Abstract

This paper reviews and introduces the techniques for boosting the light-extraction efficiency (LEE) of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV:  λ<300  nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the basis of the discussion of their molecular structures and optical characteristics, focusing on organoencapsulation materials. Comparisons of various fluororesins, silicone resin, and nonorgano materials are described. The only usable organomaterial for encapsulating DUV-LEDs is currently considered to be polymerized perfluoro(4-vinyloxy-1-butene) (p-BVE) terminated with a CF3 end group. By forming hemispherical lenses on DUV-LED dies using p-BVE having a CF3 end group with a refractive index of about 1.35, the LEE was improved by 1.5-fold, demonstrating a cost-feasible packaging technique.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (3)

Y. Nagasawa and A. Hirano, “A review of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sapphire,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1264 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Pai, C. Lin, C. Lee, C. Lin, C. Chen, H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by optimizing the diameter and tilt of the aluminum sidewall,” Crystals 8, 420 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

P. Yang, X. Guo, R. Liang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction from DUV-LEDs by AlN-doped fluoropolymer encapsulation,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 29, 1151–1154 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275  nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kaneda, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Uneven AlGaN multiple quantum well for deep-ultraviolet LEDs grown on macrosteps and impact on electroluminescence spectral output,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 061002 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

M. Ichikawa, A. Fujioka, T. Kosugi, S. Endo, H. Sagawa, H. Tamaki, T. Mukai, M. Uomoto, and T. Shimatsu, “High-output-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode assembly using direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

A. Hirano, Y. Nagasawa, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications,” Proc. SPIE 9926, 99260C (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, S. Wang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Whole inorganic hermetic packaging technology using localized induction heating for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. 6, 1456–1461 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265  nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90  mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C11, 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. R. Grandusky, J. F. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and M. L. J. Schowalter, “270  nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60  mW continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Murotani, D. Akase, K. Anai, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Dependence of internal quantum efficiency on doping region and Si concentration in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042110 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211122 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Nagamatsu, N. Okada, H. Sugimura, H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Iida, A. Bando, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasakia, “High-efficiency AlGaN-based UV light-emitting diode on laterally overgrown AlN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2326–2329 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441, 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

I. Blakey, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, H. P. Liu, F. Rasoul, A. K. Whittaker, and P. Zimmerman, “XPS and 19F NMR study of the photodegradation at 157 nm of photolithographic-grade teflon AF thin films,” Macromolecules 38, 4050–4053 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamoto and G. Ogawa, “Structure determination of the amorphous perfluorinated homopolymer: poly[perfluoro(4-vinyloxyl-1-butene)],” J. Fluorine Chem. 126, 1403–1408 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, A. Miyazaki, Y. Watanabe, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “High-power UV-light-emitting diode on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 400–403 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. R. Dargaville, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, U. Scheler, and A. K. Whittaker, “Cross-linking of PFA by electron beam irradiation,” Molecules 36, 7138–7142 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192, 296–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, W. Shuai, J. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, “324 nm light emitting diodes with milliwatt powers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L450–L451 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Enomoto, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, and Y. Aoyagi, “Efficient 230-280  nm emission from high-Al-content AlGaN-based multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 37–39 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Nakamura, N. Sugiyama, Y. Etoh, K. Aosaki, and J. Endo, “Development of perfluoro transparent resins obtained by radical cyclopolymerization for leading-edge electronic and optical applications,” Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 12, 659 (2001).

