation,” ACS Photon. 6, 374–381 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, A. Kumar, S. Prakash, H. Jani, T. Venkatesan, and R. Singh, “Chalcogenide phase change material for active terahertz photonics,” Adv. Mater. 31, 1808157 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Bi, D. Yang, J. Chen, Q. Wang, H. Wu, C. Lan, and Y. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of ultra-large-scale terahertz all-dielectric metamaterials,” Photon. Res. 7, 457–463 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, T. Jiang, J. Zhou, H. Hao, H. Sun, H. Ouyang, M. Tong, Y. Tang, H. Li, J. You, X. Zheng, Z. Xu, and X. Cheng, “Ultrafast terahertz transmission/group delay switching in photoactive WSe2-functionalized metaphotonic devices,” Nano Energy 68, 104280 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. P. Neupane, K. Zhou, S. Chen, T. Yildirim, P. Zhang, and Y. Lu, “In-plane isotropic/anisotropic 2D van der Waals heterostructures for future devices,” Small 15, 1804733 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lin, M. Li, H. Cai, Y. Liang, M. Liu, Z. Huang, F. Lai, F. Huang, and W. Zheng, “Anisotropic photoresponse of the ultrathin GeSe nanoplates grown by rapid physical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 4123–4130 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, Y. Hu, T. Jiang, H. Ouyang, H. Li, Y. Sui, H. Hao, J. You, X. Zheng, Z. Xu, and X. Cheng, “Ultrasensitive polarization-dependent terahertz modulation in hybrid perovskites plasmon-induced transparency devices,” Photon. Res. 7, 994–1002 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, X. Jiang, C. Zhou, and S. Xiao, “Black phosphorus-based anisotropic absorption structure in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 27, 27618–27627 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, T. Liu, L. Cheng, C. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Tunable anisotropic absorption in hyperbolic metamaterials based on black phosphorous/dielectric multilayer structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 3290–3297 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

K. Wei, T. Jiang, Z. Xu, J. Zhou, J. You, Y. Tang, H. Li, R. Chen, X. Zheng, S. Wang, K. Yin, Z. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Cheng, “Ultrafast carrier transfer promoted by interlayer coulomb coupling in 2D/3D perovskite heterostructures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800128 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, T. Jiang, T. Zhou, H. Ouyang, C. Zhang, Z. Xin, Z. Wang, and X. Cheng, “Saturated absorption of different layered Bi2Se3 films in the resonance zone,” Photon. Res. 6, C8–C14 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, J. A. Burrow, S. M. Mekonen, A. Sarangan, J. Mathews, I. Agha, and T. A. Searles, “Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 97, 155403 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, Q. Shi, S. Liang, W. Huang, W. Kou, and Z. Yang, “Dynamic photoinduced controlling of the large phase shift of terahertz waves via vanadium dioxide coupling nanostructures,” ACS Photon. 5, 3040–3050 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photon. 5, 1800–1807 (2018).
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L. Cheng, Z. Jin, Z. Ma, F. Su, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, T. Su, Y. Sun, X. Xu, Z. Meng, Y. Bian, and Z. Sheng, “Mechanical terahertz modulation based on single-layered graphene,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700877 (2018).
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S. Xiao, T. Wang, T. Liu, X. Yan, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Active modulation of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 126, 271–278 (2018).
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H. Guo, J. Lin, M. Qiu, J. Tian, Q. Wang, Y. Li, S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Flat optical transparent window: mechanism and realization based on metasurfaces,” J. Phys. D 51, 074001 (2018).
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S. Yoo, S. Lee, and Q.-H. Park, “Loss-free negative-index metamaterials using forward light scattering in dielectric meta-atoms,” ACS Photon. 5, 1370–1374 (2018).
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2017 (11)

Q. Yang, J. Gu, Y. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, C. Ouyang, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband and robust metalens with nonlinear phase profiles for efficient terahertz wave control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1601084 (2017).
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W. Wang, F. Yan, S. Tan, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators,” Photon. Res. 5, 571–577 (2017).
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L. Chen, N. Xu, L. Singh, T. Cui, R. Singh, Y. Zhu, and W. Zhang, “Defect-induced Fano resonances in corrugated plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600960 (2017).
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S. Xiao, J. Wang, F. Liu, S. Zhang, X. Yin, and J. Li, “Spin-dependent optics with metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 6, 215–234 (2017).
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Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz Fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700762 (2017).
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Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz Fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700762 (2017).
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M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photoswitching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603355 (2017).
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M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1605881 (2017).
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T. Cao, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Y. Zou, “Theoretical study of tunable chirality from graphene integrated achiral metasurfaces,” Photon. Res. 5, 441–449 (2017).
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M. Zürch, H.-T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
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T.-T. Yeh, H. Shirai, C.-M. Tu, T. Fuji, T. Kobayashi, and C.-W. Luo, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Ge by ultra-broadband mid-infrared probe spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40492 (2017).
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2016 (5)

