Abstract

Flat optics presents a new path to control the phase, amplitude, and polarization state of light with ultracompact devices. Here we demonstrate chip-integrated metasurface devices for polarization detection of mid-infrared light with arbitrary polarization states. Six high-performance microscale linear and circular polarization filters based on vertically stacked plasmonic metasurfaces (with total thickness <600  nm) are integrated on the same chip to obtain all four Stokes parameters of light with high accuracy. The device designs can be tailored to operate at any wavelength in the mid-infrared spectral region and are feasible for on-chip integration with mid-infrared (mid-IR) photodetectors and imager arrays. Our work will enable on-chip mid-IR polarimeters and polarimetric imaging systems, which are highly desirable for many applications, such as clinical diagnosis, target detection, and space exploration.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “Full-Stokes imaging polarimetry using dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 3132–3140 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Yang, Z. K. Wang, Y. X. Wang, X. Feng, M. Zhao, Z. J. Wan, L. Q. Zhu, J. Liu, Y. Huang, J. S. Xia, and M. Wegener, “Generalized Hartmann-Shack array of dielectric metalens sub-arrays for polarimetric beam profiling,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, G. H. Li, G. T. Cao, Z. Y. Zhao, J. Chen, K. Ou, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “N broadband polarization resolving based on dielectric metalenses in the near-infrared,” Opt. Express 26, 5632–5643 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, S. Dutta-Gupta, N. Dabidian, I. Brener, M. Shcherbakov, and G. Shvets, “Polarimetry using graphene-integrated anisotropic metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 4283–4288 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, A. Zhu, X. Zhu, P. Guo, B. Cao, and C. Wang, “All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41893 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

W. T. Chen, P. Torok, M. R. Foreman, C. Y. Liao, W. Y. Tsai, P. R. Wu, and D. P. Tsai, “Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 27, 224002 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8379 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metagratings for simultaneous determination of Stokes parameters,” Optica 2, 716–723 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Kunnen, C. Macdonald, A. Doronin, S. Jacques, M. Eccles, and I. Meglinski, “Application of circularly polarized light for non-invasive diagnosis of cancerous tissues and turbid tissue-like scattering media,” J. Biophoton. 8, 317–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Short, S. Hu, P. Gurram, K. Gurton, and A. Chan, “Improving cross-modal face recognition using polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40, 882–885 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

K. P. Gurton, A. J. Yuffa, and G. W. Videen, “Enhanced facial recognition for thermal imagery using polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3857–3859 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Patel, A. Khan, R. Quinlan, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Polarization-sensitive multimodal imaging for detecting breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74, 4685–4693 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bassan, M. J. Weida, J. Rowlette, and P. Gardner, “Large scale infrared imaging of tissue micro arrays (TMAs) using a tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) based microscope,” Analyst 139, 3856–3859 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Snik, J. Craven-Jones, M. Escuti, S. Fineschi, D. Harrington, A. D. Martino, D. Mawet, J. Riedi, and J. S. Tyo, “An overview of polarimetric sensing techniques and technology with applications to different research fields,” Proc. SPIE 9099, 90990B (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, H. Liang, H. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “A bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor,” Sensors 14, 13006–13023 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. M. Sánchez-Carnerero, F. Moreno, B. L. Maroto, A. R. Agarrabeitia, M. J. Ortiz, B. G. Vo, G. Muller, and S. de la Moya, “Circularly polarized luminescence by visible-light absorption in a chiral O-BODIPY dye: unprecedented design of CPL organic molecules from achiral chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 3346–3349 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. F. Land and D. Osorio, “Extraordinary color vision,” Science 343, 381–382 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

B. Frank, X. Yin, M. Schäferling, J. Zhao, S. M. Hein, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Large-area 3D chiral plasmonic structures,” ACS Nano 7, 6321–6329 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Afshinmanesh, J. S. White, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Measurement of the polarization state of light using an integrated plasmonic polarimeter,” Nanophotonics 1, 125–129 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, M. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

K. E. Shopsowitz, H. Qi, W. Y. Hamad, and M. J. MacLachlan, “Free-standing mesoporous silica films with tunable chiral nematic structures,” Nature 468, 422–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Gruev, R. Perkins, and T. York, “CCD polarization imaging sensor with aluminum nanowire optical filters,” Opt. Express 18, 19087–19094 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Sarkar, D. S. S. Bello, C. Van Hoof, and A. Theuwissen, “Biologically inspired autonomous agent navigation using an integrated polarization analyzing CMOS image sensor,” Procedia Eng. 5, 673–676 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

