Abstract

The nanorod structure is an alternative scheme to develop high-efficiency deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs). In this paper, we first report the electrically injected 274-nm AlGaN nanorod array DUV LEDs fabricated by the nanosphere lithography and dry-etching technique. Nanorod DUV LED devices with good electrical properties are successfully realized. Compared to planar DUV LEDs, nanorod DUV LEDs present >2.5 times improvement in light output power and external quantum efficiency. The internal quantum efficiency of nanorod LEDs increases by 1.2 times due to the transformation of carriers from the exciton to the free electron–hole, possibly driven by the interface state effect of the nanorod sidewall surface. In addition, the nanorod array significantly facilitates photons escaping from the interior of LEDs along the vertical direction, contributing to improved light extraction efficiency. A three-dimensional finite-different time-domain simulation is performed to analyze further in detail the TE- and TM-polarized photon extraction mechanisms of the nanostructure. Our results demonstrate the nanorod structure is a good candidate for high-efficiency DUV emitters.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2019 (2)

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, J. Yan, Q. Wu, Y. Guo, T. Wei, Z. Liu, G. Yuan, X. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nanoporous template,” Opt. Express 27, 4917–4926 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

D. Li, K. Jiang, X. Sun, and C. Guo, “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 10, 43–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Lin, S. V. Galan, H. Sun, Y. Hu, M. S. Alias, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Tapering-induced enhancement of light extraction efficiency of nanowire deep ultraviolet LED by theoretical simulations,” Photon. Res. 6, 457–462 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancing the light extraction of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in the nanoscale,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043510 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, U. Choi, J. Pyeon, B. So, and O. Nam, “Deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN core-shell multiple quantum wells on AlN nanorods via lithography-free method,” Sci. Rep. 8, 935 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. M. Coulon, G. Kusch, R. W. Martin, and P. A. Shields, “Deep-UV emission from highly-ordered AlGaN/AlN core-shell nanorods,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 33441–33449 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. S. Ooi, T. K. Ng, M. K. Shakfa, D. Priante, R. C. Subedi, I. Ashry, A. A. Alatawi, E. Stegenburgs, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Tangi, and M. S. Alias, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, X. Wen, J. Yang, M. Latzel, R. Patterson, S. Huang, S. Shrestha, B. Jia, D. J. Moss, S. Christiansen, and G. Conibeer, “Free charges versus excitons: photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods and their planar counterparts,” Nanoscale 10, 5358–5365 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photon. 5, 964–970 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275  nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337 nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Li, Z. Liu, Z. Q. Liu, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, and J. X. Wang, “Advances and prospects in nitrides based light-emitting-diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 061001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

J. Mickevičius, Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Nonradiative recombination, carrier localization, and emission efficiency of AlGaN epilayers with different Al content,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 4706–4709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. He, Z. Qin, F. Xu, M. Hou, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13046 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Emission mechanisms in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells assessed by excitation power dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, M. Djavid, and Z. Mi, “Surface emitting, high efficiency near-vacuum ultraviolet light source with aluminum nitride nanowires monolithically grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15, 7006–7009 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, H. J. Park, S. H. Kim, M. Asadirad, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Kwak, and J. H. Ryou, “Light-extraction efficiency control in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes: a comparison to InGaN-based visible flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23, 20340–20349 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. Zhen, P. Ma, Y. Zhang, E. Guo, Y. Tian, B. Liu, S. Guo, L. Shan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Embeded photonic crystal at the interface of p-GaN and Ag reflector to improve light extraction of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251103 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, “Large enhancement of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN-based nanorod ultraviolet light-emitting diode structures,” Ryu Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9, 7 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, G. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Zhang, T. Zhi, T. Tao, H. Ge, F. Ren, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 24, 405303 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11, 476–481 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Deep ultraviolet emission mechanisms in highly excited Al0.79Ga0.21N/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7, 1909–1912 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18, 9398–9412 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

B. K. Ridley, “Kinetics of radiative recombination in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12190–12196 (1990).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

W. Y. Liang, “Excitons,” Phys. Educ. 5, 226–228 (1970).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alatawi, A. A.

B. S. Ooi, T. K. Ng, M. K. Shakfa, D. Priante, R. C. Subedi, I. Ashry, A. A. Alatawi, E. Stegenburgs, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Tangi, and M. S. Alias, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Albadri, A. M.

Aleksiejunas, R.

J. Mickevičius, Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Nonradiative recombination, carrier localization, and emission efficiency of AlGaN epilayers with different Al content,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 4706–4709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alexander-Webber, J. A.

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alhamoud, A. A.

