Abstract

In this work, a GaN p-i-n diode based on Mg ion implantation for visible-blind UV detection is demonstrated. With an optimized implantation and annealing process, a p-GaN layer and corresponding GaN p-i-n photodiode are achieved via Mg implantation. As revealed in the UV detection characterizations, these diodes exhibit a sharp wavelength cutoff at 365 nm, high UV/visible rejection ratio of 1.2×104, and high photoresponsivity of 0.35 A/W, and are proved to be comparable with commercially available GaN p-n photodiodes. Additionally, a localized states-related gain mechanism is systematically investigated, and a relevant physics model of electric-field-assisted photocarrier hopping is proposed. The demonstrated Mg ion-implantation-based approach is believed to be an applicable and CMOS-process-compatible technology for GaN-based p-i-n photodiodes.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
  5. F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

T. Niwa, T. Fujii, and T. Oka, “High carrier activation of Mg ion-implanted GaN by conventional rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 091002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Bai and Z. W. Liu, “A broadband photodetector based on rhodamine B-sensitized ZnO nanowires film,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11384 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. Narita, T. Kachi, K. Kataoka, and T. Uesugi, “P-type doping of GaN by magnesium ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 016501 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Game, U. Singh, T. Kumari, A. Banpurkar, and S. Ogale, “ZnO (N)–Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor,” Nanoscale 6, 503–513 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Bour, T. Prunty, and D. Disney, “3.7  kV vertical GaN PN diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 247–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. M. Hatch, J. Briscoe, and S. Dunn, “A self-powered ZnO-nanorod/CuSCN UV photodetector exhibiting rapid response,” Adv. Mater. 25, 867–871 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Disney, and D. Bour, “High voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with avalanche capability,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3067–3070 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “High quantum efficiency GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors prepared on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

B. N. Feigelson, T. J. Anderson, M. Abraham, J. A. Freitas, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique and its application for the electrical activation of Mg implanted in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 350, 21–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Lee, A. Nishikawa, Y. Terai, and Y. Fujiwara, “Eu luminescence center created by Mg codoping in Eu-doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171904 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Muñoz, “(Al,In,Ga) N-based photodetectors. Some materials issues,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 2859–2877 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

O. Mitrofanov and M. Manfra, “Poole-Frenkel electron emission from the traps in AlGaN/GaN transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6414–6419 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Hashizume, “Effects of Mg accumulation on chemical and electronic properties of Mg-doped p-type GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 431–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, A. Osinsky, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “Origin of conductivity and low-frequency noise in reverse-biased GaN p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1365–1367 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-Garcıa, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

A. Lewis, “Evidence for the Mott model of hopping conduction in the anneal stable state of amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1555–1558 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

R. M. Hill, “Hopping conduction in amorphous solids,” Philos. Mag. 24, 1307–1325 (1971).
[Crossref]

Abraham, M.

B. N. Feigelson, T. J. Anderson, M. Abraham, J. A. Freitas, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique and its application for the electrical activation of Mg implanted in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 350, 21–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T. J.

B. N. Feigelson, T. J. Anderson, M. Abraham, J. A. Freitas, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique and its application for the electrical activation of Mg implanted in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 350, 21–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bai, Z.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Bai and Z. W. Liu, “A broadband photodetector based on rhodamine B-sensitized ZnO nanowires film,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Banpurkar, A.

O. Game, U. Singh, T. Kumari, A. Banpurkar, and S. Ogale, “ZnO (N)–Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor,” Nanoscale 6, 503–513 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beaumont, B.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-Garcıa, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bie, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bour, D.

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Bour, T. Prunty, and D. Disney, “3.7  kV vertical GaN PN diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 247–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Disney, and D. Bour, “High voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with avalanche capability,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3067–3070 (2013).
[Crossref]

Braga, N. A.

Y. Zhang, H. Y. Wong, M. Sun, S. Joglekar, L. Yu, N. A. Braga, R. V. Mickevicius, and T. Palacios, “Design space and origin of off-state leakage in GaN vertical power diodes,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–35.