1996 (1)

J. Pacansky, R. J. Waltman, and D. Jebens, “Electron beam irradiation of a perfluoroalkoxy fluorocarbon resin: tetorafluoroethylene/perfluoromethyl vinyl ether copolymer,” Molecules 29, 7699–7704 (1996).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

W. K. Fisher and J. C. Correlli, “Effect of ionizing radiation on the chemical composition, crystalline content and structure, and flow properties of polytetorafluoroethylene,” J. Polymer Sci. 19, 2465–2493 (1981).
[Crossref]

Adivarahan, V.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, W. Shuai, J. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, “324 nm light emitting diodes with milliwatt powers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L450–L451 (2002).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kaneda, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Uneven AlGaN multiple quantum well for deep-ultraviolet LEDs grown on macrosteps and impact on electroluminescence spectral output,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 061002 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Hirano, Y. Nagasawa, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications,” Proc. SPIE 9926, 99260C (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, A. Miyazaki, Y. Watanabe, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “High-power UV-light-emitting diode on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 400–403 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192, 296–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

Akasakia, I.

K. Nagamatsu, N. Okada, H. Sugimura, H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Iida, A. Bando, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasakia, “High-efficiency AlGaN-based UV light-emitting diode on laterally overgrown AlN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2326–2329 (2008).
[Crossref]

Akase, D.

H. Murotani, D. Akase, K. Anai, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Dependence of internal quantum efficiency on doping region and Si concentration in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kaneda, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Uneven AlGaN multiple quantum well for deep-ultraviolet LEDs grown on macrosteps and impact on electroluminescence spectral output,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 061002 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Hirano, Y. Nagasawa, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications,” Proc. SPIE 9926, 99260C (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Nagamatsu, N. Okada, H. Sugimura, H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Iida, A. Bando, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasakia, “High-efficiency AlGaN-based UV light-emitting diode on laterally overgrown AlN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2326–2329 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, A. Miyazaki, Y. Watanabe, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “High-power UV-light-emitting diode on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 400–403 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192, 296–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anai, K.

H. Murotani, D. Akase, K. Anai, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Dependence of internal quantum efficiency on doping region and Si concentration in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aosaki, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Hirano, Y. Nagasawa, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications,” Proc. SPIE 9926, 99260C (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, N. Sugiyama, Y. Etoh, K. Aosaki, and J. Endo, “Development of perfluoro transparent resins obtained by radical cyclopolymerization for leading-edge electronic and optical applications,” Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 12, 659 (2001).

K. Aosaki, personal communication.

Aoyagi, Y.

H. Hirayama, Y. Enomoto, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, and Y. Aoyagi, “Efficient 230-280  nm emission from high-Al-content AlGaN-based multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 37–39 (2002).
[Crossref]

Asada, K.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asif Khan, M.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ban, K.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bando, A.

K. Nagamatsu, N. Okada, H. Sugimura, H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Iida, A. Bando, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasakia, “High-efficiency AlGaN-based UV light-emitting diode on laterally overgrown AlN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2326–2329 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blakey, I.

I. Blakey, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, H. P. Liu, F. Rasoul, A. K. Whittaker, and P. Zimmerman, “XPS and 19F NMR study of the photodegradation at 157 nm of photolithographic-grade teflon AF thin films,” Macromolecules 38, 4050–4053 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bryan, I.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bryan, Z.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Y. Pai, C. Lin, C. Lee, C. Lin, C. Chen, H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by optimizing the diameter and tilt of the aluminum sidewall,” Crystals 8, 420 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C11, 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. F.

J. R. Grandusky, J. F. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and M. L. J. Schowalter, “270  nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60  mW continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

P. Yang, X. Guo, R. Liang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction from DUV-LEDs by AlN-doped fluoropolymer encapsulation,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 29, 1151–1154 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, S. Wang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Whole inorganic hermetic packaging technology using localized induction heating for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. 6, 1456–1461 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

P. Yang, X. Guo, R. Liang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction from DUV-LEDs by AlN-doped fluoropolymer encapsulation,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 29, 1151–1154 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, S. Wang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Whole inorganic hermetic packaging technology using localized induction heating for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. 6, 1456–1461 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chitnis, A.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, W. Shuai, J. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, “324 nm light emitting diodes with milliwatt powers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L450–L451 (2002).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Correlli, J. C.

