Abstract

A 4λ hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser array is obtained by bonding III–V distributed feedback lasers to a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using a selective area metal bonding technique. Multiple wavelengths are realized by varying the width of the III–V ridge waveguide. The threshold current is less than 10 mA for all wavelength channels under continuous-wave (CW) operation at room temperature, and the lowest threshold current density is 0.76  kA/cm2. The side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is higher than 40 dB for all wavelength channels when the injection current is between 20 mA and 70 mA at room temperature, and the highest SMSR is up to 51 dB. A characteristic temperature of 51 K and thermal impedance of 144°C/W are achieved on average. The 4λ hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser array exhibits a low threshold and high SMSR under CW operation at room temperature. The low power consumption of this device makes it very attractive for on-chip optical interconnects.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2018 (1)

M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (1)

H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ferrotti, A. Chantre, B. Blampey, H. Duprez, F. Milesi, A. Myko, C. Sciancalepore, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, and C. Baudot, “Power-efficient carrier-depletion SOI Mach-Zehnder modulators for 4 × 25  Gbit/s operation in the O-band,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670D (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

S. S. Sui, M. Y. Tang, Y. D. Yang, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of hybrid microring lasers adhesively bonded on silicon wafer,” Photon. Res. 3, 289–295 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marrismorini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Horiuchi and S. Matsuo, “A big leap in energy-saving lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 576 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, L. Van Landschoot, F. Lelarge, G. H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, and E. J. Geluk, “Heterogeneously integrated III–V/silicon distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5434–5437 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III–V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Sci. Rep. 2, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

B. B. Bakir, A. V. D. Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J. M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (< 1  dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

Abbasi, A.

Ahn, S. Y.

Anatol, K.

Arakawa, Y.

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III–V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Sci. Rep. 2, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bakir, B. B.

B. B. Bakir, A. V. D. Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J. M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (< 1  dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baudot, C.

T. Ferrotti, A. Chantre, B. Blampey, H. Duprez, F. Milesi, A. Myko, C. Sciancalepore, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, and C. Baudot, “Power-efficient carrier-depletion SOI Mach-Zehnder modulators for 4 × 25  Gbit/s operation in the O-band,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670D (2015).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauwelinck, J.

Blampey, B.

T. Ferrotti, A. Chantre, B. Blampey, H. Duprez, F. Milesi, A. Myko, C. Sciancalepore, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, and C. Baudot, “Power-efficient carrier-depletion SOI Mach-Zehnder modulators for 4 × 25  Gbit/s operation in the O-band,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670D (2015).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marrismorini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. W. Fang, L. Erica, K. Ying-Hao, L. Di, and J. E. Bowers, “A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 16, 4413–4419 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. N. Sysak, P. Hyundai, A. W. Fang, J. E. Bowers, J. Richard, C. Oded, R. Omri, and M. J. Paniccia, “Experimental and theoretical thermal analysis of a hybrid silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 15, 15041–15046 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, J. E. Bowers, M. J. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and R. Jones, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buffolo, M.

M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marrismorini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chantre, A.

T. Ferrotti, A. Chantre, B. Blampey, H. Duprez, F. Milesi, A. Myko, C. Sciancalepore, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, and C. Baudot, “Power-efficient carrier-depletion SOI Mach-Zehnder modulators for 4 × 25  Gbit/s operation in the O-band,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670D (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. X.

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. B.

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. J.

Cohen, O.

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

Crozat, P.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marrismorini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dahlem, M. S.

Dallery, J. A.

C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davenport, M. L.

M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Santi, C.

M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
[Crossref]

De Vries, T.

Di, L.

Ding, Y.

H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Du, Y.

Duan, G.

Duan, G. H.

Duprez, H.

C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ferrotti, A. Chantre, B. Blampey, H. Duprez, F. Milesi, A. Myko, C. Sciancalepore, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, and C. Baudot, “Power-efficient carrier-depletion SOI Mach-Zehnder modulators for 4 × 25  Gbit/s operation in the O-band,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670D (2015).
[Crossref]

Erica, L.

Esther, S.

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J. M.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, L. Van Landschoot, F. Lelarge, G. H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, and E. J. Geluk, “Heterogeneously integrated III–V/silicon distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5434–5437 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. B. Bakir, A. V. D. Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J. M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (< 1  dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J. M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marrismorini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferrotti, T.

T. Ferrotti, A. Chantre, B. Blampey, H. Duprez, F. Milesi, A. Myko, C. Sciancalepore, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, and C. Baudot, “Power-efficient carrier-depletion SOI Mach-Zehnder modulators for 4 × 25  Gbit/s operation in the O-band,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670D (2015).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, D. F. G.

C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geluk, E. J.

Gyves, A. V. D.

