Abstract

Polarization imaging finds applications in many areas, such as photoelasticity, ellipsometry, and biomedical imaging. A compact, snapshot, and high-efficiency imaging polarimeter is highly desirable for many applications. Here, based on a single multifunctional geometric phase optical element (GPOE), a new method is proposed for high-efficiency snapshot imaging polarimetry. With tailored spatially varying orientation of each anisotropic unit cell, the GPOE works highly efficiently as both a spin sorter and a half-wave plate, enabling snapshot retrieving of a full Stokes vector of incident light. The designed GPOE is implemented in the form of liquid crystal fabricated with a photo-alignment technology, and its application in imaging polarimetry is experimentally demonstrated by retrieving full Stokes parameters of a cylinder vector beam. This method can also work in the form of plasmonic or dielectric metasurfaces, enabling ultra-compact polarization detection systems by monolithic integration with other devices such as metalenses.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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2018 (8)

K. Wang, J. G. Titchener, S. S. Kruk, L. Xu, H.-P. Chung, M. Parry, I. I. Kravchenko, Y.-H. Chen, A. S. Solntsev, Y. S. Kivshar, D. N. Neshev, and A. A. Sukhorukov, “Quantum metasurface for multiphoton interference and state reconstruction,” Science 361, 1104–1108 (2018).
[Crossref]

P.-C. Huang, C. Hernández-García, J.-T. Huang, P.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Lu, L. Rego, D. D. Hickstein, J. L. Ellis, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, S.-D. Yang, C. G. Durfee, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. H. Kung, and M.-C. Chen, “Polarization control of isolated high-harmonic pulses,” Nat. Photonics 12, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. A. Rubin, A. Zaidi, M. Juhl, R. P. Li, J. P. B. Mueller, R. C. Devlin, K. Leósson, and F. Capasso, “Polarization state generation and measurement with a single metasurface,” Opt. Express 26, 21455–21478 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, H. Qian, G. Hu, H. Luo, S. Wen, and Z. Liu, “Broadband photonic spin Hall meta-lens,” ACS Nano 12, 82–88 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “Full-Stokes imaging polarimetry using dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 3132–3140 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Feng, M. Zhao, Z. Wan, L. Zhu, J. Liu, Y. Huang, J. Xia, and M. Wegener, “Generalized Hartmann-Shack array of dielectric metalens sub-arrays for polarimetric beam profiling,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Fang, Z. Xie, T. Lei, C. Min, L. Du, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Spin-dependent optical geometric transformation for cylindrical vector beam multiplexing communication,” ACS Photon. 5, 3478–3484 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, “Subwavelength optical engineering with metasurface waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701201 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (14)

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photon. 5, 1648–1653 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q.-T. Li, F. Dong, B. Wang, W. Chu, Q. Gong, M. L. Brongersma, and Y. Li, “Free-space optical beam tapping with an all-silica metasurface,” ACS Photon. 4, 2544–2549 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Zhu, W.-T. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, A. Zaidi, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-compact visible chiral spectrometer with meta-lenses,” APL Photonics 2, 036103 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J.-W. Chen, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8, 187 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4, 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, S.-J. Ge, W. Duan, B.-Y. Wei, G.-X. Cui, W. Hu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Serak, D. E. Roberts, J.-Y. Hwang, S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Diffractive waveplate arrays [invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B56–B63 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary vector vortex beams on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Photon. Res. 5, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, A. Pors, Y. Chen, V. A. Zenin, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Beam-size-invariant spectropolarimeters using gap-plasmon metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 4, 943–949 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Garcia, C. Edmiston, R. Marinov, A. Vail, and V. Gruev, “Bio-inspired color-polarization imager for real-time in situ imaging,” Optica 4, 1263–1271 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Chen, L.-S. Yan, Y. Pan, L. Jiang, A.-L. Yi, W. Pan, and B. Luo, “Use of polarization freedom beyond polarization-division multiplexing to support high-speed and spectral-efficient data transmission,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16207 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, K. Badham, M. M. Sánchez-López, J. E. Holland, and D. M. Cottrell, “Vector beam polarization state spectrum analyzer,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2216 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wei, Z. Yang, and M. Zhao, “Design of ultracompact polarimeters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1580–1583 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, J.-W. Chen, C.-W. Yin, Y.-C. Lai, T. L. Chung, C. Y. Liao, B. H. Chen, K.-W. Lee, C.-J. Chuang, C.-M. Wang, and D. P. Tsai, “Visible metasurfaces for on-chip polarimetry,” ACS Photon. 5, 2568–2573 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352, 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 598–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. M. A. Azzam, “Stokes-vector and Mueller-matrix polarimetry [invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, 1396–1408 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Ting, T. Peter, R. F. Matthew, L. C. Yen, T. Wei-Yi, W. P. Ru, and T. D. Ping, “Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 27, 224002 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Alberucci, C. P. Jisha, L. Marrucci, and G. Assanto, “Electromagnetic confinement via spin-orbit interaction in anisotropic dielectrics,” ACS Photon. 3, 2249–2254 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, S.-J. Ge, L.-L. Ma, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generation of equal-energy orbital angular momentum beams via photopatterned liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 044009 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16, 4595–4600 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