Briscoe, J.

S. M. Hatch, J. Briscoe, and S. Dunn, “A self-powered ZnO-nanorod/CuSCN UV photodetector exhibiting rapid response,” Adv. Mater. 25, 867–871 (2013).
[Crossref]

Calle, F.

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
[Crossref]

Calleja, E.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-Garcıa, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chae, S.

J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

G. Wang, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “High quantum efficiency GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors prepared on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, U. I.

J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cusso, F.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dai, L.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Decoutere, S.

N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

Disney, D.

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Bour, T. Prunty, and D. Disney, “3.7  kV vertical GaN PN diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 247–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Disney, and D. Bour, “High voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with avalanche capability,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3067–3070 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dunn, S.

S. M. Hatch, J. Briscoe, and S. Dunn, “A self-powered ZnO-nanorod/CuSCN UV photodetector exhibiting rapid response,” Adv. Mater. 25, 867–871 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eddy, C. R.

B. N. Feigelson, T. J. Anderson, M. Abraham, J. A. Freitas, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique and its application for the electrical activation of Mg implanted in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 350, 21–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Edwards, A. P.

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Bour, T. Prunty, and D. Disney, “3.7  kV vertical GaN PN diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 247–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Disney, and D. Bour, “High voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with avalanche capability,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3067–3070 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, M. M.

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feigelson, B. N.

B. N. Feigelson, T. J. Anderson, M. Abraham, J. A. Freitas, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique and its application for the electrical activation of Mg implanted in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 350, 21–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freitas, J. A.

B. N. Feigelson, T. J. Anderson, M. Abraham, J. A. Freitas, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique and its application for the electrical activation of Mg implanted in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 350, 21–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Niwa, T. Fujii, and T. Oka, “High carrier activation of Mg ion-implanted GaN by conventional rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 091002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, Y.

D. G. Lee, A. Nishikawa, Y. Terai, and Y. Fujiwara, “Eu luminescence center created by Mg codoping in Eu-doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171904 (2012).
[Crossref]

Game, O.

O. Game, U. Singh, T. Kumari, A. Banpurkar, and S. Ogale, “ZnO (N)–Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor,” Nanoscale 6, 503–513 (2014).
[Crossref]

Garrido, J. A.

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-Garcıa, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, A. Osinsky, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “Origin of conductivity and low-frequency noise in reverse-biased GaN p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1365–1367 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gibart, P.

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

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N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

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T. Narita, T. Kachi, K. Kataoka, and T. Uesugi, “P-type doping of GaN by magnesium ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 016501 (2016).
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D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, A. Osinsky, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “Origin of conductivity and low-frequency noise in reverse-biased GaN p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1365–1367 (1998).
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J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
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J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
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I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Bour, T. Prunty, and D. Disney, “3.7  kV vertical GaN PN diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 247–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Disney, and D. Bour, “High voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with avalanche capability,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3067–3070 (2013).
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B. N. Feigelson, T. J. Anderson, M. Abraham, J. A. Freitas, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique and its application for the electrical activation of Mg implanted in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 350, 21–26 (2012).
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D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, A. Osinsky, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “Origin of conductivity and low-frequency noise in reverse-biased GaN p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1365–1367 (1998).
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O. Game, U. Singh, T. Kumari, A. Banpurkar, and S. Ogale, “ZnO (N)–Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor,” Nanoscale 6, 503–513 (2014).
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N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

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Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
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Lin, P.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
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Liu, K. W.

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
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Z. Q. Bai and Z. W. Liu, “A broadband photodetector based on rhodamine B-sensitized ZnO nanowires film,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11384 (2017).
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G. Wang, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “High quantum efficiency GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors prepared on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
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E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 7115–7137 (2001).
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E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-Garcıa, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[Crossref]

Munoz, E.

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-Garcıa, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[Crossref]

Munoz, J. A.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
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T. Narita, T. Kachi, K. Kataoka, and T. Uesugi, “P-type doping of GaN by magnesium ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 016501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nie, H.