S. Prucnal, F. Liu, M. Voelskow, L. Vines, L. Rebohle, D. Lang, Y. Berencén, S. Andric, R. Boettger, M. Helm, S. Zhou, and W. Skorupa, “Ultra-doped n-type germanium thin films for sensing in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27643 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4562–4565 (2016).
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S. Xiao, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, M. Kenney, F. Liu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, and J. Li, “Helicity-preserving omnidirectional plasmonic mirror,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 654–658 (2016).
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C. H. Kodama and R. A. Coutu, “Tunable split-ring resonators using germanium telluride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231901 (2016).
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X. Tian and Z.-Y. Li, “Visible-near infrared ultra-broadband polarization-independent metamaterial perfect absorber involving phase-change materials,” Photon. Res. 4, 146–152 (2016).
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2015 (4)

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
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S. Xiao, F. Zhong, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and J. Li, “Flexible coherent control of plasmonic spin-Hall effect,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8360 (2015).
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Y. Xiang, X. Dai, J. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Critical coupling with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5483 (2015).
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X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, S. Tan, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz transparency in a switchable metasurface,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 5900108 (2015).
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2014 (4)

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
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I. Al-Naib, E. Hebestreit, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, D. Christodoulides, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “Conductive coupling of split ring resonators: a path to THz metamaterials with ultrasharp resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 183903 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Schittny, M. Kadic, T. Buckmann, and M. Wegener, “Invisibility cloaking in a diffusive light scattering medium,” Science 345, 427–429 (2014).
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2013 (3)

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101106 (2013).
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S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 073707 (2013).
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K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3, 702–708 (2013).
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2012 (3)

W.-S. Chang, J. B. Lassiter, P. Swanglap, H. Sobhani, S. Khatua, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “A plasmonic Fano switch,” Nano Lett. 12, 4977–4982 (2012).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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D. Lu and Z. Liu, “Hyperlenses and metalenses for far-field super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1205 (2012).
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2011 (5)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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R. Pillarisetty, “Academic and industry research progress in germanium nanodevices,” Nature 479, 324–328 (2011).
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R. Singh, A. K. Azad, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single-crystal substrates,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1230–1232 (2011).
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D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19, 9968–9975 (2011).
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C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
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2010 (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
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2009 (5)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 093707 (2009).
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N.-H. Shen, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Broadband blueshift tunable metamaterials and dual-band switches,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161102 (2009).
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R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085111 (2009).
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W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 99–118 (2009).
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2008 (4)

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4521–4525 (2008).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
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T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 295–298 (2008).
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2007 (2)

P. Moontragoon, Z. Ikonić, and P. Harrison, “Band structure calculations of Si-Ge–Sn alloys: achieving direct band gap materials,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, 742–748 (2007).
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V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp dark-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
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2006 (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
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2004 (2)

S. Linden, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
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D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004).
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2003 (1)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
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1994 (1)

G. Mak and H. M. van Driel, “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16817–16820 (1994).
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Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 99–118 (2009).
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Agha, I.

R. Yahiaoui, J. A. Burrow, S. M. Mekonen, A. Sarangan, J. Mathews, I. Agha, and T. A. Searles, “Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 97, 155403 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photoswitching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Al-Naib, E. Hebestreit, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, D. Christodoulides, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “Conductive coupling of split ring resonators: a path to THz metamaterials with ultrasharp resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 183903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andric, S.

S. Prucnal, F. Liu, M. Voelskow, L. Vines, L. Rebohle, D. Lang, Y. Berencén, S. Andric, R. Boettger, M. Helm, S. Zhou, and W. Skorupa, “Ultra-doped n-type germanium thin films for sensing in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27643 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anlage, S. M.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3, 702–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19, 9968–9975 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
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Azad, A. K.

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4562–4565 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single-crystal substrates,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1230–1232 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 295–298 (2008).
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A. K. Azad, Z. Tian, H.-T. Chen, X. Lu, S. R. Kasarla, W. Zhang, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmon polariton in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (OSA, 2009), paper CWG4.

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Berencén, Y.