W. K. Fisher and J. C. Correlli, “Effect of ionizing radiation on the chemical composition, crystalline content and structure, and flow properties of polytetorafluoroethylene,” J. Polymer Sci. 19, 2465–2493 (1981).
[Crossref]

Dargaville, T. R.

T. R. Dargaville, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, U. Scheler, and A. K. Whittaker, “Cross-linking of PFA by electron beam irradiation,” Molecules 36, 7138–7142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Endo, J.

K. Nakamura, N. Sugiyama, Y. Etoh, K. Aosaki, and J. Endo, “Development of perfluoro transparent resins obtained by radical cyclopolymerization for leading-edge electronic and optical applications,” Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 12, 659 (2001).

Endo, S.

M. Ichikawa, A. Fujioka, T. Kosugi, S. Endo, H. Sagawa, H. Tamaki, T. Mukai, M. Uomoto, and T. Shimatsu, “High-output-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode assembly using direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Enomoto, Y.

H. Hirayama, Y. Enomoto, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, and Y. Aoyagi, “Efficient 230-280  nm emission from high-Al-content AlGaN-based multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 37–39 (2002).
[Crossref]

Etoh, Y.

K. Nakamura, N. Sugiyama, Y. Etoh, K. Aosaki, and J. Endo, “Development of perfluoro transparent resins obtained by radical cyclopolymerization for leading-edge electronic and optical applications,” Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 12, 659 (2001).

Fisher, W. K.

W. K. Fisher and J. C. Correlli, “Effect of ionizing radiation on the chemical composition, crystalline content and structure, and flow properties of polytetorafluoroethylene,” J. Polymer Sci. 19, 2465–2493 (1981).
[Crossref]

Fujioka, A.

M. Ichikawa, A. Fujioka, T. Kosugi, S. Endo, H. Sagawa, H. Tamaki, T. Mukai, M. Uomoto, and T. Shimatsu, “High-output-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode assembly using direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujita, T.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fukahori, S.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Furusawan, Y.

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G. A.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C11, 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grandusky, J. F. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and M. L. J. Schowalter, “270  nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60  mW continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

George, G. A.

I. Blakey, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, H. P. Liu, F. Rasoul, A. K. Whittaker, and P. Zimmerman, “XPS and 19F NMR study of the photodegradation at 157 nm of photolithographic-grade teflon AF thin films,” Macromolecules 38, 4050–4053 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. R. Dargaville, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, U. Scheler, and A. K. Whittaker, “Cross-linking of PFA by electron beam irradiation,” Molecules 36, 7138–7142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gibb, S. R.

J. R. Grandusky, J. F. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and M. L. J. Schowalter, “270  nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60  mW continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grandusky, J. R.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C11, 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grandusky, J. F. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and M. L. J. Schowalter, “270  nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60  mW continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

P. Yang, X. Guo, R. Liang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction from DUV-LEDs by AlN-doped fluoropolymer encapsulation,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 29, 1151–1154 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hatanaka, Y.

Y. Hatanaka, M. Ito, Y. Sakane, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, and M. Ippommatsu, “Demonstration of mass production techniques at feasible cost for surface mount device of AlGaN-based DUV-LED with fluoro-resin encapsulation,” in International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (2018), paper TuP-OD-2.

Hill, D. J. T.

I. Blakey, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, H. P. Liu, F. Rasoul, A. K. Whittaker, and P. Zimmerman, “XPS and 19F NMR study of the photodegradation at 157 nm of photolithographic-grade teflon AF thin films,” Macromolecules 38, 4050–4053 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. R. Dargaville, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, U. Scheler, and A. K. Whittaker, “Cross-linking of PFA by electron beam irradiation,” Molecules 36, 7138–7142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hiramatsu, K.

H. Murotani, D. Akase, K. Anai, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Dependence of internal quantum efficiency on doping region and Si concentration in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hirano, A.

