Abstract

An out-of-plane silicon grating coupler capable of mode-order conversion at the chip–fiber interface is designed and fabricated. Optimization of the structure is performed through finite-difference time-domain simulations, and the final device is characterized through far-field profile and transmission measurements. A coupling loss of 3.1 dB to a commercial two-mode fiber is measured for a single TE0LP11 mode conversion grating, which includes a conversion penalty of 1.3 dB. Far-field patterns of the excited LP11 mode profile are also reported.

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  1. D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From scaling disparities to integrated parallelism: a decathlon for a decade,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 1099–1115 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Weng, X. He, and Z. Pan, “Space division multiplexing optical communication using few-mode fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 155–180 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Wohlfeil, G. Rademacher, C. Stamatiadis, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “A two-dimensional fiber grating coupler on SOI for mode division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1241–1244 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Yu, M. Ye, and S. Fu, “On-chip polarization controlled mode converter with capability of WDM operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1957–1960 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Stern and M. Lipson, “High-bandwidth link with single laser input using silicon modulators and mode multiplexing,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-5.
  8. X. Wu, K. Xu, C. Huang, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexed 3 × 28  gbit/s on-chip photonic interconnects,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-6.
  9. A. M. J. Koonen, H. S. Chen, H. P. A. Van Den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series PSST (2012), pp. 240–241.
  10. N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.
  11. Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648–651 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), paper Th.13.A.3.
  13. I. Demirtzioglou, C. Lacava, A. Shakoor, A. Khokhar, Y. Jung, D. J. Thomson, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon grating coupler for mode order conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh2A.74.
  14. M. Zhang, H. Liu, B. Wang, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Efficient grating couplers for space division multiplexing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200605 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. T. Nadovich, W. D. Jemison, D. J. Kosciolek, and D. T. Crouse, “Focused apodized forked grating coupler,” Opt. Express 25, 26861–26874 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. Zhang, H. Liu, B. Wang, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Efficient grating couplers for space division multiplexing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200605 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From scaling disparities to integrated parallelism: a decathlon for a decade,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 1099–1115 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. T. Nadovich, W. D. Jemison, D. J. Kosciolek, and D. T. Crouse, “Focused apodized forked grating coupler,” Opt. Express 25, 26861–26874 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Weng, X. He, and Z. Pan, “Space division multiplexing optical communication using few-mode fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 155–180 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

B. Wohlfeil, G. Rademacher, C. Stamatiadis, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “A two-dimensional fiber grating coupler on SOI for mode division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1241–1244 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. Yu, M. Ye, and S. Fu, “On-chip polarization controlled mode converter with capability of WDM operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1957–1960 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648–651 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), paper Th.13.A.3.

Chen, C. P.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. S. Chen, H. P. A. Van Den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series PSST (2012), pp. 240–241.

Chen, X.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cristiani, I.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Crouse, D. T.

Demirtzioglou, I.

I. Demirtzioglou, C. Lacava, A. Shakoor, A. Khokhar, Y. Jung, D. J. Thomson, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon grating coupler for mode order conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh2A.74.

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648–651 (2013).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), paper Th.13.A.3.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), paper Th.13.A.3.

Fontaine, N. K.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

Fu, S.

Y. Yu, M. Ye, and S. Fu, “On-chip polarization controlled mode converter with capability of WDM operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1957–1960 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, X.

Y. Weng, X. He, and Z. Pan, “Space division multiplexing optical communication using few-mode fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 155–180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hirano, M.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), paper Th.13.A.3.

Huang, C.

X. Wu, K. Xu, C. Huang, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexed 3 × 28  gbit/s on-chip photonic interconnects,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-6.

Jemison, W. D.

Jiang, X.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

Jung, Y.

I. Demirtzioglou, C. Lacava, A. Shakoor, A. Khokhar, Y. Jung, D. J. Thomson, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon grating coupler for mode order conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh2A.74.

Khokhar, A.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Demirtzioglou, C. Lacava, A. Shakoor, A. Khokhar, Y. Jung, D. J. Thomson, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon grating coupler for mode order conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh2A.74.

Koonen, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. S. Chen, H. P. A. Van Den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series PSST (2012), pp. 240–241.

Kosciolek, D. J.

Lacava, C.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Demirtzioglou, C. Lacava, A. Shakoor, A. Khokhar, Y. Jung, D. J. Thomson, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon grating coupler for mode order conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh2A.74.

Li, G.

M. Zhang, H. Liu, B. Wang, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Efficient grating couplers for space division multiplexing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200605 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lingle, R.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

Lipson, M.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Stern and M. Lipson, “High-bandwidth link with single laser input using silicon modulators and mode multiplexing,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-5.

Liu, H.