S. Prucnal, F. Liu, M. Voelskow, L. Vines, L. Rebohle, D. Lang, Y. Berencén, S. Andric, R. Boettger, M. Helm, S. Zhou, and W. Skorupa, “Ultra-doped n-type germanium thin films for sensing in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27643 (2016).
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Bi, K.

Bian, Y.

L. Cheng, Z. Jin, Z. Ma, F. Su, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, T. Su, Y. Sun, X. Xu, Z. Meng, Y. Bian, and Z. Sheng, “Mechanical terahertz modulation based on single-layered graphene,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700877 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bingham, C.

Boettger, R.

S. Prucnal, F. Liu, M. Voelskow, L. Vines, L. Rebohle, D. Lang, Y. Berencén, S. Andric, R. Boettger, M. Helm, S. Zhou, and W. Skorupa, “Ultra-doped n-type germanium thin films for sensing in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27643 (2016).
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Borja, L. J.

M. Zürch, H.-T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boztug, C.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brehm, M.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Buckmann, T.

R. Schittny, M. Kadic, T. Buckmann, and M. Wegener, “Invisibility cloaking in a diffusive light scattering medium,” Science 345, 427–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burrow, J. A.

R. Yahiaoui, J. A. Burrow, S. M. Mekonen, A. Sarangan, J. Mathews, I. Agha, and T. A. Searles, “Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 97, 155403 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

J. Liu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lin, M. Li, H. Cai, Y. Liang, M. Liu, Z. Huang, F. Lai, F. Huang, and W. Zheng, “Anisotropic photoresponse of the ultrathin GeSe nanoplates grown by rapid physical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 4123–4130 (2019).
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Cao, T.

Cao, W.

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4562–4565 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cavallo, F.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chae, B.-G.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-T.

M. Zürch, H.-T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.-S.

W.-S. Chang, J. B. Lassiter, P. Swanglap, H. Sobhani, S. Khatua, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “A plasmonic Fano switch,” Nano Lett. 12, 4977–4982 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaturvedi, A.

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz Fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz Fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

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ACS Nano (1)

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Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic illustration of the ultrafast THz polarization-dependent metamaterial device configuration for OPTP spectral measurement. (b) Schematic of the metamaterial unit cell. The geometric parameters are listed as follows: Lx=120  μm, Ly=50  μm, lxx=26  μm, lxy=25  μm, lyx=50  μm, lyy=15  μm, w=5  μm, g=5  μm, d=5  μm, h=200  nm. (c) Optical microscopy image of the metadevice. The inset shows the surface morphology measured by the atomic force microscope (AFM).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimentally measured spectral dispersion of transmission spectra for the polarization-related metadevice in THz (a) x-polarized and (b) y-polarized pumps, considering a series of selected fluences. The corresponding numerically simulated transmission spectra for THz (c) x-polarized and (d) y-polarized light, with the labeled conductivity of the Ge film representing the pump level.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Numerically calculated z-component field distributions in the transverse plane of a metamaterial unit at 0.79 THz, in the case of THz x polarization, accounting for Ge conductivity varying from 0 to 1600 S/m.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimentally measured group delay spectra of the polarization-related metadevice for THz (a) x polarization and (b) y polarization, in the case of a series of selected fluences. The corresponding numerical results for (c) x polarization and (d) y polarization, with the conductivity of Ge film representing the pump level.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Color map showing the transient evolution of THz transmission amplitude against frequency and time delay pumped with fluence of 1000  μJ/cm2 over an entire on-off photoswitching cycle.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Negative differential transmission of 125 nm thick Ge film coated on quartz substrate pumped for a series of selected powers (as labeled). The experimental measurement is fitted using a single exponential function. These plots are vertically arranged for distinct comparison.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Transmission spectra of SRR resonators and CRR resonators for (a) x polarization and (b) y polarization, with conductivity of 0 S/m.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Relative modulation depth as a function of pump power.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Numerically calculated z-component field distributions in the transverse plane of a unit of the metamaterial for the THz y polarization, accounting for the conductivity of Ge varying from 0 to 1600 S/m.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Contour map showing the transient evolution of THz group delay against frequency and time delay over an entire on-off photoswitching cycle, under a pump fluence of 1000  μJ/cm2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Exponential Decay Time of the Relative Change of Fitted THz Transmission in Quartz Substrate Coated by Ge, Pumped by a Series of Exterior Lasersa

Equations (1)

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TT0T0(t)=e(tt0IRF/2ln2)2×(A0+A1ett0τ1),