Abstract

We report mid-infrared Ge-on-Si waveguide-based PIN diode modulators operating at wavelengths of 3.8 and 8 μm. Fabricated 1-mm-long electro-absorption devices exhibit a modulation depth of >35  dB with a 7 V forward bias at 3.8 μm, and a similar 1-mm-long Mach–Zehnder modulator has a Vπ·L of 0.47  V·cm. Driven by a 2.5Vpp RF signal, 60 MHz on-off keying modulation was demonstrated. Electro-absorption modulation at 8 μm was demonstrated preliminarily, with the device performance limited by large contact separation and high contact resistance.

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2018 (8)

Z. Zhou, R. Chen, X. Li, and T. Li, “Development trends in silicon photonics for data centers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 44, 13–23 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. A. Kozak, T. H. Stievater, R. Mahon, and W. S. Rabinovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides at wavelengths from 6.85 to 11.25 microns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200804 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26, 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C.-J. Chung, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “Mid-infrared silicon photonic waveguides and devices,” Photon. Res. 6, 254–276 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sinobad, C. Monat, B. Luther-Davies, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, S. Boutami, J.-M. Hartmann, J.-M. Fedeli, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation to 8.5 μm in silicon-germanium waveguides,” Optica 5, 360–366 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osmon, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. Xu-Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2276–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, D. Hagan, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Knights, S. Alam, J. Wang, F. Gardes, W. Zhang, S. Liu, K. Li, M. S. Rouifed, G. Xin, W. Wang, H. Wang, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed silicon modulators for the 2 μm wavelength band,” Optica 5, 1055–1062 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, U. Griškevičiūte, L. Baldassarre, M. Sorel, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Low loss Ge-on-Si waveguides operating in the 8-14 μm atmospheric transmission window,” Opt. Express 26, 25667–25675 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (5)

2015 (2)

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (4)

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. Long, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation,” Opt. Express 21, 23410–23415 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid-and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, I. MacLaren, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, “Ohmic contacts to n-type germanium with low specific contact resistivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 022113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J. M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18, 12127–12135 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

1982 (1)

G. S. Marlow and M. B. Das, “The effects of contact size and non-zero metal resistance on the determination of specific contact resistance,” Solid-State Electron. 25, 91–94 (1982).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.

Allen, P. J.

Allioux, D.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Anantha, P.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anheier, N. C.

Asher, W.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baldassarre, L.

Balkanski, M.

M. Balkanski and R. F. Wallis, Semiconductor Physics and Applications (Oxford University, 2000).

Ballabio, A.

Banakar, M.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Bao, S.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benedikovic, D.

Boutami, S.

Bouville, D.

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Carpenter, L. G.

Chakravarty, S.

Chang, Y. C.

Cheben, P.

Chen, R.

Z. Zhou, R. Chen, X. Li, and T. Li, “Development trends in silicon photonics for data centers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 44, 13–23 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and D. T. Neilson, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3, 215–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Chiles, J.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid-and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chung, C.-J.

Das, M. B.

G. S. Marlow and M. B. Das, “The effects of contact size and non-zero metal resistance on the determination of specific contact resistance,” Solid-State Electron. 25, 91–94 (1982).
[Crossref]

Dominquez Bucio, T.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and D. T. Neilson, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3, 215–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duan, G.-H.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and D. T. Neilson, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3, 215–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dwivedi, S.

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fathpour, S.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid-and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Frigerio, J.

Gallacher, K.

K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, U. Griškevičiūte, L. Baldassarre, M. Sorel, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Low loss Ge-on-Si waveguides operating in the 8-14 μm atmospheric transmission window,” Opt. Express 26, 25667–25675 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, I. MacLaren, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, “Ohmic contacts to n-type germanium with low specific contact resistivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 022113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osmon, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. Xu-Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2276–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Gawith, C. B. E.

Goda, K.

Gopalakrisna, K. L.

Grabska, K.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Grillet, C.

Griškeviciute, U.

Guo, X.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D.

Hartmann, J. M.

Hartmann, J.-M.

Hattasan, N.

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M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. LittleJohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25, 27431–27441 (2017).
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M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
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M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
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W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
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W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
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Z. Zhou, R. Chen, X. Li, and T. Li, “Development trends in silicon photonics for data centers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 44, 13–23 (2018).
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M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. LittleJohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25, 27431–27441 (2017).
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M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
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G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osmon, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. Xu-Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2276–2286 (2018).
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C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penades, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Perez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4324–4327 (2016).
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M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
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T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
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[Crossref]

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41, 610–613 (2016).
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C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penades, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Perez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4324–4327 (2016).
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M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
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G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 7112–7119 (2011).
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T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Mastronardi, L.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

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Miloševic, M. M.

Mitchell, A.

Mitchell, C. J.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
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[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
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K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, I. MacLaren, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, “Ohmic contacts to n-type germanium with low specific contact resistivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 022113 (2012).
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G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osmon, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. Xu-Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2276–2286 (2018).
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[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. LittleJohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25, 27431–27441 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41, 610–613 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penades, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Perez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4324–4327 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
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K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, U. Griškevičiūte, L. Baldassarre, M. Sorel, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Low loss Ge-on-Si waveguides operating in the 8-14 μm atmospheric transmission window,” Opt. Express 26, 25667–25675 (2018).
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K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, I. MacLaren, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, “Ohmic contacts to n-type germanium with low specific contact resistivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 022113 (2012).
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G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osmon, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. Xu-Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2276–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

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D. A. Kozak, T. H. Stievater, R. Mahon, and W. S. Rabinovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides at wavelengths from 6.85 to 11.25 microns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200804 (2018).
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Ramírez, J. M.

