Abstract

The low modulation bandwidth of deep-ultraviolet (UV) light sources is considered as the main reason limiting the data transmission rate of deep-UV communications. Here, we present high-bandwidth III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes (μLEDs) emitting in the UV-C region and their applications in deep-UV communication systems. The fabricated UV-C μLEDs with 566  μm2 emission area produce an optical power of 196 μW at the 3400  A/cm2 current density. The measured 3 dB modulation bandwidth of these μLEDs initially increases linearly with the driving current density and then saturates as 438 MHz at a current density of 71  A/cm2, which is limited by the cutoff frequency of the commercial avalanche photodiode used for the measurement. A deep-UV communication system is further demonstrated. By using the UV-C μLED, up to 800 Mbps and 1.1 Gbps data transmission rates at bit error ratio of 3.8×103 are achieved assuming on-off keying and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulation schemes, respectively.

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References

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2018 (3)

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN micro-scale light-emitting diode with 1.5  GHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 520–523 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Maeda, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Improving the efficiency of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by using highly reflective Ni/Al p-type electrodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700435 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islim, S. Videv, M. Safari, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “The impact of solar irradiance on visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2376–2386 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, Z. Zhang, A. Chaaban, T. K. Ng, C. Shen, R. Chen, J. Yan, H. Sun, X. Li, J. Wang, J. Li, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “71-Mbit/s ultraviolet-B LED communication link based on 8-QAM-OFDM modulation,” Opt. Express 25, 23267–23274 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

G.-D. Hao, M. Taniguchi, N. Tamari, and S.-I. Inoue, “Enhanced wall-plug efficiency in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with uniform current spreading p-electrode structures,” J. Phys. D 49, 235101 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

R. P. Green, J. J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Han, Y. Liu, K. Zhang, P. Luo, and M. Zhang, “Theoretical and experimental research on diversity reception technology in NLOS UV communication system,” Opt. Express 20, 15833–15842 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Cho, E. Yoon, Y. Park, W. J. Ha, and J. K. Kim, “Characteristics of blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with current density and temperature,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 6, 51–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, “Ultraviolet communications: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Feng, F. Xiong, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, Z. Dong, and Z. Fang, “Non-line-of-sight optical scattering communication based on solar-blind ultraviolet light,” Proc. SPIE 6783, 67833X (2007).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. J. Puschell and R. Bayse, “High data rate ultraviolet communication systems for the tactical battlefield,” Proc. IEEE 1, 253–267 (1990).
[Crossref]

Almer, O.

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alouini, M.-S.

Altman, D. E.

M. Geller, T. E. Keenan, D. E. Altman, and R. H. Patterson, “Optical non-line-of-sight covert, secure high data communication system,” U.S. Patent4,493,114 (January8, 1985).

Aragon, A.

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN micro-scale light-emitting diode with 1.5  GHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 520–523 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “GHz-bandwidth nonpolar InGaN/GaN micro-LED operating at low current density for visible-light communication,” in IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–2.

Awaji, Y.

K. Kojima, Y. Yoshida, M. Shiraiwa, Y. Awaji, A. Kanno, N. Yamamoto, and S. Chichibu, “1.6-Gbps LED-based ultraviolet communication at 280  nm in direct sunlight,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Bamiedakis, N.

Bayse, R.

J. J. Puschell and R. Bayse, “High data rate ultraviolet communication systems for the tactical battlefield,” Proc. IEEE 1, 253–267 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaaban, A.

Chen, R.

Chichibu, S.

K. Kojima, Y. Yoshida, M. Shiraiwa, Y. Awaji, A. Kanno, N. Yamamoto, and S. Chichibu, “1.6-Gbps LED-based ultraviolet communication at 280  nm in direct sunlight,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Cho, J.

J. Cho, E. Yoon, Y. Park, W. J. Ha, and J. K. Kim, “Characteristics of blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with current density and temperature,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 6, 51–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

M. S. Islim, S. Videv, M. Safari, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “The impact of solar irradiance on visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2376–2386 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, D. Tsonev, R. Ferreira, S. Videv, A. D. Griffiths, S. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based VLC using violet and UV gallium nitride μLEDs,” in Summer Topicals Meeting Series (SUM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 175–176.

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

T. Feng, F. Xiong, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, Z. Dong, and Z. Fang, “Non-line-of-sight optical scattering communication based on solar-blind ultraviolet light,” Proc. SPIE 6783, 67833X (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

T. Feng, F. Xiong, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, Z. Dong, and Z. Fang, “Non-line-of-sight optical scattering communication based on solar-blind ultraviolet light,” Proc. SPIE 6783, 67833X (2007).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D.

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN micro-scale light-emitting diode with 1.5  GHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 520–523 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “GHz-bandwidth nonpolar InGaN/GaN micro-LED operating at low current density for visible-light communication,” in IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–2.