Alias, M. S.

R. Lin, S. V. Galan, H. Sun, Y. Hu, M. S. Alias, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Tapering-induced enhancement of light extraction efficiency of nanowire deep ultraviolet LED by theoretical simulations,” Photon. Res. 6, 457–462 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. S. Ooi, T. K. Ng, M. K. Shakfa, D. Priante, R. C. Subedi, I. Ashry, A. A. Alatawi, E. Stegenburgs, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Tangi, and M. S. Alias, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alyamani, A. Y.

Amano, H.

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Anjum, D. H.

Appavoo, K.

J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
[Crossref]

Asadirad, M.

Ashry, I.

B. S. Ooi, T. K. Ng, M. K. Shakfa, D. Priante, R. C. Subedi, I. Ashry, A. A. Alatawi, E. Stegenburgs, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Tangi, and M. S. Alias, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043508 (2018).
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Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Emission mechanisms in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells assessed by excitation power dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Deep ultraviolet emission mechanisms in highly excited Al0.79Ga0.21N/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7, 1909–1912 (2010).
[Crossref]

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J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
[Crossref]

Botton, G. A.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bugnet, M.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
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Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chee, K. W. A.

W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, X. Wen, J. Yang, M. Latzel, R. Patterson, S. Huang, S. Shrestha, B. Jia, D. J. Moss, S. Christiansen, and G. Conibeer, “Free charges versus excitons: photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods and their planar counterparts,” Nanoscale 10, 5358–5365 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, X. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancement of light extraction on AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using a sidewall reflection method,” in 13th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (Sslchina: Ifws) (2016), pp. 127–130.

Chiu, C.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1137–1143 (2009).
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H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 062101 (2013).
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H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 062101 (2013).
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Choi, U.

J. Kim, U. Choi, J. Pyeon, B. So, and O. Nam, “Deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN core-shell multiple quantum wells on AlN nanorods via lithography-free method,” Sci. Rep. 8, 935 (2018).
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Christiansen, S.

W. Chen, X. Wen, J. Yang, M. Latzel, R. Patterson, S. Huang, S. Shrestha, B. Jia, D. J. Moss, S. Christiansen, and G. Conibeer, “Free charges versus excitons: photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods and their planar counterparts,” Nanoscale 10, 5358–5365 (2018).
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Conibeer, G.

W. Chen, X. Wen, J. Yang, M. Latzel, R. Patterson, S. Huang, S. Shrestha, B. Jia, D. J. Moss, S. Christiansen, and G. Conibeer, “Free charges versus excitons: photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods and their planar counterparts,” Nanoscale 10, 5358–5365 (2018).
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P. M. Coulon, G. Kusch, R. W. Martin, and P. A. Shields, “Deep-UV emission from highly-ordered AlGaN/AlN core-shell nanorods,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 33441–33449 (2018).
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J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
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Dai, J.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
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Djavid, M.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
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S. Zhao, M. Djavid, and Z. Mi, “Surface emitting, high efficiency near-vacuum ultraviolet light source with aluminum nitride nanowires monolithically grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15, 7006–7009 (2015).
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Dong, P.

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
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Edwards, G.

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
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El-Desouki, M. M.

Even, J.

J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
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Fu, D. Y.

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
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Funato, M.

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Emission mechanisms in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells assessed by excitation power dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Deep ultraviolet emission mechanisms in highly excited Al0.79Ga0.21N/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7, 1909–1912 (2010).
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Galan, S. V.

Gao, P.

W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
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Gaska, R.

J. Mickevičius, Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Nonradiative recombination, carrier localization, and emission efficiency of AlGaN epilayers with different Al content,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 4706–4709 (2015).
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Ge, H.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
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Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, G. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Zhang, T. Zhi, T. Tao, H. Ge, F. Ren, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 24, 405303 (2013).
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Ge, W.

C. He, Z. Qin, F. Xu, M. Hou, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13046 (2015).
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Geng, C.

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
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Guo, C.

Guo, E.

A. Zhen, P. Ma, Y. Zhang, E. Guo, Y. Tian, B. Liu, S. Guo, L. Shan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Embeded photonic crystal at the interface of p-GaN and Ag reflector to improve light extraction of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251103 (2014).
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Guo, H.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
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Guo, S.

A. Zhen, P. Ma, Y. Zhang, E. Guo, Y. Tian, B. Liu, S. Guo, L. Shan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Embeded photonic crystal at the interface of p-GaN and Ag reflector to improve light extraction of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251103 (2014).
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Guo, W.