2014 (4)

T. Bauer, S. Orlov, U. Peschel, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Nanointerferometric amplitude and phase reconstruction of tightly focused vector beams,” Nat. Photonics 8, 23–27 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, I. Barber-Sanz, D. Puerto, A. Griol, and A. Martínez, “Resolving light handedness with an on-chip silicon microdisk,” ACS Photon. 1, 762–767 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-L. Hsu, G. Myhre, K. Balakrishnan, N. Brock, M. Ibn-Elhaj, and S. Pau, “Full-Stokes imaging polarimeter using an array of elliptical polarizer,” Opt. Express 22, 3063–3074 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. W. Kudenov, M. J. Escuti, E. L. Dereniak, and K. Oka, “White-light channeled imaging polarimeter using broadband polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2283–2293 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

L. A. Romero and F. M. Dickey, “Theory of optimal beam splitting by phase gratings. I. One-dimensional gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2280–2295 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Numerical analysis of polarization gratings using the finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

A. De Martino, E. Garcia-Caurel, B. Laude, and B. Drévillon, “General methods for optimized design and calibration of Mueller polarimeters,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 112–119 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1989 (1)

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4, 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Albero, J.

Alberucci, A.

A. Alberucci, C. P. Jisha, L. Marrucci, and G. Assanto, “Electromagnetic confinement via spin-orbit interaction in anisotropic dielectrics,” ACS Photon. 3, 2249–2254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. E.

Arbabi, A.

E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “Full-Stokes imaging polarimetry using dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 3132–3140 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “Full-Stokes imaging polarimetry using dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 3132–3140 (2018).
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ACS Nano (1)

J. Zhou, H. Qian, G. Hu, H. Luo, S. Wen, and Z. Liu, “Broadband photonic spin Hall meta-lens,” ACS Nano 12, 82–88 (2018).
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A. Y. Zhu, W.-T. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, A. Zaidi, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-compact visible chiral spectrometer with meta-lenses,” APL Photonics 2, 036103 (2017).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

X. Ling, X. Zhou, X. Yi, W. Shu, Y. Liu, S. Chen, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Giant photonic spin Hall effect in momentum space in a structured metamaterial with spatially varying birefringence,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e290 (2015).
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Nano Lett. (1)

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16, 4595–4600 (2016).
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Nanotechnology (1)

C. W. Ting, T. Peter, R. F. Matthew, L. C. Yen, T. Wei-Yi, W. P. Ru, and T. D. Ping, “Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 27, 224002 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

Z. Yang, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Feng, M. Zhao, Z. Wan, L. Zhu, J. Liu, Y. Huang, J. Xia, and M. Wegener, “Generalized Hartmann-Shack array of dielectric metalens sub-arrays for polarimetric beam profiling,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4607 (2018).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J.-W. Chen, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8, 187 (2017).
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G. Zheng, H. Muhlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica (4)

Photon. Res. (2)

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Science (4)