Y. Nagasawa and A. Hirano, “A review of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sapphire,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1264 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
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M. Kaneda, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Uneven AlGaN multiple quantum well for deep-ultraviolet LEDs grown on macrosteps and impact on electroluminescence spectral output,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 061002 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Hirano, Y. Nagasawa, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications,” Proc. SPIE 9926, 99260C (2016).
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S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Hatanaka, M. Ito, Y. Sakane, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, and M. Ippommatsu, “Demonstration of mass production techniques at feasible cost for surface mount device of AlGaN-based DUV-LED with fluoro-resin encapsulation,” in International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (2018), paper TuP-OD-2.

Hirata, A.

H. Hirayama, Y. Enomoto, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, and Y. Aoyagi, “Efficient 230-280  nm emission from high-Al-content AlGaN-based multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 37–39 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275  nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Enomoto, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, and Y. Aoyagi, “Efficient 230-280  nm emission from high-Al-content AlGaN-based multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 37–39 (2002).
[Crossref]

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K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kaneda, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Uneven AlGaN multiple quantum well for deep-ultraviolet LEDs grown on macrosteps and impact on electroluminescence spectral output,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 061002 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Hirano, Y. Nagasawa, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications,” Proc. SPIE 9926, 99260C (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
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M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
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M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
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K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
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S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265  nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90  mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131104 (2015).
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K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kaneda, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Uneven AlGaN multiple quantum well for deep-ultraviolet LEDs grown on macrosteps and impact on electroluminescence spectral output,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 061002 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Hirano, Y. Nagasawa, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications,” Proc. SPIE 9926, 99260C (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Hatanaka, M. Ito, Y. Sakane, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, and M. Ippommatsu, “Demonstration of mass production techniques at feasible cost for surface mount device of AlGaN-based DUV-LED with fluoro-resin encapsulation,” in International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (2018), paper TuP-OD-2.

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S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
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Y. Hatanaka, M. Ito, Y. Sakane, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, and M. Ippommatsu, “Demonstration of mass production techniques at feasible cost for surface mount device of AlGaN-based DUV-LED with fluoro-resin encapsulation,” in International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (2018), paper TuP-OD-2.

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T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
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K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
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S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192, 296–300 (2002).
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M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
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K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
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M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, A. Miyazaki, Y. Watanabe, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “High-power UV-light-emitting diode on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 400–403 (2003).
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S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192, 296–300 (2002).
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K. Nagamatsu, N. Okada, H. Sugimura, H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Iida, A. Bando, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasakia, “High-efficiency AlGaN-based UV light-emitting diode on laterally overgrown AlN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2326–2329 (2008).
[Crossref]

Uchiyama, K.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uomoto, M.

M. Ichikawa, A. Fujioka, T. Kosugi, S. Endo, H. Sagawa, H. Tamaki, T. Mukai, M. Uomoto, and T. Shimatsu, “High-output-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode assembly using direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Waltman, R. J.

J. Pacansky, R. J. Waltman, and D. Jebens, “Electron beam irradiation of a perfluoroalkoxy fluorocarbon resin: tetorafluoroethylene/perfluoromethyl vinyl ether copolymer,” Molecules 29, 7699–7704 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Y. Peng, S. Wang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Whole inorganic hermetic packaging technology using localized induction heating for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. 6, 1456–1461 (2016).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, Y.

M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, A. Miyazaki, Y. Watanabe, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “High-power UV-light-emitting diode on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 400–403 (2003).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, A. K.

I. Blakey, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, H. P. Liu, F. Rasoul, A. K. Whittaker, and P. Zimmerman, “XPS and 19F NMR study of the photodegradation at 157 nm of photolithographic-grade teflon AF thin films,” Macromolecules 38, 4050–4053 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. R. Dargaville, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, U. Scheler, and A. K. Whittaker, “Cross-linking of PFA by electron beam irradiation,” Molecules 36, 7138–7142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wraback, M.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C11, 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grandusky, J. F. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and M. L. J. Schowalter, “270  nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60  mW continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, “High power high efficiency DUV-LEDs and applications,” in LED Taiwan IR+UV Summit (2016).