W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, G. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Zhang, T. Zhi, T. Tao, H. Ge, F. Ren, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 24, 405303 (2013).
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Guo, Y.

L. Zhang, J. Yan, Q. Wu, Y. Guo, T. Wei, Z. Liu, G. Yuan, X. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nanoporous template,” Opt. Express 27, 4917–4926 (2019).
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Y. Guo, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancing the light extraction of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in the nanoscale,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043510 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, X. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancement of light extraction on AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using a sidewall reflection method,” in 13th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (Sslchina: Ifws) (2016), pp. 127–130.

Han, J.

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
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Han, S. W.

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, C.

C. He, Z. Qin, F. Xu, M. Hou, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13046 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275  nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031002 (2017).
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Holguin-Lerma, J. A.

B. S. Ooi, T. K. Ng, M. K. Shakfa, D. Priante, R. C. Subedi, I. Ashry, A. A. Alatawi, E. Stegenburgs, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Tangi, and M. S. Alias, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Holmes, M. J.

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hou, M.

C. He, Z. Qin, F. Xu, M. Hou, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13046 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, M. L.

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11, 476–481 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, F.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Huang, S.

W. Chen, X. Wen, J. Yang, M. Latzel, R. Patterson, S. Huang, S. Shrestha, B. Jia, D. J. Moss, S. Christiansen, and G. Conibeer, “Free charges versus excitons: photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods and their planar counterparts,” Nanoscale 10, 5358–5365 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, S.

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Emission mechanisms in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells assessed by excitation power dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Im, H.

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

Iwata, Y.

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Emission mechanisms in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells assessed by excitation power dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Ji, W.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

W. Chen, X. Wen, J. Yang, M. Latzel, R. Patterson, S. Huang, S. Shrestha, B. Jia, D. J. Moss, S. Christiansen, and G. Conibeer, “Free charges versus excitons: photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods and their planar counterparts,” Nanoscale 10, 5358–5365 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, K.

Jo, Y.

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jurkevicius, J.

J. Mickevičius, Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Nonradiative recombination, carrier localization, and emission efficiency of AlGaN epilayers with different Al content,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 4706–4709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kadys, A.

J. Mickevičius, Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Nonradiative recombination, carrier localization, and emission efficiency of AlGaN epilayers with different Al content,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 4706–4709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kanatzidis, M. G.

J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Katan, C.

J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Emission mechanisms in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells assessed by excitation power dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Deep ultraviolet emission mechanisms in highly excited Al0.79Ga0.21N/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7, 1909–1912 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ke, C. C.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kepenekian, M.

J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, U. Choi, J. Pyeon, B. So, and O. Nam, “Deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN core-shell multiple quantum wells on AlN nanorods via lithography-free method,” Sci. Rep. 8, 935 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. S.

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, Y. S.

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11, 476–481 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kong, X.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, M. L.

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11, 476–481 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kusch, G.

P. M. Coulon, G. Kusch, R. W. Martin, and P. A. Shields, “Deep-UV emission from highly-ordered AlGaN/AlN core-shell nanorods,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 33441–33449 (2018).
[Crossref]

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J. Mickevičius, Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Nonradiative recombination, carrier localization, and emission efficiency of AlGaN epilayers with different Al content,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 4706–4709 (2015).
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J. Kim, U. Choi, J. Pyeon, B. So, and O. Nam, “Deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN core-shell multiple quantum wells on AlN nanorods via lithography-free method,” Sci. Rep. 8, 935 (2018).
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B. S. Ooi, T. K. Ng, M. K. Shakfa, D. Priante, R. C. Subedi, I. Ashry, A. A. Alatawi, E. Stegenburgs, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Tangi, and M. S. Alias, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043508 (2018).
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J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
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B. S. Ooi, T. K. Ng, M. K. Shakfa, D. Priante, R. C. Subedi, I. Ashry, A. A. Alatawi, E. Stegenburgs, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Tangi, and M. S. Alias, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043508 (2018).
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Sun, X.

Takano, T.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275  nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031002 (2017).
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J. Mickevičius, Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Nonradiative recombination, carrier localization, and emission efficiency of AlGaN epilayers with different Al content,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 4706–4709 (2015).
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Tangi, M.