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C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
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L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
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L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
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T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
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L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
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B. B. Bakir, A. V. D. Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J. M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (< 1  dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
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L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marrismorini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
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N. Horiuchi and S. Matsuo, “A big leap in energy-saving lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 576 (2013).
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M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
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M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
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C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
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Milesi, F.

T. Ferrotti, A. Chantre, B. Blampey, H. Duprez, F. Milesi, A. Myko, C. Sciancalepore, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, and C. Baudot, “Power-efficient carrier-depletion SOI Mach-Zehnder modulators for 4 × 25  Gbit/s operation in the O-band,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670D (2015).
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Oded, C.

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B. B. Bakir, A. V. D. Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J. M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (< 1  dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
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Pan, J.

H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. Q.

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
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Park, H.

Park, J. H.

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C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
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Pietrobon, M.

M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Poon, A. W.

Porzier, C.

B. B. Bakir, A. V. D. Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J. M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (< 1  dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
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Pulles, J. T. C. M.

Ran, G.

H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ran, G. Z.

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
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Richard, L. J.

C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Roman, A.

B. B. Bakir, A. V. D. Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J. M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (< 1  dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ryu, G.

Samparisi, F.

M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sciancalepore, C.

C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ferrotti, A. Chantre, B. Blampey, H. Duprez, F. Milesi, A. Myko, C. Sciancalepore, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, and C. Baudot, “Power-efficient carrier-depletion SOI Mach-Zehnder modulators for 4 × 25  Gbit/s operation in the O-band,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670D (2015).
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Smith, H. I.

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M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).
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Tang, Y.

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[Crossref]

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H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
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L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marrismorini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
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L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marrismorini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
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Wang, W.

H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
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Watanabe, K.

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III–V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Sci. Rep. 2, 349 (2012).
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C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Yang, Y. D.

Yin, L. Q.

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
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Ying-Hao, K.

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H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
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Yuan, L.

H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, D. Lu, S. Liang, H. Yu, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “A buried ridge stripe structure InGaAsP-Si hybrid laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4–λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22, 5448–5454 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

M. Buffolo, M. Pietrobon, C. De Santi, F. Samparisi, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, and M. Meneghini, “Degradation mechanisms of heterogeneous III–V/silicon loop-mirror laser diodes for photonic integrated circuits,” Microelectron. Reliab. 88–90, 855–858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, L. J.

T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

B. B. Bakir, A. V. D. Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J. M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (< 1  dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Sciancalepore, L. J. Richard, J. A. Dallery, S. Pauliac, K. Hassan, J. Harduin, H. Duprez, U. Weidenmueller, D. F. G. Gallagher, and S. Menezo, “Low-crosstalk fabrication-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 494–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, L. Yuan, L. Tao, W. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Ding, G. Ran, J. Pan, and W. Wang, “1550  nm evanescent hybrid InGaAsP-Si laser with buried ridge stripe structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1146–1149 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, L. Tao, H. Yu, W. Chen, D. Lu, Y. Li, G. Ran, and J. Pan, “Hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser by selective-area metal-bonding method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1180–1183 (2013).
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T. Hong, G. Z. Ran, T. Chen, J. Q. Pan, W. X. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. B. Cheng, S. Liang, L. J. Zhao, and L. Q. Yin, “A selective-area metal bonding InGaAsP-Si laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1141–1143 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of the 4λ hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser array (not to scale). (b) Schematic diagram of the InGaAsP/InP MQW DFB laser array (not to scale). (c) Schematic diagram of the SOI substrate with Si waveguides (not to scale). (d) SEM image after selective area metal bonding the InGaAsP/InP MQW DFB laser array to the SOI substrate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Effective index and lasing wavelength varying with the III–V ridge waveguide width. (b), (c) Calculated optical field distributions of the hybrid laser with a 2.2-μm-wide III–V ridge waveguide when the alignment errors are 0 μm and 0.5 μm, respectively. (d), (e) Calculated optical field distributions of the hybrid laser with a 2.6-μm-wide III–V ridge waveguide when the alignment errors are 0 μm and 0.5 μm, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) PI (solid lines) and VI (dotted lines) curves of the 4λ hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser array measured under CW operation at 25°C. (b) Natural log of Ith as a function of the operating temperature for the 4λ hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser array.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Tests were carried out under CW operation of 20 mA at 25°C. (a) Spectral characteristics of the 4λ hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser array. Inset is the lasing spectra over a 100 nm span. (b) SMSRs of the lasing wavelengths before and after bonding.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. SMSRs of the 4λ hybrid InGaAsP-Si evanescent laser array measured under CW operation. (a) SMSR versus the injection current, measured at 25°C. (b) SMSR versus the operating temperature, measured at 20 mA.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Epitaxial Structure of the InGaAsP/InP MQW DFB Laser

Equations (2)

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Ith=I0eTT0,
ZT=(dλdT)1(dλdP).

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