Wu, S.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamada, Y.

H. Murotani, D. Akase, K. Anai, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Dependence of internal quantum efficiency on doping region and Si concentration in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, J.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto and G. Ogawa, “Structure determination of the amorphous perfluorinated homopolymer: poly[perfluoro(4-vinyloxyl-1-butene)],” J. Fluorine Chem. 126, 1403–1408 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, Y.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, H.

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265  nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90  mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. W.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, W. Shuai, J. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, “324 nm light emitting diodes with milliwatt powers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L450–L451 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, X. Guo, R. Liang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction from DUV-LEDs by AlN-doped fluoropolymer encapsulation,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 29, 1151–1154 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yatabe, T.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

Y. Pai, C. Lin, C. Lee, C. Lin, C. Chen, H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by optimizing the diameter and tilt of the aluminum sidewall,” Crystals 8, 420 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yilmaz, I.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. P.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, W. Shuai, J. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, “324 nm light emitting diodes with milliwatt powers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L450–L451 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zimmerman, P.

I. Blakey, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, H. P. Liu, F. Rasoul, A. K. Whittaker, and P. Zimmerman, “XPS and 19F NMR study of the photodegradation at 157 nm of photolithographic-grade teflon AF thin films,” Macromolecules 38, 4050–4053 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (7)

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255-280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grandusky, J. F. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and M. L. J. Schowalter, “270  nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60  mW continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, Y. Furusawan, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, N. Morishima, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of underfilling and encapsulation for deep-ultraviolet LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 012101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ichikawa, A. Fujioka, T. Kosugi, S. Endo, H. Sagawa, H. Tamaki, T. Mukai, M. Uomoto, and T. Shimatsu, “High-output-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode assembly using direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275  nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Murotani, D. Akase, K. Anai, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Dependence of internal quantum efficiency on doping region and Si concentration in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042110 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211122 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265  nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90  mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Enomoto, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, and Y. Aoyagi, “Efficient 230-280  nm emission from high-Al-content AlGaN-based multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 37–39 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

Y. Nagasawa and A. Hirano, “A review of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sapphire,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1264 (2018).
[Crossref]

Crystals (1)

Y. Pai, C. Lin, C. Lee, C. Lin, C. Chen, H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by optimizing the diameter and tilt of the aluminum sidewall,” Crystals 8, 420 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Lett. (1)

P. Yang, X. Guo, R. Liang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction from DUV-LEDs by AlN-doped fluoropolymer encapsulation,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 29, 1151–1154 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Compon. (1)

Y. Peng, S. Wang, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Whole inorganic hermetic packaging technology using localized induction heating for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. 6, 1456–1461 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Nagamatsu, N. Okada, H. Sugimura, H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Iida, A. Bando, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasakia, “High-efficiency AlGaN-based UV light-emitting diode on laterally overgrown AlN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 2326–2329 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Fluorine Chem. (1)

K. Yamamoto and G. Ogawa, “Structure determination of the amorphous perfluorinated homopolymer: poly[perfluoro(4-vinyloxyl-1-butene)],” J. Fluorine Chem. 126, 1403–1408 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Polymer Sci. (1)

W. K. Fisher and J. C. Correlli, “Effect of ionizing radiation on the chemical composition, crystalline content and structure, and flow properties of polytetorafluoroethylene,” J. Polymer Sci. 19, 2465–2493 (1981).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (5)

M. Kaneda, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Uneven AlGaN multiple quantum well for deep-ultraviolet LEDs grown on macrosteps and impact on electroluminescence spectral output,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 061002 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, A. Miyazaki, Y. Watanabe, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “High-power UV-light-emitting diode on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 400–403 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, W. Shuai, J. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, “324 nm light emitting diodes with milliwatt powers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L450–L451 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016)
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