B. S. Ooi, T. K. Ng, M. K. Shakfa, D. Priante, R. C. Subedi, I. Ashry, A. A. Alatawi, E. Stegenburgs, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Tangi, and M. S. Alias, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043508 (2018).
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Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
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Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, G. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Zhang, T. Zhi, T. Tao, H. Ge, F. Ren, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 24, 405303 (2013).
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Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
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A. Zhen, P. Ma, Y. Zhang, E. Guo, Y. Tian, B. Liu, S. Guo, L. Shan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Embeded photonic crystal at the interface of p-GaN and Ag reflector to improve light extraction of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251103 (2014).
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J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
[Crossref]

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J.-C. Blancon, H. Tsai, W. Nie, C. C. Stoumpos, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, C. M. M. Soe, K. Appavoo, M. Y. Sfeir, S. Tretiak, P. M. Ajayan, M. G. Kanatzidis, J. Even, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites,” Science 355, 1288–1292 (2017).
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T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275  nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, B. G.

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

L. Zhang, J. Yan, Q. Wu, Y. Guo, T. Wei, Z. Liu, G. Yuan, X. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nanoporous template,” Opt. Express 27, 4917–4926 (2019).
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Y. Guo, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancing the light extraction of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in the nanoscale,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043510 (2018).
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W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
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P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Zhen, P. Ma, Y. Zhang, E. Guo, Y. Tian, B. Liu, S. Guo, L. Shan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Embeded photonic crystal at the interface of p-GaN and Ag reflector to improve light extraction of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, X. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancement of light extraction on AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using a sidewall reflection method,” in 13th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (Sslchina: Ifws) (2016), pp. 127–130.

Wang, J. X.

J. M. Li, Z. Liu, Z. Q. Liu, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, and J. X. Wang, “Advances and prospects in nitrides based light-emitting-diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 061001 (2016).
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Wang, S.-C.

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Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. He, Z. Qin, F. Xu, M. Hou, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13046 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

Wei, T. B.

J. M. Li, Z. Liu, Z. Q. Liu, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, and J. X. Wang, “Advances and prospects in nitrides based light-emitting-diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 061001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

L. Zhang, J. Yan, Q. Wu, Y. Guo, T. Wei, Z. Liu, G. Yuan, X. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nanoporous template,” Opt. Express 27, 4917–4926 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
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Wen, X.

W. Chen, X. Wen, J. Yang, M. Latzel, R. Patterson, S. Huang, S. Shrestha, B. Jia, D. J. Moss, S. Christiansen, and G. Conibeer, “Free charges versus excitons: photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods and their planar counterparts,” Nanoscale 10, 5358–5365 (2018).
[Crossref]

Woo, S. Y.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

Wu, Q.

Xiao, M.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
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Xie, Z.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, G. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Zhang, T. Zhi, T. Tao, H. Ge, F. Ren, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 24, 405303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z. L.

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiu, X. Q.

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

C. He, Z. Qin, F. Xu, M. Hou, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13046 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

L. Zhang, J. Yan, Q. Wu, Y. Guo, T. Wei, Z. Liu, G. Yuan, X. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nanoporous template,” Opt. Express 27, 4917–4926 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancing the light extraction of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in the nanoscale,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043510 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, X. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancement of light extraction on AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using a sidewall reflection method,” in 13th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (Sslchina: Ifws) (2016), pp. 127–130.

Yan, J. C.

J. M. Li, Z. Liu, Z. Q. Liu, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, and J. X. Wang, “Advances and prospects in nitrides based light-emitting-diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 061001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q.

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

W. Chen, X. Wen, J. Yang, M. Latzel, R. Patterson, S. Huang, S. Shrestha, B. Jia, D. J. Moss, S. Christiansen, and G. Conibeer, “Free charges versus excitons: photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods and their planar counterparts,” Nanoscale 10, 5358–5365 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Nonradiative recombination, carrier localization, and emission efficiency of AlGaN epilayers with different Al content,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 4706–4709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Y. S. Park, G. Lee, M. J. Holmes, C. C. Chan, B. P. Reid, J. A. Alexander-Webber, R. J. Nicholas, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Kim, S. W. Han, W. Yang, Y. Jo, J. Kim, and H. Im, “Surface-effect-induced optical bandgap shrinkage in GaN nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 15, 4472–4476 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yi, X. Y.

J. M. Li, Z. Liu, Z. Q. Liu, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, and J. X. Wang, “Advances and prospects in nitrides based light-emitting-diodes,” J. Semicond. 37, 061001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, G.

Zhang, G.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, G. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Zhang, T. Zhi, T. Tao, H. Ge, F. Ren, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 24, 405303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, J. Yan, Q. Wu, Y. Guo, T. Wei, Z. Liu, G. Yuan, X. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nanoporous template,” Opt. Express 27, 4917–4926 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. He, Z. Qin, F. Xu, M. Hou, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13046 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, G. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Zhang, T. Zhi, T. Tao, H. Ge, F. Ren, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 24, 405303 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

C. He, Z. Qin, F. Xu, M. Hou, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13046 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, X. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancement of light extraction on AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using a sidewall reflection method,” in 13th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (Sslchina: Ifws) (2016), pp. 127–130.