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Bour, T. Prunty, and D. Disney, “3.7  kV vertical GaN PN diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 247–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Disney, and D. Bour, “High voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with avalanche capability,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3067–3070 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nishikawa, A.

D. G. Lee, A. Nishikawa, Y. Terai, and Y. Fujiwara, “Eu luminescence center created by Mg codoping in Eu-doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171904 (2012).
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T. Niwa, T. Fujii, and T. Oka, “High carrier activation of Mg ion-implanted GaN by conventional rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 091002 (2017).
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O. Game, U. Singh, T. Kumari, A. Banpurkar, and S. Ogale, “ZnO (N)–Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor,” Nanoscale 6, 503–513 (2014).
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T. Niwa, T. Fujii, and T. Oka, “High carrier activation of Mg ion-implanted GaN by conventional rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 091002 (2017).
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E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

Osinsky, A.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, A. Osinsky, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “Origin of conductivity and low-frequency noise in reverse-biased GaN p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1365–1367 (1998).
[Crossref]

Palacios, T.

Y. Zhang, H. Y. Wong, M. Sun, S. Joglekar, L. Yu, N. A. Braga, R. V. Mickevicius, and T. Palacios, “Design space and origin of off-state leakage in GaN vertical power diodes,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–35.

Park, J.

J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pau, J. L.

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

Posthuma, N. E.

N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

Prunty, T.

I. C. Kizilyalli, A. P. Edwards, H. Nie, D. Bour, T. Prunty, and D. Disney, “3.7  kV vertical GaN PN diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 247–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z. X.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

G. Wang, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “High quantum efficiency GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors prepared on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ronchi, N.

N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

Sánchez, F. J.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sánchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1042–1046 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-Garcıa, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Garcia, M. A.

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-Garcıa, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[Crossref]

Saripalli, Y. N.

N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

Shen, D. Z.

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
[Crossref]

Singh, U.

O. Game, U. Singh, T. Kumari, A. Banpurkar, and S. Ogale, “ZnO (N)–Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor,” Nanoscale 6, 503–513 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, M.

Y. Zhang, H. Y. Wong, M. Sun, S. Joglekar, L. Yu, N. A. Braga, R. V. Mickevicius, and T. Palacios, “Design space and origin of off-state leakage in GaN vertical power diodes,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–35.

Sun, Y.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tak, Y.

J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
[Crossref]

Temkin, H.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, A. Osinsky, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “Origin of conductivity and low-frequency noise in reverse-biased GaN p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1365–1367 (1998).
[Crossref]

Terai, Y.

D. G. Lee, A. Nishikawa, Y. Terai, and Y. Fujiwara, “Eu luminescence center created by Mg codoping in Eu-doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171904 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uesugi, T.

T. Narita, T. Kachi, K. Kataoka, and T. Uesugi, “P-type doping of GaN by magnesium ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 016501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “High quantum efficiency GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors prepared on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wellekens, D.

N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

Wong, H. Y.

Y. Zhang, H. Y. Wong, M. Sun, S. Joglekar, L. Yu, N. A. Braga, R. V. Mickevicius, and T. Palacios, “Design space and origin of off-state leakage in GaN vertical power diodes,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–35.

Xie, F.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, X. H.

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, M.

J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, Y. Tak, J. Kim, H. G. Hong, M. Yang, S. Chae, J. Park, Y. Park, and U. I. Chung, “Investigation of reverse leakage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1741–1743 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, Y.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

You, S.

N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

Yu, D. P.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Y. Zhang, H. Y. Wong, M. Sun, S. Joglekar, L. Yu, N. A. Braga, R. V. Mickevicius, and T. Palacios, “Design space and origin of off-state leakage in GaN vertical power diodes,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–35.

Zhang, H. Z.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

G. Wang, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “High quantum efficiency GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors prepared on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, H. Y. Wong, M. Sun, S. Joglekar, L. Yu, N. A. Braga, R. V. Mickevicius, and T. Palacios, “Design space and origin of off-state leakage in GaN vertical power diodes,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–35.