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352, 1202–1206 (2016).
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[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. De Martino, E. Garcia-Caurel, B. Laude, and B. Drévillon, “General methods for optimized design and calibration of Mueller polarimeters,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 112–119 (2004).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of operation principle of the GPOE for polarimetry. (a) The GPOE is designed to work as a spin sorter for high (±3) and a half-wave plate for low (±1) diffraction orders, respectively. (b) Polarization ellipses of the incident light (red) and low-order diffraction beams (blue) are mirrored with each other about the x axis. Red (blue) dashed lines indicate amplitude of field components Ev at 45° (Eu at 45°) of the incident (±1 orders) beams.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Calculated intensities and polarization states of the diffraction orders (±1, ±3) through GPOE for the incident light with (a) LCP, (b) RCP, (c) 0°, and (d) 45° LP, respectively. In each subfigure, polarization ellipses and intensities are shown in top and middle panels, while the bottom panels show intensities through 0° and 45° polarizers indicated by gray circles and arrows.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Numerical demonstration of imaging polarimetry based on the GPOE. (a) Schematic of the optical configuration in the calculation. The scene with six areas of different polarizations is shown in left dashed box. (b) Calculated intensity map at the image plane. (c) Retrieved Stokes parameters S0S3 (left to right panels) of the light.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Polarization beam splitting of the designed LC GPOE for (a) LCP, (b) RCP, (c) 0°, and (d) 45° LP incident light, respectively. Top panels: polarization ellipses; bottom panels: diffraction intensities of Ex (blue solid line) and Ey (red solid line) components. Incident polarizations are shown in the insets.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Optical setup for a polarimeter based on GPOE. A polarization microscope image of the fabricated LC-GPOE is shown as the inset. (b) Experimentally detected intensity maps for the incident light of LCP, RCP, 0°, and 45° linear polarization (from top to bottom). The incident polarizations are shown in the left column.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Polarization imaging of a CVB beam. (a) Light intensities of each diffraction order captured by CCD. (b) Theoretical results of Stokes parameters S0S3 of an ideal second-order CVB; arrows in the left panel indicate polarization ellipses at each position. (c) Experimental results of retrieved Stokes parameters S0S3 for the generated CVB beam.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Analytical (green solid line) and discretized (orange dots) phase profile of the designed GPOE. (b) Intensity (top panel) and phase (bottom panel) of the dominated diffraction orders (±1, ±3) for the analytical (green dots) and discretized (orange circled pluses) phase profile.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Theoretical (top panel) and experimental (bottom panel) detected intensities for linear polarization incidence of varying polarization angles. (b) Theoretical (lines) and retrieved (dots) Stokes parameters of SOP along the 30° latitude of Poincaré sphere. (c) Poincaré sphere representation of SOP obtained by rotating QWP while keeping HWP horizontally oriented.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Optical setup for characterizing the generated CVB (without GPOE) and polarization imaging (with GPOE). (b) Detected and (c) fitted theoretical intensity maps of the generated CVB.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Complex Coefficients of the Four Dominated Diffraction Orders (m=±1, ±3) for LCP, RCP Incident Light

Equations (13)

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J(x)=[cos2θsin2θsin2θcos2θ],
Em=1/PP/2P/2J(x)Einexp(imkpx)dx,
|Ein=c1|L+c2|R,|Em=DmLc1|R+DmRc2|L,
DmR=(DmL)*
S0=(I3+I3)/(|D3L|2+|D+3L|2),S1=2I1/|D1L|2S0,S2=S02I+1/|D+1L|2,S3=(I3I+3)/(|D3L|2|D+3L|2),
A(r,q)[cos(qθ+α0),sin(qθ+α0)]T,
P(x)=cos(3kPx+α)+cos(x)+cos(x),Q(x)=sin(3kPx+α)+sin(x)+sin(x),tan[φ(x)]=Q(x)P(x),Dm=P/2P/2exp[iφ(x)]exp[imkpx]dx,η=m3,1,1|Dm|2.
P(x)=2sin(2kPx)sin(kPx)+μcos(x),Q(x)=2sin(2kPx)cos(kPx)+μsin(x).
D3L=μ/π[K(4/μ2)E(4/μ2)],D1L=2/πK(4/μ2),D+1L=μ/π[E(4/μ2)K(4/μ2)],D+3L=μ2/2π[2E(4/μ2)+(2+4/μ2)K(4/μ2)],
I3+I+3=S0(|D3L|2+|D+3L|2),I3I+3=S3(|D3L|2|D+3L|2),
I1=|E1x|2=|D1Lc1x|R+D1Rc2x|L|2=|D1L|2|c1+c2|2/2=(S0+S1)|D1L|2/2.
I+1=|E+1u|2=|D+1Lc1u|R+D+1Rc2u|L|2=|D+1Lv|Ein|2=|D+1L|2(S0S2)/2.
A=[0.1000.0010.0050.0930.1270.1180.0380.0300.1310.0340.1230.0290.1010.0030.0030.095]

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