Feng, T.

T. Feng, F. Xiong, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, Z. Dong, and Z. Fang, “Non-line-of-sight optical scattering communication based on solar-blind ultraviolet light,” Proc. SPIE 6783, 67833X (2007).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R.

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, D. Tsonev, R. Ferreira, S. Videv, A. D. Griffiths, S. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based VLC using violet and UV gallium nitride μLEDs,” in Summer Topicals Meeting Series (SUM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 175–176.

Ferreira, R. X.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gagliardi, R. M.

S. Karp, R. M. Gagliardi, S. E. Moran, and L. B. Stotts, Optical Channels: Fibers, Clouds, Water, and the Atmosphere (Springer, 2013).

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geller, M.

M. Geller, T. E. Keenan, D. E. Altman, and R. H. Patterson, “Optical non-line-of-sight covert, secure high data communication system,” U.S. Patent4,493,114 (January8, 1985).

Gong, Z.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Green, R. P.

R. P. Green, J. J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Griffiths, A. D.

J. J. McKendry, D. Tsonev, R. Ferreira, S. Videv, A. D. Griffiths, S. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based VLC using violet and UV gallium nitride μLEDs,” in Summer Topicals Meeting Series (SUM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 175–176.

Gu, E.

M. S. Islim, S. Videv, M. Safari, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “The impact of solar irradiance on visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2376–2386 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, D. Tsonev, R. Ferreira, S. Videv, A. D. Griffiths, S. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based VLC using violet and UV gallium nitride μLEDs,” in Summer Topicals Meeting Series (SUM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 175–176.

Guilhabert, B.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ha, W. J.

J. Cho, E. Yoon, Y. Park, W. J. Ha, and J. K. Kim, “Characteristics of blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with current density and temperature,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 6, 51–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

M. S. Islim, S. Videv, M. Safari, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “The impact of solar irradiance on visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2376–2386 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, D. Tsonev, R. Ferreira, S. Videv, A. D. Griffiths, S. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based VLC using violet and UV gallium nitride μLEDs,” in Summer Topicals Meeting Series (SUM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 175–176.

Han, D.

Hao, G.-D.

G.-D. Hao, M. Taniguchi, N. Tamari, and S.-I. Inoue, “Enhanced wall-plug efficiency in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with uniform current spreading p-electrode structures,” J. Phys. D 49, 235101 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, X.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R.

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

N. Maeda, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Improving the efficiency of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by using highly reflective Ni/Al p-type electrodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700435 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Inoue, S.-I.

G.-D. Hao, M. Taniguchi, N. Tamari, and S.-I. Inoue, “Enhanced wall-plug efficiency in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with uniform current spreading p-electrode structures,” J. Phys. D 49, 235101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Islim, M. S.

Jalajakumari, A. V.

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jo, M.

N. Maeda, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Improving the efficiency of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by using highly reflective Ni/Al p-type electrodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700435 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kanno, A.

K. Kojima, Y. Yoshida, M. Shiraiwa, Y. Awaji, A. Kanno, N. Yamamoto, and S. Chichibu, “1.6-Gbps LED-based ultraviolet communication at 280  nm in direct sunlight,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Karp, S.

S. Karp, R. M. Gagliardi, S. E. Moran, and L. B. Stotts, Optical Channels: Fibers, Clouds, Water, and the Atmosphere (Springer, 2013).

Keenan, T. E.

M. Geller, T. E. Keenan, D. E. Altman, and R. H. Patterson, “Optical non-line-of-sight covert, secure high data communication system,” U.S. Patent4,493,114 (January8, 1985).

Kelly, A.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, D. Tsonev, R. Ferreira, S. Videv, A. D. Griffiths, S. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based VLC using violet and UV gallium nitride μLEDs,” in Summer Topicals Meeting Series (SUM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 175–176.

Kim, J. K.

J. Cho, E. Yoon, Y. Park, W. J. Ha, and J. K. Kim, “Characteristics of blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with current density and temperature,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 6, 51–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, “A brief review of III-nitride UV emitter technologies and their applications,” in III-Nitride Ultraviolet Emitters (Springer, 2016), pp. 1–25.

Kojima, K.

K. Kojima, Y. Yoshida, M. Shiraiwa, Y. Awaji, A. Kanno, N. Yamamoto, and S. Chichibu, “1.6-Gbps LED-based ultraviolet communication at 280  nm in direct sunlight,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Li, J.

Li, X.

Liu, Y.

Lunev, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, P.

Maeda, N.

N. Maeda, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Improving the efficiency of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by using highly reflective Ni/Al p-type electrodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700435 (2018).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

R. P. Green, J. J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J.

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. McKendry, D. Tsonev, R. Ferreira, S. Videv, A. D. Griffiths, S. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based VLC using violet and UV gallium nitride μLEDs,” in Summer Topicals Meeting Series (SUM) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 175–176.