I. Blakey, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, H. P. Liu, F. Rasoul, A. K. Whittaker, and P. Zimmerman, “XPS and 19F NMR study of the photodegradation at 157 nm of photolithographic-grade teflon AF thin films,” Macromolecules 38, 4050–4053 (2005).
[Crossref]

Molecules (2)

T. R. Dargaville, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, U. Scheler, and A. K. Whittaker, “Cross-linking of PFA by electron beam irradiation,” Molecules 36, 7138–7142 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Pacansky, R. J. Waltman, and D. Jebens, “Electron beam irradiation of a perfluoroalkoxy fluorocarbon resin: tetorafluoroethylene/perfluoromethyl vinyl ether copolymer,” Molecules 29, 7699–7704 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441, 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nippon Kagaku Kaishi (1)

K. Nakamura, N. Sugiyama, Y. Etoh, K. Aosaki, and J. Endo, “Development of perfluoro transparent resins obtained by radical cyclopolymerization for leading-edge electronic and optical applications,” Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 12, 659 (2001).

Phys. Status Solidi (2)

K. Yamada, Y. Nagasawa, S. Nagai, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Study on the main-chain structure of amorphous fluorine resins for encapsulating AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A215, 1700525 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C11, 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192, 296–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Hirano, Y. Nagasawa, M. Ippommatsu, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications,” Proc. SPIE 9926, 99260C (2016).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

M. Kneissl and J. Rass, III-Nitride UV Emitter: Technologies and Their Applications (Springer, 2016).

J. Wu, “High power high efficiency DUV-LEDs and applications,” in LED Taiwan IR+UV Summit (2016).

http://www.chem.tamu.edu/rgroup/connell/linkfiles/bonds.pdf .

http://www.geocities.jp/toyookawase/30ketugoue.pdf .

Nichia. 2018, http://www.nichia.co.jp/jp/product/uvled.html .

K. Aosaki, personal communication.

https://www.nikkiso.co.jp/technology/project/duv-led.html#ac02 .

https://www.klaran.com/products/uvc-leds/klaran-gd-series .