E. Salomatina-Motts, V. A. Neel, and A. N. Yaroslavskaya, “Multimodal polarization system for imaging skin cancer,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 884–890 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Y. Yao, Y. Sun, and C. Liu, “Circle polarization shift keying with direct detection for free-space optical communication,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 307–312 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polariser,” Electron. Lett. 45, 228–230 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, F. Boussaid, A. Bermak, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Thin photo-patterned micropolarizer array for CMOS image sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 805–807 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 14172–14179 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

N. Lefaudeux, N. Lechocinski, S. Breugnot, and P. Clemenceau, “Compact and robust linear Stokes polarization camera,” Proc. SPIE 6972, 69720B (2008).
[Crossref]

N. J. Pust and J. A. Shaw, “Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies,” Appl. Opt. 47, H190–H198 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Chu, K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Construction and performance test of a novel polarization sensor for navigation,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 148, 75–82 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, P. E. Powers, A. M. Sarangan, and Q. Zhan, “Optical characterization of wiregrid micropolarizers designed for infrared imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1653–1655 (2008).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Chiou, S. Kleinlogel, T. Cronin, R. Caldwell, B. Loeffler, A. Siddiqi, A. Goldizen, and J. Marshall, “Circular polarization vision in a stomatopod crustacean,” Curr. Biol. 18, 429–434 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the Stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15, 4994–5007 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, M. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 32, 856–858 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, “30-nm-wide aluminum nanowire grid for ultrahigh contrast and transmittance polarizers made by UV-nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

Z. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. Alwahabi, and M. Aldén, “Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 135–138 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, Y. Wang, C. Peng, H. Zhang, G. Luo, H. Le, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, and A. Y. Cho, “Laser-based mid-infrared reflectance imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 12, 208–219 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. A. Coleman, J. Fernsler, N. Chattham, M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, E. Korblova, D. R. Link, R. F. Shao, W. G. Jang, J. E. Maclennan, O. Mondainn-Monval, C. Boyer, W. Weissflog, G. Pelzl, L. C. Chien, J. Zasadzinski, J. Watanabe, D. M. Walba, H. Takezoe, and N. A. Clark, “Polarization-modulated smectic liquid crystal phases,” Science 301, 1204–1211 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. G. Andreou and Z. K. Kalayjian, “Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters,” IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566–576 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. A. Sadjadi and C. S. Chun, “Passive polarimetric IR target classification,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 37, 740–751 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. A. Nafie and T. B. Freedman, “Vibrational circular dichroism: an incisive tool for stereochemical applications,” Enantiomer 3, 283–297 (1998).

1977 (1)

Afshinmanesh, F.

F. Afshinmanesh, J. S. White, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Measurement of the polarization state of light using an integrated plasmonic polarimeter,” Nanophotonics 1, 125–129 (2012).
[Crossref]

Agarrabeitia, A. R.

E. M. Sánchez-Carnerero, F. Moreno, B. L. Maroto, A. R. Agarrabeitia, M. J. Ortiz, B. G. Vo, G. Muller, and S. de la Moya, “Circularly polarized luminescence by visible-light absorption in a chiral O-BODIPY dye: unprecedented design of CPL organic molecules from achiral chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 3346–3349 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aldén, M.

Z. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. Alwahabi, and M. Aldén, “Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 135–138 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, M. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
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D. A. Coleman, J. Fernsler, N. Chattham, M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, E. Korblova, D. R. Link, R. F. Shao, W. G. Jang, J. E. Maclennan, O. Mondainn-Monval, C. Boyer, W. Weissflog, G. Pelzl, L. C. Chien, J. Zasadzinski, J. Watanabe, D. M. Walba, H. Takezoe, and N. A. Clark, “Polarization-modulated smectic liquid crystal phases,” Science 301, 1204–1211 (2003).
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I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016).
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W. T. Chen, P. Torok, M. R. Foreman, C. Y. Liao, W. Y. Tsai, P. R. Wu, and D. P. Tsai, “Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 27, 224002 (2016).
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W. T. Chen, P. Torok, M. R. Foreman, C. Y. Liao, W. Y. Tsai, P. R. Wu, and D. P. Tsai, “Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 27, 224002 (2016).
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N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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Zhang, H.