McKendry, J. J. D.

Moe, C.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Monavarian, M.

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN micro-scale light-emitting diode with 1.5  GHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 520–523 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “GHz-bandwidth nonpolar InGaN/GaN micro-LED operating at low current density for visible-light communication,” in IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–2.

Moran, S. E.

S. Karp, R. M. Gagliardi, S. E. Moran, and L. B. Stotts, Optical Channels: Fibers, Clouds, Water, and the Atmosphere (Springer, 2013).

Ng, T. K.

O’Brien, D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
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Ooi, B. S.

Pan, Z.

T. Feng, F. Xiong, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, Z. Dong, and Z. Fang, “Non-line-of-sight optical scattering communication based on solar-blind ultraviolet light,” Proc. SPIE 6783, 67833X (2007).
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Park, Y.

J. Cho, E. Yoon, Y. Park, W. J. Ha, and J. K. Kim, “Characteristics of blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with current density and temperature,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 6, 51–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Patterson, R. H.

M. Geller, T. E. Keenan, D. E. Altman, and R. H. Patterson, “Optical non-line-of-sight covert, secure high data communication system,” U.S. Patent4,493,114 (January8, 1985).

Penty, R. V.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
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J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

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J. J. Puschell and R. Bayse, “High data rate ultraviolet communication systems for the tactical battlefield,” Proc. IEEE 1, 253–267 (1990).
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Rajbhandari, S.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rashidi, A.

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN micro-scale light-emitting diode with 1.5  GHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 520–523 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “GHz-bandwidth nonpolar InGaN/GaN micro-LED operating at low current density for visible-light communication,” in IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–2.

Rishinaramangalam, A.

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN micro-scale light-emitting diode with 1.5  GHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 520–523 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rashidi, M. Monavarian, A. Aragon, A. Rishinaramangalam, and D. Feezell, “GHz-bandwidth nonpolar InGaN/GaN micro-LED operating at low current density for visible-light communication,” in IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–2.

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Schubert, E. F.

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M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, C.

Shiraiwa, M.

K. Kojima, Y. Yoshida, M. Shiraiwa, Y. Awaji, A. Kanno, N. Yamamoto, and S. Chichibu, “1.6-Gbps LED-based ultraviolet communication at 280  nm in direct sunlight,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stonehouse, M.

E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stotts, L. B.

S. Karp, R. M. Gagliardi, S. E. Moran, and L. B. Stotts, Optical Channels: Fibers, Clouds, Water, and the Atmosphere (Springer, 2013).

Sun, H.

Sun, W.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Sunstein, D. E.

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E. Xie, M. Stonehouse, R. Ferreira, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, X. He, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, A. V. Jalajakumari, O. Almer, G. Faulkner, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. Henderson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “Design, fabrication, and application of GaN-based micro-LED arrays with individual addressing by N-electrodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7907811 (2017).
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M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10  Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5, A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

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T. Feng, F. Xiong, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, Z. Dong, and Z. Fang, “Non-line-of-sight optical scattering communication based on solar-blind ultraviolet light,” Proc. SPIE 6783, 67833X (2007).
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K. Kojima, Y. Yoshida, M. Shiraiwa, Y. Awaji, A. Kanno, N. Yamamoto, and S. Chichibu, “1.6-Gbps LED-based ultraviolet communication at 280  nm in direct sunlight,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

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Zhang, M.

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
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R. P. Green, J. J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091103 (2013).
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IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

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[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346–1348 (2010).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

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S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 023001 (2017).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Simplified cross-sectional schematic of a single UV-C μLED presented in this work. Dimensions are not to scale.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Plan view optical image of the fabricated UV-C μLED array presented in this work and (b) a high-magnification image of the μLEDs.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. JV and LJ characteristics of a UV-C μLED. The inset shows the emission spectrum of a UV-C μLED at 1768  A/cm2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The 3 dB electrical modulation bandwidth of the UV-C μLED as a function of current density; small signal frequency responses of the UV-C μLED at (b) 18 and (c) 71  A/cm2.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic diagram and optical image of the experimental setup for deep-UV communication using the fabricated UV-C μLED.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Normalized number of occurrences of transmitted and received symbols assuming the OOK modulation scheme at 800 Mbps and (b) the eye diagram of received symbols assuming the same measurement conditions using the UV-C μLED.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Measured SNR versus bandwidth for OFDM at JDC=1770  A/cm2 and VPP=7  V. M-QAM constellation symbols received at the photodetector after equalization for M=4, 8, 16 are inserted. (b) Data transmission rate versus BER for OFDM measurement at JDC=1770  A/cm2 and VPP=7  V.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of Deep-UV Communication Results from the Literature, and from This Work

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