Y. Hatanaka, M. Ito, Y. Sakane, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, and M. Ippommatsu, “Demonstration of mass production techniques at feasible cost for surface mount device of AlGaN-based DUV-LED with fluoro-resin encapsulation,” in International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (2018), paper TuP-OD-2.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Cracks in silicone encapsulation of AlGaN-based (a) 270 nm, (b) 287 nm, and (c) 301 nm LEDs after the reliability tests. The time and the operation current during the reliability tests are indicated at the top of the photographs. The insets are magnified images of the cracks. [Figure 1(c) is taken from Ref. [27]. Copyright Japan Society of Applied Physics.]
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Absorption spectrum of silicone with side chains of methyl groups with the molecular structure shown as an inset. The weak absorption observed between approximately 250 and 280 nm is considered to be that of the polymerization initiator. (Reproduced from Ref. [27]; copyright Japan Society of Applied Physics.)
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Transmittance spectra of p-BVEs with various end groups and PDD-co-TEF; (b) molecular structures of (left) p-BVEs with (─R) (R=COOH, COOCH3, and CF3) end groups and (right) molecular structure of PDD-co-TFE. (Figure 3 is reproduced from Refs. [25,27], copyright Japan Society of Applied Physics; and Ref. [30], copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Photographs of the damage to the electrodes after reliability tests using 265 nm LEDs. A similar phenomenon was observed for p-BVE with the ─COOH end group for a 285 nm LED after a reliability test for 804 h [25]. When the damage to the electrodes occurred, a significant increase in the leakage current occurred. (Taken from Ref. [27]; copyright Japan Society of Applied Physics.)
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Bubbles appearing after reliability tests for 32 and 105 h followed by heating up to 230°C for the p-BVE with ─COOH and COOCH3 end groups, respectively. The reliability tests were carried out using 265 nm LEDs under an operation current of 20 mA. [Figures 5(a) and 5(c) are taken from Ref. [27]; copyright Japan Society of Applied Physics. Figure 5(b) is taken from Ref. [37]; copyright is shared by the authors and SPIE.]
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Damage to the electrodes after reliability tests for 3137 and 832 h at a driving current of 200 mA for 262 nm LEDs wrapped with (a) p-BVE with the CF3 end group and (b) PDD-co-TFE. Similar damage to the electrode was observed on a 289 nm LED when using PDD-co-TFE [29]. (Taken from Ref. [29]; copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.)
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. TPD-MS spectra for H2O (m/z=18), CO+(N2) (m/z=28), CO2 (m/z=44), and CFO (m/z=47) (a) after the weak irradiation treatment using the 261 nm LED for p-BVE with ─COOH ends and (b) p-BVE with the CF3 end group after the strong irradiation treatment, which overlaps those without UV irradiation. Differential FT-IR spectra before and after the 253.7 nm irradiation (c) for p-BVE with the ─COOH end group and (d) for p-BVE with the CF3 end group. The irradiation time was 12 h for p-BVE with the ─COOH and CF3 end groups. Although the CO (m/z=28) signal of TPD-MS cannot be isolated from the background of N2 (m/z=28), the signal of m/z=28 in (a) has a strong relationship with that of CO2, which enables us to conclude that the peak curve of m/z=28 is mainly due to the CO signal. [Figure 7(a) is reproduced from Ref. [25] with the CFO signal added.]
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Decomposition paths for p-BVE with ─COOH end group; (b) alignment of the end group on the electrode surface in the case of ─COOH. The neighboring ─COOH is one of the reasons for the early occurrence of electrode damage in the case of p-BVE with the ─COOH end group.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) TPD-MS spectra of CO2 and CFO for PDD-co-TFE before and after the 261 nm irradiation; (b) differential FT-IR spectrum with a signal of a ketone (>CO), CFO, and OH after 253.7 nm irradiation for 12 h obtained by subtracting the FT-IR spectrum before the irradiation treatment. The peak at 1890  cm1 can be assigned to CFO and the increase in the signal intensity at 1860  cm1 is assigned to a ketone. The peak at 3620  cm1 is assigned to OH. (Figure 9 is taken from Ref. [29]; copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.)
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. TPD-MS spectra for (a) N2 (gray), O2 (green), and (b) H2O (blue) before (hollow symbols) and after (solid triangles indicating increases “▴” and decreases “▾”) in the irradiation treatment using the 261 nm LED. The markedly increased occlusion of N2 and O2 is shown by the increased signal intensity without desorption peaks. The H2O signal intensity decreased after the irradiation despite the increased occlusion of N2 and O2; thus, the source of the oxygen to decompose PDD is likely to be H2O. The m/z=28 signal current can be attributed mainly to N2.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (Upper) Path for the creation of voids in the case of PDD-co-TFE and (lower) structure after the void creation. The undetectable species due to the high vapor pressure are indicated by “*”.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Light extraction enhancement ratio (RLEE) plotted against the refractive index for different materials. Red solid circles indicate the cases with a hemisphere sapphire lens [26]. The blue solid circle indicates the case of encapsulation with an unknown resin [11]. The violet solid square indicates the case of fluororesin encapsulation [25,27]. Hollow circles indicate the initial RLEE observed in the experiments by the authors.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. (a) Photograph of the fabricated lens array on a 50.8mm×102.4mm AlN sheet. (b) Isolated 3535 COS packages. This simple device mount reduces the loss of light resulting from the use of a conventional container-type ceramic package with a quartz window and enhances the light extraction 1.5-fold relative to that of the bare die.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. LEE Enhancement Ratios Obtained Using Encapsulation or a Lensa

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Table 2. LEE Enhancement Ratios with Reflective Electrodes Are Separately Givena

Equations (4)

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ηWPE=(Ep/Vf)×ηEQE,
ηEQE=ηCIE×ηIQE×ηLEE.
2COOHCO+CO2+H2O.
(CF)+H2O(F)+CFO+H2.