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J. Chu, K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Construction and performance test of a novel polarization sensor for navigation,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 148, 75–82 (2008).
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D. Wang, H. Liang, H. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “A bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor,” Sensors 14, 13006–13023 (2014).
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J. Chu, K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Construction and performance test of a novel polarization sensor for navigation,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 148, 75–82 (2008).
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Z. Y. Yang, Z. K. Wang, Y. X. Wang, X. Feng, M. Zhao, Z. J. Wan, L. Q. Zhu, J. Liu, Y. Huang, J. S. Xia, and M. Wegener, “Generalized Hartmann-Shack array of dielectric metalens sub-arrays for polarimetric beam profiling,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4607 (2018).
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Y. Zhao, M. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
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J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, A. Zhu, X. Zhu, P. Guo, B. Cao, and C. Wang, “All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41893 (2017).
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J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, A. Zhu, X. Zhu, P. Guo, B. Cao, and C. Wang, “All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41893 (2017).
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Nanophotonics (1)

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Nanotechnology (1)

W. T. Chen, P. Torok, M. R. Foreman, C. Y. Liao, W. Y. Tsai, P. R. Wu, and D. P. Tsai, “Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 27, 224002 (2016).
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Z. Y. Yang, Z. K. Wang, Y. X. Wang, X. Feng, M. Zhao, Z. J. Wan, L. Q. Zhu, J. Liu, Y. Huang, J. S. Xia, and M. Wegener, “Generalized Hartmann-Shack array of dielectric metalens sub-arrays for polarimetric beam profiling,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4607 (2018).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

E. Salomatina-Motts, V. A. Neel, and A. N. Yaroslavskaya, “Multimodal polarization system for imaging skin cancer,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 884–890 (2009).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Snik, J. Craven-Jones, M. Escuti, S. Fineschi, D. Harrington, A. D. Martino, D. Mawet, J. Riedi, and J. S. Tyo, “An overview of polarimetric sensing techniques and technology with applications to different research fields,” Proc. SPIE 9099, 90990B (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Lefaudeux, N. Lechocinski, S. Breugnot, and P. Clemenceau, “Compact and robust linear Stokes polarization camera,” Proc. SPIE 6972, 69720B (2008).
[Crossref]

Procedia Eng. (1)

M. Sarkar, D. S. S. Bello, C. Van Hoof, and A. Theuwissen, “Biologically inspired autonomous agent navigation using an integrated polarization analyzing CMOS image sensor,” Procedia Eng. 5, 673–676 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, A. Zhu, X. Zhu, P. Guo, B. Cao, and C. Wang, “All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41893 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

M. F. Land and D. Osorio, “Extraordinary color vision,” Science 343, 381–382 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. A. Coleman, J. Fernsler, N. Chattham, M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, E. Korblova, D. R. Link, R. F. Shao, W. G. Jang, J. E. Maclennan, O. Mondainn-Monval, C. Boyer, W. Weissflog, G. Pelzl, L. C. Chien, J. Zasadzinski, J. Watanabe, D. M. Walba, H. Takezoe, and N. A. Clark, “Polarization-modulated smectic liquid crystal phases,” Science 301, 1204–1211 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

J. Chu, K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Construction and performance test of a novel polarization sensor for navigation,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 148, 75–82 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

D. Wang, H. Liang, H. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “A bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor,” Sensors 14, 13006–13023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. Ichimoto, B. Lites, D. Elmore, Y. Suematsu, S. Tsuneta, Y. Katsukawa, T. Shimizu, R. Shine, T. Tarbell, A. Title, J. Kiyohara, K. Shinoda, G. Card, A. Lecinski, K. Streander, M. Nakagiri, M. Miyashita, M. Noguchi, C. Hoffmann, and T. Cruz, “Polarization calibration of the solar optical telescope onboard Hinode,” in The Hinode Mission, T. Sakurai, ed. (Springer, 2008), pp. 179–207.

