Abstract

A high-performance monolithic integrated wavelength division multiplexing silicon (Si) photonics receiver chip is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The receiver chip has a 25-channel Si nanowire-arrayed waveguide grating, and each channel is integrated with a high-speed waveguide Ge-on-Si photodetector. The central wavelength, optical insertion loss, and cross talk of the array waveguide grating are 1550.6 nm, 5–8 dB, and 1215  dB, respectively. The photodetectors show low dark current density of 16.9  mA/cm2 at 1  V and a high responsivity of 0.82 A/W at 1550 nm. High bandwidths of 23 and 29 GHz are achieved at 0 and 1  V, respectively. Each channel can operate at 50 Gbps with low input optical power even under zero bias, which realizes an aggregate data rate of 1.25 Tbps.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

P. Yuan, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Liu, J. An, and X. Hu, “25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on SOI ridge waveguides,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 37, 692–697 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

K. Li, J. Zhang, J. An, J. Li, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, X. Yin, and X. Hu, “Design and fabrication of 25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on Si nanowire waveguides,” Optoelectron. Lett. 13, 241–244 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, F. Yang, W. Wu, H. Cong, J. Zheng, C. Li, C. Xue, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “48  GHz high-performance Ge-on-SOI photodetector with zero-bias 40  Gbps grown by selective epitaxial growth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 5306–5310 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2014 (2)

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3800108 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

1999 (1)

S. Ohteru and N. Takachio, “Optical signal quality monitor using direct Q-factor measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1307–1309 (1999).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

An, J.

P. Yuan, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Liu, J. An, and X. Hu, “25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on SOI ridge waveguides,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 37, 692–697 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Li, J. Zhang, J. An, J. Li, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, X. Yin, and X. Hu, “Design and fabrication of 25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on Si nanowire waveguides,” Optoelectron. Lett. 13, 241–244 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ang, K. W.

Aroca, R. A.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3800108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Baeyens, Y.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baks, C. W.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Bogaerts, W.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bovington, J.

Buhl, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

Cheng, B.

Cong, H.

Cunningham, J. E.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, “Silicon photonic integrated circuits for wavelength-division multiplexing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 370–378 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

Feng, D.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3800108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Green, W. M. J.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Horst, F.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Hu, X.

P. Yuan, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Liu, J. An, and X. Hu, “25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on SOI ridge waveguides,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 37, 692–697 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Li, J. Zhang, J. An, J. Li, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, X. Yin, and X. Hu, “Design and fabrication of 25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on Si nanowire waveguides,” Optoelectron. Lett. 13, 241–244 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamlapurka, S.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Khater, M. H.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Kiewra, E.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kwong, D. L.

Kwong, D.-L.

Lee, D. Y.

Lee, J.-H.

Lepage, G.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, J.

K. Li, J. Zhang, J. An, J. Li, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, X. Yin, and X. Hu, “Design and fabrication of 25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on Si nanowire waveguides,” Optoelectron. Lett. 13, 241–244 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

K. Li, J. Zhang, J. An, J. Li, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, X. Yin, and X. Hu, “Design and fabrication of 25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on Si nanowire waveguides,” Optoelectron. Lett. 13, 241–244 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3800108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

Littlejohns, C. G.

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

P. Yuan, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Liu, J. An, and X. Hu, “25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on SOI ridge waveguides,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 37, 692–697 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Lo, G. Q.

Luff, B. J.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3800108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Offrein, B. J.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Ohteru, S.

S. Ohteru and N. Takachio, “Optical signal quality monitor using direct Q-factor measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1307–1309 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pan, H.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Paniccia, M.

M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 498–499 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phang, Y. T.

Qian, W.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed receiver technology on the SOI platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3800108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

Reed, G. T.

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reinholm, C.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Reynolds, S. A.

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rylyakov, A. V.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Schow, C. L.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Shank, S. M.

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

Shubin, I.

Song, J. F.

Takachio, N.

S. Ohteru and N. Takachio, “Optical signal quality monitor using direct Q-factor measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1307–1309 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. W.

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thourhout, D. V.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vanslembrouck, M.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, and W. Bogaerts, “Effect of mask discretization on performance of silicon arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 718–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

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Opt. Express (4)

Optoelectron. Lett. (1)

K. Li, J. Zhang, J. An, J. Li, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, X. Yin, and X. Hu, “Design and fabrication of 25-channel 200  GHz AWG based on Si nanowire waveguides,” Optoelectron. Lett. 13, 241–244 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. Pan, S. Assefa, F. Horst, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurka, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. W. Baks, B. J. Offrein, and Y. A. Vlasov, “250  Gbps 10-channel WDM silicon photonics receiver,” in 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 162–164.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Top-view optical micrographs of the WDM receiver chip, AWG, and Ge-on-Si waveguide photodetector array.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Typical I-V curves of the standalone photodetector with/without light incidence (1550 nm) from 1 V to 3  V. The optical power entering the photodetector is about 9.4  dBm. The inset is a schematic of the optical coupling in this measurement. (b) Spectral responsivity of the standalone photodetector from 1530 to 1580 nm under 1  V.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Frequency response of a standalone photodetector at various reverse biases.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Photocurrent spectrum of each channel of the WDM receiver chip. The inset is a schematic of the optical coupling in this measurement. (b) Transmission spectra of the 25-channel 200 GHz AWG.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. 40 Gbps and 50 Gbps eye diagrams of channels 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 at 0 and −1 V. The modulator eye diagrams are also shown for comparison.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. BER curves of channel 10 at 40 and 50 Gbps. The 40 and 50 Gbps eye diagrams of channel 10 under 2.4 and 2.2  dBm input optical power are shown for comparison.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Performance Comparison for Si Photonic WDM Receivers

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