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G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osmon, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. Xu-Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2276–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, D. Hagan, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Knights, S. Alam, J. Wang, F. Gardes, W. Zhang, S. Liu, K. Li, M. S. Rouifed, G. Xin, W. Wang, H. Wang, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed silicon modulators for the 2 μm wavelength band,” Optica 5, 1055–1062 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Reid, L.

Reynolds, S. A.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Riley, B. J.

Roelkens, G.

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22, 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rouifed, M. S.

Shimura, Y.

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22, 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sinobad, M.

Soler Penades, J.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soler-Penades, J.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, J. R. Hendrickson, and J. Sweet, “Simulation of germanium nanobeam electro-optical 2 × 2 switches and 1 × 1 modulators for the 2 to 5 μm infrared region,” Opt. Express 24, 9369–9382 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

Sorel, M.

Spott, A.

Stankovic, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Stievater, T. H.

D. A. Kozak, T. H. Stievater, R. Mahon, and W. S. Rabinovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides at wavelengths from 6.85 to 11.25 microns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200804 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stirling, C. J.

Sweet, J.

Takagi, S.

Takenaka, M.

Tan, C. S.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tan, W.

Teo, E. J.

Thomson, D. J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osmon, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. Xu-Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2276–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, D. Hagan, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Knights, S. Alam, J. Wang, F. Gardes, W. Zhang, S. Liu, K. Li, M. S. Rouifed, G. Xin, W. Wang, H. Wang, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed silicon modulators for the 2 μm wavelength band,” Optica 5, 1055–1062 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Troia, B.

Tsang, H. K.

Vakarin, V.

Van Campenhout, J.

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22, 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Landschoot, L.

Van Opstal, T.

Vanherle, W.

Velha, P.

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, I. MacLaren, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, “Ohmic contacts to n-type germanium with low specific contact resistivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 022113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

Wallis, R. F.

M. Balkanski and R. F. Wallis, Semiconductor Physics and Applications (Oxford University, 2000).

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Wang, H.

W. Cao, D. Hagan, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Knights, S. Alam, J. Wang, F. Gardes, W. Zhang, S. Liu, K. Li, M. S. Rouifed, G. Xin, W. Wang, H. Wang, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed silicon modulators for the 2 μm wavelength band,” Optica 5, 1055–1062 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, W.

Wang, X.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wu, H.

T. Li, D. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhou, F. Zhang, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Demonstration of 6.25 Gbaud advanced modulation formats with subcarrier multiplexed technique on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 22, 19818–19823 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. Long, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation,” Opt. Express 21, 23410–23415 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Wu, Y.

Xiao, T. H.

Xin, G.

Xiong, B.

Xu, X.

Xu-Cheng, Y.

Yi, H.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhao, Z.

Zhou, W.

Zhou, Z.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osmon, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. Xu-Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2276–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, R. Chen, X. Li, and T. Li, “Development trends in silicon photonics for data centers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 44, 13–23 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Li, D. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhou, F. Zhang, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Demonstration of 6.25 Gbaud advanced modulation formats with subcarrier multiplexed technique on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 22, 19818–19823 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. Long, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation,” Opt. Express 21, 23410–23415 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

Zou, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, I. MacLaren, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, “Ohmic contacts to n-type germanium with low specific contact resistivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 022113 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, T. Dominquez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. LittleJohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25, 27431–27441 (2017).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

T. Li, D. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhou, F. Zhang, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Demonstration of 6.25 Gbaud advanced modulation formats with subcarrier multiplexed technique on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 22, 19818–19823 (2014).
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T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 7–8.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the PIN junction modulator cross section. (b) The mode profiles for Ge-on-Si rib waveguides at 3.8 and 8 μm wavelengths, modeled using Lumerical Mode Solutions.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the process flow used for the fabrication of Ge-on-Si waveguide modulators.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical microscope images of the EAM devices at 3.8 μm. The image is composed of two images that have been stitched together, since the 1-mm PIN diode length does not fit in the microscope field of view. The horizontal white strip near the middle of the figure separates the two parts.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Top view scanning electron microscope image of the PIN diode. The waveguide and etched lateral cladding are in the middle of the image in grey. The blue shaded region on the left is N++ doped, while the red region on the right is P++ doped. On both the P++- and N++-doped side regions, rough surfaces are visible, the areas in which vias through the SiO 2 top cladding have been etched for the formation of Ohmic contacts.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for modulator characterization (PPG, pulse pattern generator).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Modulation depth as a function of the wavelength under different bias conditions. (b) Modulation depth as a function of current at a wavelength of 3765 nm. Inset: current-voltage device characteristic.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Optical spectra of the MZM under several DC voltages. The spectral transmission is normalized to the highest transmission as seen through the device (so that the offset of transmission from zero does not represent the insertion loss). (b) Phase shift versus current of the MZM.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Eye diagrams measured at 60 MHz for (a) EAM and (b) MZM.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Captured LWIR camera image with the QCL tuned to λ = 8    μm : (a) when the laser is emitting, (b) when the “laser off” frame is subtracted from the “laser on” frame. White areas show high infrared light intensity, and dark areas show low intensity.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Extinction ratio as a function of the applied voltage for a 2-mm-long EAM operating at a wavelength of 8 μm. Inset: current per unit length versus voltage curves at a wavelength of 8 μm (2-mm-long diode) and of 3.8 μm (1-mm-long diode) for EAM devices with the same 8-μm contact separation ( W Gap ). (b) Absorption coefficient versus current per unit PIN diode length at a wavelength of 8 μm (2-mm-long diode) and of 3.8 μm (1-mm-long diode) for EAM devices with the same contact separation ( W Gap ).

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