G. Yang and Y. Xu, “Vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy of chiral molecules,” in Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Chiral Molecules and Supramolecular Architectures (Springer, 2010), pp. 189–236.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Mid-IR full-Stokes polarization detection. (a) Schematic of the device design with seven cells for direct Stokes parameter measurement. P0 is the reference cell to measure the total light intensity. P1P4 cells are LP filters to filter linearly polarized light with the electric field vector oriented at different angles with respect to the x-axis, i.e., LP=0°, 90°, 45°, and 45°. P5P6 cells are RCP and LCP filters, respectively. The inset shows the schematic of the LCP filter. On the Poincaré sphere (right panel), S indicates an arbitrary polarization state. (b) Schematic of the RCP filter consisting of a top metasurface QWP and an underneath nanograting LP filter. (c) The working principle of the RCP filter. The metasurface QWP converts the incident RCP (LCP) light to LP light, which is selectively transmitted (blocked) by the nanograting LP filter. (d) Schematic of the chip-integrated LCP filter with similar structure to the RCP filter. (e) The working principle of the LCP filter. The metasurface QWP converts the incident LCP (RCP) light to LP light, which is selectively transmitted (blocked) by the nanograting LP filter.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Circular polarization filter design. (a) A schematic of the RCP filter. (b) Calculated amplitude and phase difference of electric field components of the transmitted light along two orthogonal arms of the crossbar metasurface (thickness 40 nm). The design parameters are as follows: L1=1.55  μm, L2=1.04  μm, Px=1.24  μm, Py=1.68  μm, and W=140  nm. (c) Transmission spectra of nanogratings for input light polarized perpendicularly (black solid line, polarization along 45° to the x-axis, i.e., the u-axis in the inset) or parallel (red solid line, along 45° to x-axis, i.e., v-axis in the inset) to the nanogratings (thickness 120 nm, period 200 nm, and duty cycle 50%) and the corresponding linear polarization extinction ratio (blue dashed line). (d) Transmission spectra of LCP (black) and RCP (red) light through the RCP polarization filter. The inset shows that RCP input is transmitted but LCP input is blocked. The design parameters for the crossbar antenna are as follows: L1=1.55  μm, L2=1.17  μm, Px=1.343  μm, Py=2.015  μm, and W=140  nm. The thickness of the oxide spacer layer is 350 nm. The nanogratings have the same design parameters as those in (c).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Circular polarization filter performance and wavelength engineering. (a) The extinction ratio of an RCP filter (rCP=TRCP/TLCP) designed at wavelength 3.8  μm. Same design dimensions as Fig. 2(d). (b) Operation wavelength engineering of the CPL filters with different antenna length L1. The solid blue line is a linear fit of the data points (black squares) obtained with full-wave simulation (FDTD). More detailed information about the design parameters and simulation results is provided in Appendix B.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Device fabrication process. (a) Major steps in device fabrication of CP polarization filter: (1) nanograting patterning on a sapphire substrate, (2) SiOx deposition by sputtering, and (3) crossbar antenna patterning. (b) An SEM image of nanogratings before SiOx deposition. (c) Top panel: an AFM image of a nanograting covered by SiOx. Bottom panel: the height profile along the white dashed line in the AFM image. (d) An SEM image of a fabricated mid-IR RCP filter.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental setup and measurement results of CP filters. (a) A schematic of the measurement setup for CP filter characterization. (b) Transmission spectra for a mid-IR RCP filter with RCP (red) and LCP (black) input. (c) The extracted CPER (rCP=TRCP/TLCP) for the RCP filter designed for an operation wavelength around 4 μm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Full-Stokes polarization measurements. (a) Schematic of the measurement setup. Unpolarized light from the FTIR is converted to polarized light with an arbitrary polarization state by adjusting the orientation of the standalone linear polarizer and the QWP. Then the light is transmitted through our device placed on a motorized stage and finally collected by the detector. (b)–(d) Polar plots and ellipse plots for polarization states A, C, and D in (e) (black circle: measured from polarization analyzer; red solid: measured from our Stokes parameter detector). (e) Measured Stokes parameters for nine polarization states (black circles: polarization states of input light; red squares: measured results with our device).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Phase difference of the transmitted light along two orthogonal arms of the QWP metasurface with the length of the longer arm, L1=700, 900, 1045, 1160, 1300, 1360, 1500, and 1620 nm. Other design parameters are scaled accordingly.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Geometric dimensions of the metasurface QWP with working wavelengths covering from NIR to MIR. L1 is the length of the longer arm along the y-axis, and L2 is the length of the shorter arm along the x-axis. Px is the period in the x-direction and Py is the period in the y-direction.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Extinction ratio (rCP=TLCP/TRCP) for six LCP filters mentioned in Fig. 3(b). The other design parameters of the cross-bar antennas are as follows: L2=0.42, 0.58, 0.73, 0.82, 0.9, and 1.17 μm; and W=100, 100, 112, 127, 140, and 140 nm. The nanogratings have the same design parameters as those in Fig. 2(c). The thickness of the oxide spacer is 220 nm for the device at 1.6 μm and 350 nm for all the other designs.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. CPER for LCP filters with various spacer layer thicknesses. The other design parameters are the same as those used for the structure in Fig. 2(d).
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) Schematic for the MIR LCP filter with 0–200 nm lateral displacement along the y-axis. (b) CPER (rCP=TLCP/TRCP) for the MIR LCP filter with 0–200 nm lateral displacement along y-axis. The other design parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2(d).
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. (a) Microscope image of the CPL filter (160  μm×160  μm) without an aperture. (b) Microscope image of the CPL filter with an input aperture (100 μm in diameter) and an aperture at the image plane (50  μm×50  μm).
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Stokes parameters measurement results for four polarization states, which correspond to the data points B, F, G, and H in Fig. 6(e). Black circles: measured with PA; red solid line: measured with our device. Blue arrows indicate the handedness of the polarization state.

Equations (1)

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{S0=I0,S1=I0°I90°,S2=I45°I45°,S3=IRCPILCP,

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