M. Zhang, H. Liu, B. Wang, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Efficient grating couplers for space division multiplexing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200605 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marchetti, R.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mestre, M. A.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

Minzioni, P.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nadovich, C. T.

Neilson, D. T.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648–651 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

Y. Weng, X. He, and Z. Pan, “Space division multiplexing optical communication using few-mode fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 155–180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

B. Wohlfeil, G. Rademacher, C. Stamatiadis, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “A two-dimensional fiber grating coupler on SOI for mode division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1241–1244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Demirtzioglou, C. Lacava, A. Shakoor, A. Khokhar, Y. Jung, D. J. Thomson, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon grating coupler for mode order conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh2A.74.

Peucheret, C.

Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648–651 (2013).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rademacher, G.

B. Wohlfeil, G. Rademacher, C. Stamatiadis, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “A two-dimensional fiber grating coupler on SOI for mode division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1241–1244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Raz, O.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. S. Chen, H. P. A. Van Den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series PSST (2012), pp. 240–241.

Reed, G. T.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 16670 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

Sasaki, T.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), paper Th.13.A.3.

Shakoor, A.

I. Demirtzioglou, C. Lacava, A. Shakoor, A. Khokhar, Y. Jung, D. J. Thomson, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon grating coupler for mode order conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh2A.74.

Shu, C.

X. Wu, K. Xu, C. Huang, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexed 3 × 28  gbit/s on-chip photonic interconnects,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-6.

Stamatiadis, C.

B. Wohlfeil, G. Rademacher, C. Stamatiadis, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “A two-dimensional fiber grating coupler on SOI for mode division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1241–1244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stern, B.

B. Stern and M. Lipson, “High-bandwidth link with single laser input using silicon modulators and mode multiplexing,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-5.

Sun, Y.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

Thomson, D. J.

I. Demirtzioglou, C. Lacava, A. Shakoor, A. Khokhar, Y. Jung, D. J. Thomson, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon grating coupler for mode order conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh2A.74.

Tsang, H. K.

X. Wu, K. Xu, C. Huang, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexed 3 × 28  gbit/s on-chip photonic interconnects,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-6.

Van Den Boom, H. P. A.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. S. Chen, H. P. A. Van Den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series PSST (2012), pp. 240–241.

Voigt, K.

B. Wohlfeil, G. Rademacher, C. Stamatiadis, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “A two-dimensional fiber grating coupler on SOI for mode division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1241–1244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

M. Zhang, H. Liu, B. Wang, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Efficient grating couplers for space division multiplexing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200605 (2018).
[Crossref]

Weng, Y.

Y. Weng, X. He, and Z. Pan, “Space division multiplexing optical communication using few-mode fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 155–180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2012), paper PDP5B.1.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), paper Th.13.A.3.

Winzer, P. J.

Wohlfeil, B.

B. Wohlfeil, G. Rademacher, C. Stamatiadis, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “A two-dimensional fiber grating coupler on SOI for mode division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1241–1244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, K. Xu, C. Huang, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexed 3 × 28  gbit/s on-chip photonic interconnects,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-6.

Xu, J.

Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648–651 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

X. Wu, K. Xu, C. Huang, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexed 3 × 28  gbit/s on-chip photonic interconnects,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G-6.

Ye, M.

Y. Yu, M. Ye, and S. Fu, “On-chip polarization controlled mode converter with capability of WDM operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1957–1960 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, M. Ye, and S. Fu, “On-chip polarization controlled mode converter with capability of WDM operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1957–1960 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. 3D concept of the grating-fiber interface for (a) a regular grating pattern and (b) a mode-converting grating pattern (dimensions not to scale). Insets: top view of the gratings.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Side view of the first four grooves of an apodized grating (SiO2 layer thicknesses not to scale), (b) contour plot of the maximum coupling efficiency with respect to the etching depth and the linear apodization factor R.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Top view of the middle area of the mode-converting grating, where the right-hand side and left-hand side patterns meet. (b), (c) Schematic representation of Bragg’s law used to calculate the offset d that creates a phase shift of π.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Simulated coupling efficiency for a regular and a mode-converting grating coupler, (b) intensity profile at the output plane above the grating and phase profile at y=10  μm after conversion of TE0 to out-of-plane TE1 (compatible with LP11).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the mode-converting grating (top view), (b), (c) characterization setup and recorded output far-field patterns for waveguides interfaced with a pair of regular gratings and a regular and a mode-converting grating.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Fiber-to-fiber transmission for the mode-converting device (inset: far-field pattern at the output of the two-mode fiber), (b) extracted (and simulated) coupling efficiency for the mode-converting grating coupler.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Trench Positions and Sizes

Equations (4)

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F=F0R·z,
ϕinplane=ϕoutofplane+2πk0neffΛ=k0nair(Λsinθair)+2π.
Λ=λcneffsinθair,
k0neffd=k0nair(dsinθair)+π.