Zhang, Z. Z.

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H. F.

H. Y. Chen, K. W. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Z. Zhang, M. M. Fan, M. M. Jiang, X. H. Xie, H. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Shen, “Realization of a self-powered ZnO MSM UV photodetector with high responsivity using an asymmetric pair of Au electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 9689–9694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

Y. Shen, X. Yan, Z. Bai, X. Zheng, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, P. Lin, X. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “A self-powered ultraviolet photodetector based on solution-processed p-NiO/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction,” RSC Adv. 5, 5976–5981 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

G. Wang, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “High quantum efficiency GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors prepared on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y. B.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, H. Z. Zhang, G. R. Li, Y. Ye, Y. B. Zhou, J. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. Dai, and D. P. Yu, “Self-powered, ultrafast, visible-blind UV detection and optical logical operation based on ZnO/GaN nanoscale p-n junctions,” Adv. Mater. 23, 649–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Hatch, J. Briscoe, and S. Dunn, “A self-powered ZnO-nanorod/CuSCN UV photodetector exhibiting rapid response,” Adv. Mater. 25, 867–871 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Bias-selective dual-operation-mode ultraviolet Schottky-barrier photodetectors fabricated on high-resistivity homoepitaxial GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2203–2205 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “High quantum efficiency GaN-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors prepared on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

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N. E. Posthuma, S. You, H. Liang, N. Ronchi, X. Kang, D. Wellekens, Y. N. Saripalli, and S. Decoutere, “Impact of Mg out-diffusion and activation on the p-GaN gate HEMT device performance,” in 28th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 95–98.

GaNo Opto, GaNo Opto GT-ABC-L Datasheet, http://www.gano-uv.com/admin1234/kindeditor/attached/file/20181101/20181101102423702370.pdf .

Y. Zhang, H. Y. Wong, M. Sun, S. Joglekar, L. Yu, N. A. Braga, R. V. Mickevicius, and T. Palacios, “Design space and origin of off-state leakage in GaN vertical power diodes,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–35.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of Mg ion implantation in GaN. (b) SIMS results of Mg distribution in the GaN layer before and after annealing. (c)  2 θ -ω XRD scan on (0002) and (1012) planes of as-grown GaN and Mg-implanted GaN with the post-annealing process; the inset shows the AFM morphology of GaN with Mg implantation and the post-annealing process.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the fabricated quasi-vertical GaN p-i-n diode with a Mg implanted p-type layer; the inset illustrates the cross-sectional schematic of the diode. (b) I-V results in linear plots. (c) Electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the Mg ion-implanted GaN p-i-n diode; the inset displays the EL emission pattern.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Photo- and dark current measurements for the Mg ion-implanted quasi-vertical GaN p-i-n photodiode. (b) Spectral response characteristics at zero bias of the UV photodetector based on the Mg ion-implanted p-i-n diode (blue) and a commercially available GaN p-n photodiode (red).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Temperature-dependent leakage measurement. (b) Hopping conducting-based linear fitting between ln ( J ) versus E . (c) Linear fitting between α and 1 / T 5 / 4 . (d) Poole–Frenkel emission-based linear fitting between ln ( J ) and E 1 / 2 .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Reverse-bias-dependent responsivity measurement at an optical power density of 2.5    mW / cm 2 at 365 nm. (b) Dependence of photocurrent on the optical power density. (c) Schematic diagram of the electric-field-assisted photocarrier hopping.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Time response characteristics of the Mg ion-implantation-based GaN p-i-n diode. (a) Response waveform in six repeated circles. Photocurrent (b) rise and (c) decay edge within one response pulse. (d) Decay waveform in exponential scale.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J = J 0 exp [ C q E r 2 k T ( T 0 T ) 1 / 4 ] ,
α = d ln ( J ) d E C q r 2 k T ( T 0 T ) 1 / 4 ,
J = J 0 exp ( β PF E 1 / 2 k T ) ,
β PF = ( q 3 π ε ε 0 ) 1 / 2 ,

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