Zhang, Y.

L. Zhang, J. Yan, Q. Wu, Y. Guo, T. Wei, Z. Liu, G. Yuan, X. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nanoporous template,” Opt. Express 27, 4917–4926 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancing the light extraction of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in the nanoscale,” J. Nanophoton. 12, 043510 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, Z. Yang, J. Li, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, K. W. A. Chee, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “Enhancing light coupling and emission efficiencies of AlGaN thin film and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with periodicity-wavelength matched nanostructure array,” Nanoscale 9, 15477–15483 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Zhen, P. Ma, Y. Zhang, E. Guo, Y. Tian, B. Liu, S. Guo, L. Shan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Embeded photonic crystal at the interface of p-GaN and Ag reflector to improve light extraction of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251103 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, X. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Enhancement of light extraction on AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using a sidewall reflection method,” in 13th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (Sslchina: Ifws) (2016), pp. 127–130.

Zhang, Z.

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, S.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, M. Djavid, and Z. Mi, “Surface emitting, high efficiency near-vacuum ultraviolet light source with aluminum nitride nanowires monolithically grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15, 7006–7009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhen, A.

A. Zhen, P. Ma, Y. Zhang, E. Guo, Y. Tian, B. Liu, S. Guo, L. Shan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Embeded photonic crystal at the interface of p-GaN and Ag reflector to improve light extraction of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22, A320–A327 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Tao, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, T. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale,” Nanotechnology 27, 015301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, G. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Zhang, T. Zhi, T. Tao, H. Ge, F. Ren, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 24, 405303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y. D.

D. Y. Fu, R. Zhang, B. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. L. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Strain-modulated valence band engineering for enhancement of surface emission in polar and nonpolar plane AlN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhi, T.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagrams of the DUV LED nanorod structure fabrication process. (a) SiO2 nanospheres deposited on the wafer. (b) CF4-based ICP etching shrinks the nanospheres. (c) Cl-based ICP etches down wafer to the n-AlGaN layer. (d) SiO2 nanospheres are removed by the buffer oxide etchant.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Top-view and (b) cross-sectional SEM images of the nanorod array structure.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. TDPL band peak positions for (a) nanorod and (b) planar DUV LEDs and (c) their Arrhenius plots of the normalized PL intensities as a function of temperature.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dependence of the (a) integrated PL intensity, (b) PL relative efficiency, and (c) peak photon energy on excitation-energy density at room temperature for two samples.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) TRPL spectra of the planar and nanorod DUV LEDs at room temperature. Time-dependent carrier density extracted for (a) and scaled to (b) 1/[I(t)]1/2 for the bimolecular recombination model and (c) (1/2)ln[I(t)] for the monomolecular recombination model.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Fabrication process of nanorod DUV LED devices. (a) Depositing SiO2 as an insulating layer to passivate the surface of nanorod LEDs. (b) Partial SiO2 is removed to expose the n-AlGaN and p-GaN. (c) Ti/Al/Ti/Au and Ni/Au metal stacks are deposited on the n-AlGaN and p-GaN as the n-type contact and the p-type contact, respectively. (d) Al/Ti/Au stack metal layers are deposited on the p-contact of nanorods to connect p-contact together. (e)–(h) Corresponding SEM diagrams of (a), (b), (c), and (d), respectively.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) EL spectra of the nanorod AlGaN DUV LED at different injection current densities (from 10  A/cm2 to 120  A/cm2) under a CW biasing condition. (b) Current-voltage characteristics of both kinds of LEDs, and the inset is the current-voltage curve on a semi-log scale. (c) LOPs and EQEs under different current densities. (d) Normalized angle-resolved EL spectra of nanorod and planar DUV LEDs measured at 20  A/cm2.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Schematic diagrams of the (a) planar and (b) nanorod DUV LEDs for FDTD computation with boundary conditions.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Cross-sectional near-field electric field intensity of the investigated (a), (c) planar and (b), (d) nanorod DUV LEDs for (a), (b) TE and (c), (d) TM polarizations at the xz plane, respectively.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PLeff(p)=β(Bxp+Behp2)Ap/η+Bxp+Behp2,
I(t)=I1etτ1+I2etτ2,
dn(t)dt=Behn2,
1I(t)1n(t)=Beht+C1.
dn(t)dt=Bxn,
1I(t)1n(t)=C2eBxt,
12ln[I(t)]Bxt,

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